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QOLLECTION 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

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AnriAlA 111.AT)Í1. 



ANNALS OF ULSTER, 

OTHERWISE, 

AtitiAtA seriAiu, 
ANNALS OF SENAT; 

A CHRONICLE OF IRISH AFFAIRS, 
A.D. 4^31— 1131: 1155—1541. 



VOL. IV. 

INTRODUCTION 

AND 

INDEX. 

BY 
B. MAC CARTHY, D.D., M.R.LA. 

PUBLISHED BY THE AUTHORITY OF THE LORDS COMMISSIONERS 
OF HIS MAJESTY'S TREASURY, UNDER THE DIRECTION OF 
• THE COUNCIL OF THE ROYAL IRISH ACADEMY. 



DUBLIN: 

PRINTED FOR HIS MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE, 

BY ALEX. THOM & CO., LIMITED, 87, 88, and 89 MIDDLE ABBEY STREET, 

THE KING'S PRINTING OFFICE. 

And to be purchased, either directly or through any Bookseller, from 

E. PONSONBY, 116 GRAFTON STREET. DUBLIN ; or 
EYRE & SPOTTISWOODE, EAST HARDING STREET, FLEET STRIÍET, B.C. : or 

OLIVER AND BOYD, Edinburgh. 

1901. 

Price 10s. 



All rights 7'eserved. 



ERRATUM. 
P, cxxiv., 1. Id, for 2 i^ead 4. 



CONTENTS. 







Pages 


Introduction, 




i. — clxi 


Origin of Title, 




i. 


Manuscripts : — 






A, — description of, 




i. — iii. 


author of, 




vii. — ix. 


B, — description of, 




iii. — vi. 


author of, 




ix. X. 


C, — description of, 




vi. — vii. 


author of. 




X. — xi. 


D, — description of, 




vii. 


author 'of, 




xi. 


E, — description of, 




xi. — xii. 


author of, 




xiii. 


Previous Editions : — 






O'Conor's, ... 




xiii. — xiv. 


Skene's, ... 




xiv. 


Annalistic Components : — 






I. — Solar Notation, ... 




xiv. — xxix. 


Ferial Nos. and Letters, . . . 




xiv. — xxiii. 


Julian Calendars, 




XV. — xvi. 


Concurrents, 




xvii., xxvii. — ix 


(Cf. p. clxxvii.) 




Table A, Solar Cycle {Rota) 




xviii. 


„ B, Annual Diurnal 


Numer- 




ation, 




xix. 


,, C, Dominical Letters 




xxii. 


Paschal Mundane Eras ... 


'... 


xxiii. — xxvii. 


(Cf. pp. Ixi.— Ixiii.) 






II — Luni-solar Notation, 


... 


xxix. — xcii. 


Paschal Computation, 




XXX. — xxxii. 


Luni-solar months, Epacti= 


5, Lunar 




Letters, 




xxx. — xxxi. 


Luni-solar cycle, Golden Nos., ... 


xxxii. 


Eight-year Cycles, 


... 


xxxiii. — xliv. 


(a) Hippolytan Cycle, ... 


... 


xxxii. — xl. 


Table D, Hippolytan Luni-solar 




Data, ... 




xxxiv. 


Saltus, nature and insertion of, 


XXXV. — xxxvi. 


(Cf. pp. xxiv., xxxix 


., xlii. 




iii., xlvii., H., Table M, 




Ixv. — vi., Ixxii. — 


iii. — iv.. 




Ixxxii., Ixxxiv., 


Ixxxvi., 




cxxv., Table X, cxxxvii.) 





CONTENTS, 



Annalistic Components — continued 

Table E, Hippolytan Golden Nos., 
„ F, Hippolytan Paschal 
Table, 
(6) Cyprianic Cycle, 

Table G, Cyprianic Golden Nos., 
,, H, Cyprianic PaschalTable, 
Synopses, comparative, Hippo- 
lytan and Cyprianic. 

Nineteen-year Eastern Cycles, 
(a) Anatolian Cycle, 

Table I, Anatolian Golden Nos., 
Error respecting Anatolian Equi- 
nox, 
Table J, Anatolian Paschal Table, 
(6) Alexandrine Cycle. ... 

Table K, Alexandrine Golden 
Nos., ... 
,, L, Alexandrine Paschal 
Table, ... 
Origin of A.D. dating, 
(c) Lunar Cycles, 

Table M, Lunar Cycles, 
Paschal Mundane Eras, 
(Cf. pp. xxiii. — xxvii.) 

Eighty- four-vear Cycles, 
(a) Cycle of 84 (14), 

Munich (Irish) Computus : — 
Description and date of. 
Paschal (84) data of, 
Confirmatory historical evi- 
dence, ... 



Page? 



xxxix. 

xl. — xliv. 

xH. 

xlii. 

xliii. 

xliv. — Ixv. 
xliv. — xlix. 
xlvi. 

xh-ii. 
xlviii. 
1.— lix. 

lii. 

liii. 

Ivii. 

lix. — Ixv. 

Ix. 

Ixi. — Ixiii. 

Ixv. — Ixxxiii. 
Ixv. — Ixxxi. 

Ixvii. — Ixxi. 
Ixxii.— Ixxviii. 

Ixxix. — Ixxxi. 



Table N, Cyclic Nos. of 84, | 

„ O, Paschal Cycle of 84. \ 

Golden Nos., meaning of in 
Cycles of 84, .^ 

Table P, Dominical Letters, j 
CyclicNos.,GoldenNos.,of84, [ 

Table Q, Paschal Table of 84, ' I 
(6) Cycle of 84 (12), 

Table K, Cyclic Nos. of 84 (12), i 
., S, Dominical Letters, Cy- / 
clic Nos., Golden Nos.. of 84 ^ 

Tab]eT,PaschalTableof 84(12), ^ 



Between 
Ixxvi. and Ixxvii. 

Ixxvii. 

Between 
Ixxx. and Ixxxi. 

Ixxxii. — Ixxxiii. 



Between 
Ixxxii. and Ixxxiii. 



CONTENTS. 



Annalistic Components — continued. Pages 
Nineteen-year Webtern Cycle, Vic- 
torian, ... ... .. Ixxxiii. — xci. 

Table U, Victorian Golden Nos., Ixxxviii. 

,, V, Victorian Paschal Table, Ixxxix. 

Paschal Months, ... ... ... xci. — xcii. 

Table W, Paschal Months. . . . facing xci. 

III. — Mundane Reckonings, ... ... xcii. — xciv. 

Pseudo- Victorian Mundane Period, or- 
iginated by Irish Augustine, .. xcii. 

Pseudo-Bedan and Pseudo-Dionysian 
Mundane Periods, originated by Tig- 
ernach, 

Variations of foregoing in present An- 
nals, ... 

IV.— A.D. Dating, 

Erroneous A.D. notation of Annals, 

origin and rectiiication of. 
Other dates rectified by Annals, 

V. — Entries, ... 

Textual evidence respecting origin, re- 
cension, date and sources, ... c. — cv. 



xcii. — XClll 

xciv. 
xcii. — c. 

xcvi. — xcviii, 
xcix. — c. 

c. — clx. 



.ccount of : — 




(a) Date of Patrician advent, 


cv. — cix. 


{h) Dispute respecting the Easter of 




A.D. 455, ... 


ex. — cxv. 


(c) Irish Paschal Controversy, 


cxv. — clix. 


(V) Caesar ean Acts ^ ... 


cxv. — cxvii 


(2) Athanasian Tractate, 


cxvii. — cxviii. 


(3) Book of Anatolius, 


cxviii. — cxxvii. 


Pseudo- Anatolian 1 9 year 




Solar Cycle, 


cxxiv. — cxxv. 


Table X, Pseudo-Anatolian 




Paschal Table, 


cxxvi. 


(4) Letters of Columbanus, 


cxxvii. — cxxxiii. 


(5) Note relative to Alexandrine 




Cycle in Ireland 


uxxxiii. — cxxxiv 


(6) Epistle of Cyril, 


cxxxiv. — cxxxv. 


(7) Letter of Cummian, 


cxxxv. — cxlix. 


(8) Cataloyiie of Irish Saints, ... 


cxlix. 


(9) Anglo-Irish Controversy, ... 


cxlix, — clix. 


(a) Columba, ... 


cxlix. 


(b) Aidan, 


cxlix. — el. 


(c) Finan, 


cl.— cli. 


{(I) Colman, 


cli. — clvii. 



CONTENTS. 



Annalistic Components — continued. 

(Paschal uniformity 

non-essential, 
Whitby Conference, 

(10) Adamman, 

(11) Egbert 

{d) /7z.?'iiM7?i = Quadragesima Sunday, 
Chronistic value of, . ... 

Lunar days of, Rules to find. 

Appendix A, — Hippolytan Paschal Tables, 

Table of moon-14 incidence : — 
Text, ... 
Translation, 
Times of Table (text and trans- 
lation), 
Table of Sunday incidence : — 
Text and Translation, 
Note to Appendix A, 

Syriac Hippolytan Computus, 
Explanation of , . . . 
Table Y, Ferials of Hippo- 
lytan Golden No. incidence 
(Dominical Letter C), ••• 
Table Z , Week-day incidence 
of Hippolytan moon 14 
(calculated by Golden No. 
Ferials — Table Y — and 
Fundamental Letters (Con- 
currents) ), 
Explanation of Table Z , ... 
Date of Computus, 

Appendix B, — Munich (Irish) Computus : — 

1, Graphic forms arising from 
Irish Phonetic, 
(a) Vocalic, 
{b) Consonantal, 
2^ Passages containing an Irish 
word, 
Appendix C, — Respective durations of pontifi- 
cates in Liber Pontijicalis and 
Annals of Ulster, ... 

Addenda and Corrigenda, 

Index, ... 

Addenda, 

Corrigenda, 



Pages 



clii— 


cliii.) 


cliii.— 


-clvii. 


clvii.- 


-clviii. 


clviii.- 


—clix. 


clix.— 


-clx. 


clix. 




clix.— 


-clx. 


clxii.- 


-clxxiii 


clxiii. 




clxiv. 




clxv. 




clxvi.- 


— clxxiii, 


clxxiv 


. — vii. 


clxxiv 


. — v 


clxxv. 


— vii. 



clxxvi. 



clxxvi. 

clxxvii. 

clxxvii. 



cLxxviii. — ix. 

clxxviii. 

clxxix. 

clxxx. 

clxxxi. 

clxxxii. 

1—433. 

437—438. 



INTRODUCTION. 



The present Chronicle, anonymous in the original, re- Annals of 
ceived the accepted title from Ussher, who (in his origin of 
Original of Corhes, Herenaches and Termon title. 
Lands, Religion ^professed by the Ancient Irish, 
Collection of Irish Epistles and Antiquities of the 
British Churches) frequently cites or refers^ to the An- 
nales Ultonienses : obviously led to the designation by 
the marked prominence assigned to the affairs of Ulster. 
More in accord with native tradition, the Attestation^ 
prefixed to the Annals of the Four Masters mentions, 
among the sources of that collection, the Book of Senad 
of Mac Manns of [Upper'] Lough Erne; Shanid, or 
Bellisle, being the residence of the Compiler. 

The originals and versions employed in this Edition, 
designated for brevity A, B, C, D, are the following : — 

A. — A is a vellum MS., of the fifteenth and sixteenth Texts: 
centuries, in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin, -^r 
marked H. 1. 8. It consists of 116 folios. The first of^. 
four gatherings are quinternios, each of ten folios. No. date, 
5, at first a quinternio, is now a quaternio and folio (fol. 
41 — 49), the second half of the second membrane (con- 
taining A.D. 1001 — 1008) having been cut out. After 
No. 5, a quire, most probably a quinternio (from end of 
1115 to beginning of 1162, both inclusive), is missing. 
No. 6 and 7 are quinternios (foil. 50-69). 



ructure. 



No. 8, quaternio and folio . 


. foil. 70- 78. 


„ 9, 


. „ 79- 86. 


„ 10, quinternio and folio . . 


. „ 87- 97. 


„ 11, „ 


. „ 98-107. 


„ 12, quaternio 


. „ 108-115. 


„ 13, single folio ... 


, 116. 



1 Refers. — See Ulster, Annals of, 
in the Index of Authors and 
Works, Elrington's edition, xvii. 
281-2, The following are to be 
added to the references there 
given to the Antiquities of the 



British Churches (vi.) : 254,978,422, 
430, 438, 444, 445, 447,484, 533, 540. 
2 Attestation — Annals of IV. M., 
ed. O'Donovan (Dublin, 1851), 
Introd., p. Ixiv. ; O'Curry, MS. 
Materials, etc., p. 545. 

h 



11 



INTRODUCTION. 



Script, — 
prepar- 
ation for, 



execution 
of. 



Addi. 
tional 
entries. 



History 
of MS. 



The final year is 1504. As C ends with this year 
likewise, A, it may be inferred, was not carried farther. 

At present, the original dimensions having been re- 
duced in binding, the folios are 12 inches long, by 9 in 
width. They are ruled in thirty-seven lines in ink, 
about a quarter of an inch apart. The writing space is 
in two columns, 3^ inches in respective breadth, defined 
by lwo lines each, with an intermediate space three- 
fourths of an inch wide. Initials are regularl}' written 
on the margins. The letter K is rudely rubricated, in 
some of the opening folios, by colouring the spaces 
formed by the junction of the right strokes with the 
left hand line. Other capitals are occasionally similarly 
treated. 

The script was mainly the work of two hands : the 
first, from folio 1 to folio 49 ; the second, from 50 to 
102. A third, very coarse and large, wrote folios 103, 104 
and three entries on llOd. A fourth executed from fol. 
105, with the three exceptions just noted, to the end. 

Finally, on the blanks left, in the usual way, between 
the years for additions and on the margins, a court 
hand, evidently of the Compiler (who else would have 
been at pains to record the birth-days of his children?), 
made entries, some in Irish, others in Latin Here and 
there, items have been re-inked, by one unacquainted 
with Latin, to judge from the fact that the words in 
that language are left untouched. 

Of the history of the MS., beyond the fact that it 
was not in the collection presented, at the instance of 
Burke,^ by Sir John Seabright to Trinity College, 
nothing has been ascertained. The statement that it 
belonged to Ussher is disproved by a letter^ of Ware 



^Burke. — "Itwas in the hope that 
some such thing [printing ancient 
Irish historical texts with transla- 
tions] should be done, that T origi- 
nally prevailed on Sir John Sea- 
bright to let me have his MSS., and 
that I sent them by Dr Leland to 
Dublin."— Letter to Vallancey, Aug. 



15. 178.S (O'Donovan : Irish Gram- 
ma r,J)\\h\\r\, 1845, Infrod. p. Ixxi.). 
■' Letter — Ussher's Worhs, xvi. 
461. From the opening it can be 
inferred that most of the native 
sources were supplied by "Ware, 
" to let you have the view of all 
such old manuscripts concerning 



INTRODUCTION. 



Ill 



(Sep. 21, 1627), in which, after stating that he was 
sending the Book of Leinster, he wrote : " I have now 
a special occasion to use my Ulster Annals and the 
Annals of Innisfallen; I entreat your Grace to send 
them me by this bearer." The source of the extracts 
given in the above-named works is thus identified as the 
MS. next described. 

B. — B is a vellum MS., of the fifteenth and sixteenth B,— 
centuries, in the Bodleian Library, Oxford, marked ®'^^^JP*^°° 
Rawlinson, B. 489. Originally, it was made up of date, 
fifteen gatherings, numbering 124 folios^ ; i.e., thirteen ^ ^^'^ ^^^' 
quaternios (104 foil.) and two quinternios (20 foil.). 
The two inner membranes of the seventh quire (from 
A.B. 1132 to near the end of 1155) are missing. In re- 
ference thereto, a note, probably of Sir James Ware, 
appears on the upper margin of fol. 51 (formerly 55) : 
" Fower leaves are wanting before this." The final leaf 
of the ninth gathering and the last of the fifteenth were 
cut away. The present number of folios is accordingly 118. 

The structure of the two quinternios is as follows : — 



Gathering 11 (foil. 76—85). 
I. 




the affairs of this kingdom which 
come unto me ; especially knowing 
the good use your grave and deep 
judgment may make of them." 
^ 1^4 folios. — " In its present 



state," O'Conor, copying the old 
Latin Catalogue, writes, "the 
folios of this MS. are precisely 
126" {Stoioe CataloguCy Bucking- 
ham, 1818-19, p. 175). 



IV 



INTRODUCTION 



This shows that a was inserted into lY. ; h, between 
III. and IV. : each with the turn to the left hand. 

Gathering 12 (foil. 102—111). 

I. 







II. 








III. 




















IV. 


1 1 



Script,— 
prepar- 
ation for 



Fol. 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111. 

a h 

It thus appears that a and h were single leaves, in- 
serted between III. and IV. 

The folios, having been diminished by trimming, are 
13 inches in length, by 9^ wide. The ruling is in 40 lines, 
a quarter of an inch asunder: in ink, as far as fol. 32, 
inclusive ; thenceforward, by impression, whilst the 
parchment was damp. The page is of double columns, 
which are bounded, and of the same size, as in A, and 
five-eighths of an inch apart. Between the years, 
spaces, varying from one to five lines, were left for 
additional entries. When, as is the rule, the ferial and 
epact are omitted, a blank remains for them ; if either 
is given, a void is reserved for the other. Capitals are 
ornamented by colouring in red, and occasionally in 
blue. Numerals are indifferently Roman and Arabic ; 
apparently, the forms that first recurred to memory 
were employed. 

The script was done chiefly by two hands : the first 
ends at fol. 32a (A.D. 932) ; the second, at 111b A.D. 
1528.) Commencing with fol. lOld, a third made the 
entries as indicated in tlic Notes A.D. 1507. At 111c. 



execu- 
tion of 



INTEODUCTION. 



A.D. (1528), the had writingi of the " son of O'Casidy " 
began and went on to the end. Finally, Matthew 
O'Luinin entered the items at the places mentioned 
under his name in the Index. 

Opposite, on the margins, the scribes placed the Marginal 
names of many of the persons and localities mentioned entries, 
in the text. A fifth hand, presumably of Rury O'Cas- 
idy, the summarist, wrote on the reverse of folio 2, 
across the page, at foot, a doggrel native quatrain, to 
the effect that Patrick preached during sixty years, with 
many miracles, in Ireland ; adding, in prose, that the 
same number of years is given, in the Speculum? His- 
toriarum, by Vincent (of Beauvais, Bellovacensis), who 
likewise states that the Saint raised 43 to life, built 365 
churches, consecrated 365 bishops, ordained 8,000 
priests, and baptized 12,000 persons. 

The MS. was in possession of Sir James Ware. His History 
name occurs thrice on the final folio, and, on the back, of MS. 
the book is stated to have been re-covered by him, 
ultimo Septemh., 1639. On the front cover he has given, 
in nearly all cases erroneously, Latin equivalents of 
Irish words, and noted throughout, on the margin, 
opposite the entries in question, the names of bishoprics 
and such remarks as Factum Anglicum, Factum 
Hibernicum, Factum milium, relative to the doings of 
the Anglo-Irish. 

The volume was next in the Clarendon Collection, and 
was purchased^ at the Chandos sale by Dr. Rawlinson 
for the sum of half-a-guinea ! " The cover'^ bears a 



^ Bad writing.— Vol. III., p. 628-9. 

'•^ Speculum. — The Speculum Ma- 
jus is intended : pretef virtutes 
reliquas quas fecit, xl. [Ix., Augs- 
burg ed., folio, 1474] mortuos 
suscitavit . . . ecclesias cccxlv. 
[ccclv., ed. Aug. Lege ccclxv.] fun- 
davit et totidem episcopos ordi- 
navit, presbyterorum iii. raillia 
consecravit, xii. millia hominum 
baptizavit (cap. xxiii., De Sancto 
Patricio, Hihtrniorum episcopo. 
Ed. Venet. 1591, IV. 270). 



^ Purchased. — '* The original be- 
longed to the Chandos Collection, 
and was sold at that sale to Dr. 
Rawlinson, in 1747, for 10s. 6d. 
only. See the original Sale Cata- 
logue in the Stowe Library, No. 
2986 " (O'Conor, Stowe Catalogue, 
p. 173). 

^ The Cover, etc. — Catal. Codd. 
il/SS. Bihl. Bodl. Partis quintae 
Jasc. primus (Rawlinson MSS.). 
Coii/ecit Old. D. Macray (Oxou. 
1862). P. 710. 



VI 



INTRODUCTION. 



Versions : 
C,- 
CL, 
descrip- 
tion of. 



Script.. 



book-plate nearly the full size of the volume, with the 
words Leonardi Academia Vi. Ci. in the centre, sur- 
rounded with a broad band of interlaced ornament." 

C. — C is an English Version of the Irish (with reten- 
tion of the Latin text) of the Annals : (I.) 431 to 
the first item of 1132; (11.) 1156 to 1307; (III.) 1486 
to 1504. I. and II. are contained in a paper MS. of the 
seventeenth century in the British Museum, Clarendon 
xlix (Add. MS. 4795). Prefixed is a modem insertion 
of four folios. On the back of the first of these, are 
pasted three paper slips containing obits, which, in all 
probability, were written on the inside of the original 
cover. On the reverse of the second, is attached the 
same book-plate as in B. The third has, in front, at 
the top, Annales Ultonienses ; under these words, to the 
right, Jer. Milles ; beneath, in the same hand, on centre 
of page : Annales Ultonienses, ab an. 431 ad an. 1303 
\_ = 1307'], ex sermone Hibernico Anglice redditi. Below 
is a book-plate : armorial bearings, with motto, Utile 
dulci and Jeremiah Milles, D.D. (doubtless, the anti- 
quary, 1713 — 1784, dean of Exeter). The fourth leaf is 
vacant. 

The writing is in two columns, and the folios, be- 
ginninor with tho prosent fifth, are numbered from 1 to 
85. As far as fol. 65, no less than ten hands are dis- 
cernible, making it probable that some of them worked 
simultaneously. The surmise is borne out by the fact 
that fol. 60b has the script reversed : the page was in- 
advertently turned upside down before being written 
upon. An occurrence of the kind would be well nigh 
impossible in the case of a bound volume ; whence it is 
to be inferred that the sheets were loose during tran- 
scription. I. ends on fol. 65, with the first entry of 
1132. The ferial and epact of that year are the solitary 
instances of these criteria copied into the Version. 
Thence to 69b (nine pages), inclusive, is left vacant. 
The lacuna in B, it thus appears, was anterior to the 
execution of C, and hope still remained of recovering 
the missing original. 



INTRODUCTION. Vll 

II. extends from fol. 70a to 85a, written by one hand, c II., 
Fifteen blank leaves follow : most likely with the same descrip- 
intent as in the case of the similar previous provision. 

The succeeding leaf has, on the front, a map : The 
County of Kerry ; on the reverse, a short description, 
commencing : Hihernia nostra aetate in 'provincias 
quatitor distribwitur. On the next, are an imperfect 
Index ; a pedigree of De Lacy ; prodigies and portents 
{prodigia et portenta). The last is pasted on a sheet of 
paper, and has two columns of obits on the front. 

III. is contained in a paper miscellaneous MS. in the c III., 
British Museum, Clarendon xlii (Add. MS. 4789). It ^^^^^^^j" 
begins at fol. 318a and ends at 321b. Whj it was not 
written on the leaves left for the purpose in Clarendon 
xlix., it were futile to conjecture. 

The Version, for the most part, was made from A. Original 
Occasionally, B is followed, which shows that the "^ ^* 
translator had the two MSS. at disposal ; whilst, in a 
few instances, details found in neither are inserted. 

D. — D is a Latin Version of the Annals from 1200 to d^_ 
1300 (textual 1296), contained in a paper MS. of Irish Jescrip- 
historical tracts in the British Museum, Clarendon xx 
(Add. MS. 4784). It begins on folio 21a and ends on 
folio 32b. The author occasionally drew from other 
sources, which have, as far as possible, been identified 
in the Notes. 

With regard to the relation between the Irish texts, a & B, 
in addition to the statement in the obit of Mac Manus, jelation 
the Compiler, that B was written from A, the Notes 
throughout furnish abundant proof that the latter was 
the original. The extent to which B was a compen- 
dium can be easily estimated from the folio notation 
placed on the margins of Volumes II. and III. That in 
a work of the kind the narrative should be abridged, is 
readily intelligible ; no plausible reason presents itself 
to account for the omission of whole items. 

In the matter of authorship, as to A, in his obit at Author- 
1498, it is stated that the compilation was the work of ^ o? a — 



Vlll 



INTRODUCTION. 



Mac 
Manus, 

compiler 
of, 



uncanoni- 
cally pro. 
moted, 



canonist, 



Cathal, or Charles, Mac Manus. He was chief of a 
junior branch of the sept of Maguire, vicar of Inish- 
keen, and dean of the rural deanery of Lough Erne,^ in 
his native diocese of Clogher, and resided in the strong- 
hold of the clan, on Shanad, now called Bellisle, an 
island in Upper Lough Erne, co. Fermanagh. Of 
the items in the extravagant panegyric bestowed 
upon him, chastity- was obviously intended to palliate 
the fact, revealed by the birth of his sons — Cu-Con- 
nacht, in 1485 ; Maghnus, in 1486 — two and three 
years respectively after the father became dean, that 
Mac Manus was a concubinary. It discloses a most 
serious relaxation of discipline to find a cleric so in- 
capacitated^ not alone suiiered to officiate, but advanced 
to dignity of judicial and executive function. nn''"^' 

That he was a canonist, is evidenced by the office he 
held; by his reference to the Gloss^inthe Clementines; 
and by the obits he inserted of eminent jurists. In view 
of the chastening fact that, as abundantly shown later 
on, critics of the greatest acumen have been imposed upon 
by the most clumsy forgeries, failure to detect the fabri- 
cated character of the Theodosian charter^ mentioned 



' Lough Erne. — In the Taxation 
of Boniface VIII. [Calendar of 
Documents relating to Ireland, 
1303-7, p. -12), the deaner}- of 
Loughermy [sic] consists of twelve 
parishes, — the Donegal and Fer- 
managh portions of Clogher dio- 
cese. Owing perhaps to being in 
the parish of Cleenish {(Jloerynis 
of the Col., recte Cloen3'nis), Inish- 
keen does not appear in the re- 
turn. It is to be distinguished 
from Inishkeen {Deynisdega of 
the Cal. ; rectc Ccni/nis-dcga — fair 

isle of [St.] Daig : cf. Index, v. 

Inis-cain-Dega) in the deanery of 

Donaghmoj^ne {Domnachoyagen in 

Cat., p. X., recte Domnachmoyagh- 

en) of the same diocese. 

- Chastity. — "The turtle[-dove] 

for chastity " (Vol. III., p. 429). 
•' Incapacitated. — The canonical 

enactments on the subject are 



summarized in Ferraris [Biblio- 
theca Canonica, etc., s.v. Poena, 
art. ii. n. 81). 

^ Gloss.— Vol. I. p. 13, note 6 
(for i.e. read v. [verbo] of the MS.); 
p. 15, note 5 (where verbo is given 
as in the original). 

"^ Charter. — Given in full by 
Muratori [Antiquitates Italicte 
Medii ^Eri, Milan, 1740, III. p. 
21 sq. ; Be Viploniatihus ex chartis 
antiqais dub. ant /alsis, in ISuppl. 
to Mabillon's í>e Re Diplom., 
Naples, 1789, II. ci.-ii.), headed : 
Diploma supposititium Theodosii 
minoris Augusti per quod Gymna- 
sium Bononiense institutum ah eo 
fcrtur, A.C. 433. The A.D. of the 
Corroboration betrays the ignor- 
ance of the fabricator : Sig ilium 
nostrum impcndentes fecimus auri 
2Jurissimi /nunitione rohorari Anno 
Domini ccccxxxiii. ! 



INTRODUCTION. 



IX 



in the Gloss in question cannot be laid to his disparage- 
ment. But he is proved to have lacked the true his- unhistori- 
torical spirit in the omission to record textually the ^^^> 
Papal Mandate^ respecting the Purgatory of St. Patrick, 
directed to himself and the Franciscan Guardian of 
Donegal, and the pursuant decision to which they gave 
such speedy, albeit transitory, effect. 

Respecting the well known error in the A.D. numera- uncritical, 
tion of these Annals, it can be rightly pleaded that 
where Ussher (not to mention O'Donovan, Reeves and 
Todd) failed, Mac Manus may be excused for not having 
succeeded. Withal, it seems difficult to reconcile the 
adoption of the Mundane and Christian Eras herein- 
after described with any accurate conception of chrono- 
graphic data. The sole extenuation is that the item» 
were transcribed without alteration. 

The sustained similarity between these and the other merits of. 
native Annals proves that the work of Mac Manus con- 
sisted in selection, mainly with reference to Ulster 
events, from the Chronicles he had collected. His well 
applied diligence in this direction merits ample acknow- 
ledgment. Nor does historical zeal exhaust his claim 
to recognition. Unlike O'Clery and his associates, he 
neither tampered with the text, vitiated the dating, nor 
omitted the solar and lunar notation, but, side by side 
with the chronological errors he was unable to correct, 
preserved the criteria whereby they can with certainty 
be rectified. 

With regard to the authorship of B, in the obit and B,— 
notices of Kury O'Luinin, to write^ is used in the compTler' 
primary meaning, denoting the work o^ transcription ; of. 



(Similarly, irrespective of the 
ignorance displayed, the supposed 
letter of St. Ambrose or St. Jerome 
to the bishops of Aemilia on the 
Paschal question is betrayed by 
the Diocletian year. The use or 
existence of Consular Fasti was 
unknown to the two forgers.) 

Another, perhaps indeed the 



chief, object of the Bolognese 
" rascal" was to extend the terri- 
tory of Bologna at the expense of 
Modena, — an attempt the exposure 
of which was a congenial labour to 
Muratori, himself a Modanese. 

1 Mandate.-Yol. III., p. 417. 

2 wWi€.— Vol. II., p. 65 ; III. p. 
628-9. 



X INTRODUCTION. 

but in the B-reading relative to the Annals in the obit 
of Mac Manns, it has the secondary sense, to compose. 
As the archdeacon of Clogher would hardly serve as 
copyist for a lay termoner of the diocese, when Rury 
O'Casidy is said to have written B, the obvious signifi- 
cation is that he was the author of that recension. The 
expression /b?' the greater part^ lefers to items supplied 
by other hands, beginning with 1507. 
C _ Respecting C, in the absence of A, and with an im- 

value of perfect and worthless edition of B, O'Donovan's extra- 
ated, vagant eulogy"^ of this so-called Version perforce passed 
current. But comparison with the texts has estab- 
lished, what otherwise would have been incredible, that 
the numerous instances detailed in the Notes give no 
adequate notion of the persistent and ludicrous blunders, 
betraying the Translator's utter lack of acquaintance 
with the ancient language. Irrespective hereof, the 
omission of personal and local names would, in very 
many cases, have rendered the labour useless for his- 
torical purposes. 

The travesty, it has been surmised, was executed for 
the use of Ussher or Ware. This has given origin to a 
second conjecture of alternative attribution to Duald 
Conry Mac Firbis and Tully Conry, who were known to the 
reputed Archbishop and the Auditor-Greneral. The claim of 
Mac Firbis (who turned an abbot of I ana into an abbess^ 
and Martinmas into a March day^) is effectually barred 
by the intelligible variants in the Latin entries. Thus, 
apparently, the dubious honour belongs to Conry, "who^ 

^Greater part. — Vol. III., p. '-^ Abbess.— [A.B. 679] Quito 
629. Failhe, abhati'i lea, Tigernach 

'•^ Eulogy. — " Whoever was the (Todd Lecture Series, III., p. 9) ; 
author, the translation is exceed- Quies Failhe, ahhatissa (Chronicum 
ingly valuable, for it has preserved [sic] Scotorum, Rolls' ed., p. 104). 
to posterity the eqinvalent English ■^ March Day. — A.D. 892. Ventiis 
of a great portion of the Irish Ian- maginis in feria Alartini (Annals 
guage, as it was understood by ! of Ulster) ; l^entus ma[/9ivs a mi 
one of the hereditary professif nal , Maria (great storm in the month 
seannachies or chroniclers of Ire- of Maich. Chron. Scot., p. 172). 
land, about two centuries ago" ^ Who, etc. — 0' Donovan, uhi 
{Ann. IV. M. Introd. p. xxxiv.). ' sup., p. xxxiv. 



INTRODUCTION. 



XI 



is mentioned by tlie author of Camhrensis Eversus as a 
distinguished Irish scholar and antiquary." 

Concerning D, Lynch, the " author " in question, d,— 
whose competence to iudsre is sufficiently indicated by Lynch, 
the foregoing decision, O'Donovan considers it not im- author of, 
probable, executed^ a Latin rendering of the Annals of 
the Four Masters from 1545 to 1558. Taken in con- 
nexion with the fact that most of the additions in D are 
drawn from the same Annals, this would lead to the 
inference that Lynch was likewise the author of that 
version. What may be taken as confirmation is that 
it is contained in the same MS. (Clarendon xx.) as 
D. Be that as it may, the manner in which archaic 
turns of expression are misunderstood and similar 
omissions of names depress D to the level of C. The 
truth is, owing to causes too well known to need re- 
capitulation, knowledge of the ancient tongue (witness 
C, D, F, O'Clery's Glossary, Colgan's translations, and 
Keating's History) had died out in Ireland in the seven- 
teenth century. 

[In addition, in E. 3. 20, T. C. D., a collection of [e,— 
historical tracts written on folio paper by various fragment 
hands in the seventeenth century, the thirteenth item^ 
(p. 431-514) is a copy (E) of A from the beginning to r^ _ 
A.D. 665 [m^, with a Latin version (F) to 491. E is partial 
on the left-hand pages ; F, on the right. From p. version 
448, where F terminates, to the end, the right-hand °^ ^ 
pages are blank. The transcript, it thus appears, was 
made with the intention of having a translation sup- 
plied. • A note^ on p. 430 (p. 1 of the Tract) indicates 



^ Executed. — O'Don., loc. cit. 

2 Thirteenth item. — The Cata- 
logue ofMSS. (Dublin, 1900, p. 
92), by a strange oversight, de- 
scribes the contents as : " Annales 
Ultonienses a Christo nato ad 
ann. 1663 (Annals of Ulster)." 

Monck-Mason's Catalogue is 
partly inaccurate and partly ac- 



curate : " Sequentia latine scripta 
charactere vero Hibernico ex- 
cerpta sunt ex Aimalibus Ulton- 
iens : 

Orig. annales ab A.D. 431 
usque ad annum 665." 

■^ Note. — Sequentia Latine 
scripta, charactere vero Hiber- 
nico, sunt excerpta ex annalibus 



Xll 



INTRODUCTION. 



the contents as Latin excerpts- from the Annals of 
Ulster. The error was doubtless due to casual obser- 
vation and the paucity of entries in the native tongue. 
To judge from the handwriting of Tenehrce and 
Goehim, on the margin opposite Uebfie and Clm of 
the first entry of 663 [664] (p. 523), the work was 
executed for Ussher. 
[E,— E, the script proves at once, was copied by the 
^"■'^^^^r^ above-named Duald Mac Firbis. Hence errors such 

errors oi,J 

as the following. A.D. 431. Palladius . . a Celestino 

. . ordinatus episcopus, A ; Paladius . . a Celestinos 

. . ordinatus episgopus, E (p. 431). A.D. 444. Ab urbe 

condita usque ad banc civitatem [Ardmacham] funda- 

tam m. cxc. iiii., A ; Ab urbe, etc., iiii. cccc. iiii.,^ E 

(p. 435. F has correctly, either from another text or 

by calculation, 1194). 

[value of.] In fact, the sole redeeming feature of the fragment 

is the true lection of the apophthegm prefixed to the 

Annals, 3iei est incipere, Dei est finire. Afterwards 

the original became illegible ; whence the infelicitous 

guess Tui (for Dei). 

[F,— F, a few and not the worst instances will sufficiently 

IT^'Lteá ^^^^' ^^ ^^ ^ P^^^® ^^^^^ ^- ^'^' ^^^' ^^^chus Mor 

author of. was written, A ; multi Annales editi sunt, F (p. 434)^ 

A.D. 453. Cathroineadh, defeat (literally, battle-rout) 

A ; proelium apud Roined, F (p. 438). A.D. 485. 



Ultoniensibus. Confer Usserii 
Primordia, p. 855 (edit. 4*), cum 
his Annalibus, p. 436, ad A.D. 444. 
Confer etiam Warei Scriptores cum 
p. 442 horum Annalium ad ami. 
467 et 468 et alibi. 

^ Iiii. cccc. iiii. — This, it is but 
fair to add, must yield to iiii. m. 
cc, made in a transcript of Tiger- 
nach {Revue Celtique, Jan. 1896, p. 
26) out of uu. cc, attached to the 
consuls in the entry relative to the 
Nicene Council taken from the 



Chronicon of Bede. The same error 
is found in two of the Chronicon 
MSS. (Migne, P.L., xc, 555). 
The curves of uu being abraded 
or indistinct, the four strokes 
were mistaken for thousands ! 

From the Bodleian MS. in ques- 
tion, O'Conor {R.H. SS. II. 63) 
rightly read VV. CC. In the Tig- 
ernach Fragment (of which here- 
after) bound up with H.1.8, the 
reading is correct : Paulini et 
Juliani, uirorum clarorum (fol. 4a) 



INTRODUnTlON. 



Xlll 



Noigiallaigh, (of Niall) of the nine hostages, A ; cogno- 
mento regis novem populorum, F (p. 446). Whence we 
shall probably not widely err in attributing F to the 
author of D.] 

The Annals to 1131 were printed, with a Latin version Editions -. 
and Notes, by Rev. Dr. Charles O'Conor, in the fourth oj.'s°— 
volume^ of his Rervbini Hihernicnin Scriptores Veteres. imperfect 
His text is taken from B, which, without examining A, ^V^ 
he pronounced^ offhand to be the original ! Whoever 
has had to toil through this work must admit that the 
severejudgment of Reeves^ respecting O'Conor's T-^^er- 
Tiac/t applies with still greater justice to his Annals of 
Ulster. " It is so corrupt, so interpolated, so blundered, 
that it is extremely unsafe to trust the text, while it is 
certain mischief to follow the translation." His render- 
ing, in fact, though he is careful to conceal the fact, is 
mainly derived from C 

A single typical instance will suffice. At A.D. 815, the 
pillaging of ClooncraiF* (co. Roscommon) is recorded. 
Orgain (pillaging) C took to signify the taking e away 
of the organs. This O'Conor turned into direptio 
organorum^ ; whilst, to prove that such an entry 
does not prejudice the authenticity of the Annals, he 
subjoined second-hand references to early writers who 
mention the employment of organs in church services. 
Thenceforward, the organs of the church of Clooncraff 
were accepted as well established by the crowd of second- 
hand writers on early Irish Church History. It never 
seems to have occurred to the discoverer or those who 



^ Volume. — Buckingham, 1826. 

^Pronounced. — "The Bodleian 
MS. (Rawlinson 489) is called the 
original, because it is the matrix 
of all the copies now known to 
exist" {Stouje Catalogtie, ip. 174). 

^ Reeves. — Adamnan, p. 312. 

^ Clooncraf. — The Taxation of 
Boniface VIII. {Cal. Doc. 1302-7, 
p. 223), in which, whether owing 
to the scribe or the so-called 
editors, it appears as Cloncardi, 



gives the value at 10s. Lower valua- 
tions (of Elphin diocese) are 8s, 8d., 
6s. 8d., and 5s. Another entry 
(the death of Osbran, its bishop- 
anchorite, at 752) exhausts men- 
tion of the place in the Annals. It 
may be the Clooncraff mentioned 
in the Tripartite (Part II.) and 
the Irish Index of the Book of 
Armagh (fol. 19a). 

•^ Organorwn.—R. H. SS. II., 
199. 



XIV 



INTRODUCTION, 



Skene's 
excerpts 
inaccu- 
rate. 



constitu- 
ents. 



placed implicit trust in him to enquire whether the 
authors in question meant organs in the modern 
acceptation ! 

In the Chronicles^ of the Pictsand Scots, Skene gave 
the entries relating, in his opinion, to Scotland, from 434 
to 1362. Apparently following O'Conor, he erroneously 
assigned first place to B, with which he collated A. An 
English version, without annotation, is supplied. Some 
Scottish items escaped his notice ; others, given as 
Scottish, do not belong to that country. Text and 
translation respectively betra}" imperfect acquaintance^ 
with Irish palaeography and linguistic. 
Annalistic The Annals present five distinctive features : [L.) the 
ferial incidence of Jan. 1 ; (II.) lunar incidence of same ; 
(III.) Mundane Reckonings; (IV.) A.D. numeration; 
(Y.) and entries. Their respective origin and contribu- 
tion towards the formation of the Chronicle are to be 
set forth. 

I. — The Ferial Numbers denoted the week-days on 
which the month-days, commencing with Jan. 1, the 
beginning of the Julian year, fell. 1 was Sunday, and 
so on, to 7, Saturday. That, for liturgical purposes, the 
early Christians adopted a modification of the Jewish 
system and named the days of the week, beginning 
with Sunday, by the nos. 1 to 7, appears from the 
Paschal Lunar Table of Hippolytus, drawn up in 222. 
Thenceforward, without intermission to the present 
day, the numerical has been the prevailing week-day 
designation in the Church. 



I. 

Ferial 
numbers, 
origin of. 



1 Chronicles. — Edinburgh, 1867, 
p. 343-74. His title, ''Annals of 
Senait Mac Manus, commonl}^ 
called the Annals of Ulster," has 
occa'sioned Senait Mac Manus to be 
taken for a person ! 

'^Imperfect. — At A.D. 560, secun- 
dum alios is read fere alios, the con- 
traction for the preposition being 
mistaken for fere (p. 344. Cf. pre- 
sent ed., I. 56, n. 2\ A similar, but 
worse, error occurs at A.D. 583, 



which it would take too much 
space to rectify (p. 345. Cf. this 
ed. I. 69, n. 10). At 918, the 
Annals are made to state that the 
Waterford Foreigners were ex- 
pelled from Ireland. The original 
is that they left Ireland {do deir- 
f/iu Erenn). They went, in fact, 
to fight the battle of the Tyne 
(p. 363. Cf. this ed. I. 437, text. 
In note 3 on p. 436, another error 
of Skene is rectified). 



INTRODUCTION. 



XV 



A Julian Calendar^ dating, according to one of the abbatical 
two extant fragments, B.C. 19, had (prefixed to, and in Letters. 
manifest imitation of, the Roman nundinal letters, a — h) 
the series d—g. The insertion was intended to mark the 
recurrence of the Sabbath. This being the seventh day, 
the letters would in time serve likewise to designate the 
Christian week-days. But even had they been known 
to Hippolytus, to incorporate them in a Greek docu- 
ment would be too incongruous. 

In a Julian Calendar transcribed by Furius Dio- 
nysius Filocalus (known otherwise as a calligrapher 
in connexion with Catacomb Inscriptions^) and in- Lexers 

origin 01. 

eluded in the Chronography of SBJ^, (a collection of 
historical tracts chiefly ecclesiastical), the sole Christian 
feature (with exception perhaps of the Lunar Letters, 
of which hereafter) is the insertion^ (side by side with 
and preceding the nundinals) of a — g, in fifty-two series, 
with a opposite Dec. 31, to denote the days of the 
Christian week. 



Ferial 

(Domini- 
cal) 



Calendar temporaiy 

arranged by Polemius Silvius,* in the consulship of 



In a Julian, and mostly Christian, 
ilvius,* 
Postumianus and Zeno (A.D. 448), the two series no 



^ Calendar. — Corpus Inscript 
Latinar. Ed. 2, Vol. I., Pars I 
Berlin, 1893, Inscript. Latinae 
Antiquiss (ed. Mommsen). Fast 
Anni Jnliani : No. VII. Fasti Sa 
bini, p. 220 ; De Rossi, /. C, p 
Ixxvii. 

The Fragments are Sep. 7 — 25 
(the ferial e and nundinal 6 of 7 
are wanting) ; Oct. 10—27. They 
were found in the Sabine territory 
(whence the name), and are pre- 
served in the monastery of St. Paul, 
on the Ostian Way (/. C. loc. cit.). 

Sabinum incisum est post an. 
[U. C] 735 [Ante C. 19], cum 
habeat [ad Oct. 12] Augustalia eo 
anno instituta (C. /. i., p. 206). 

'^Inscriptions. — Mommsen: ther 
den Chronographen vom J. 354 
(Abhandl. der phil.-Hist. Classe 
der Koenig. Sach. Gessell, der 



Wissenschaften. Erst. Bnd., Leip- 
zig, 1850), p. 607. Cf. Northcote: 
Epitaphs of the Catacombs (London, 
1878), pp. 54, 114 and the sources 
there indicated. 

^Insertion. — Acta Sanctorum, 
Junii t. VII. (Antverp. 1717), p. 
178—84. 

^ Silvius.—lh. The Calendar of 
Filocalus is on the left, that of 
Silvius on the right, column of each 
page. At the end (p. 184), the Bol- 
landist, Janning, quite needlessly 
states that he gave them as in the 
MSS., with their faults, making no 
annotation. This, he adds, the 
reader may do for himself, if neces- 
sary ; or, if he will, consult the few 
paltry marginal notes of the Bu- 
cherian edition ! 

The same juxtaposition is ad- 
opted in the C/. Z/.,ed.2, p.257-79. 



XVI 



INTRODUCTION. 



Ferial 

Nos,, — 
functions 
of, 



replaced 
by letter! 



longer appear. With the imperial abolition of the eight- 
day week^ under Constantino, the nundinals lost all 
significance ; with planetary names (Sunday, etc.) in 
civil, and numbered feriae in church, life, hebdomadal 
letters became equally superfluous. Imagine the 
deacon announcing in St. John Lateran, on the first 
Sunday of Lent, that the Station would be held at St. 
Peter ad Vincula, on feria B ; at St. Anastasia, on feria 
C ! At what date they were reintroduced for the pur- 
poses mentioned below, appears uncertain. 

Ferials serve to indicate the week-day incidence by 
calculation and by inspection. The first method 
requires data such as those given in Diagram A ; the 
second, a Calendar. Less laborious, the ocular pro- 
cess would naturally supersede the mental. A glance 
down two columns — one, the hebdomadal ; the other, 
the menstrual, notation — twelve times juxtaposed, of 
the Calendar of Charlemagne^ (A.D. 781) will suffice to 
explain how numerals came to be replaced by letters. 
The alternative indeed is so obvious that angelns 
(employed in an Anglo-Saxon^ Calendar) was, in all 



^ Constantine.— Provisione etiam 
pietatis suae Nundinas \ die solis 
perpeti anno constituit {Corpus In- 
scriptionum Latinarum, Berolini, 
1873, p. 523.) The Ins-cription was 
found near Vasarhely, in Hungary. 

2 Charlemagne. — Piper : Karls 
cles Grossen Kalendarium (Einlei- 
tung zum Vergleichender Kalender 
fiir 1858, Berlin, 1858), p. xx.— xxi. 

■' Anglo- Saxo)í.—Q({úh& (British 
Museum) A xváii., of perhaps a.d. 
969 (Hampson, Medii ^vi Kalenda- 
rium, London, no date, probably 
1840), p. 397-420. As the com- 
memorations of Irish saints have 
hitherto escaped notice, it will not 
be out of place to quote them, with 
the text restored. 

Jan. 31. 
Ast Jani fines signat Aed famine 

Ferna [of Ferns]. 
Feb. 1. 
Gloria Scottorum Brigida sortita 

Kalendas, 



17. 
Tres decimas felix Fintan migravit 
ad aulam [F. of Clonenagh]. 

26. 

Comganus meritis transivit tar- 
tara quadris [scil. Kalendis, Of 
Killeshin, co. Carlow]. 

March 17. 
Patricius pausat, Scottorum gloria e 
censors. 

June 3. 
Cetibus angelicis Coemgen sociatur 
in archis [ap^oif, principibus. 
Kevin of Glendalough]. 

9. 
Idibus in quinis celebramus festa 
Columbae [of lona]. 

11. 

Trinis migravit Mactail in culmina 
coeli [of Kilcullen, co. Kildare]. 

July 7. 
Nonarumque die Maelruen con- 
scendit in aethram [of Tallaght], 



introdu(;tion. xvii 

probability, an independent invention. Ferial letters, 
however, serve their chief function in the domain 
of Technical Chronology. To what extent they 
have been made available can be estimated from 
the fact that, with all their eminence in Mathematical 
Chronoloo-y, neither Petavius nor Ideler constructed 
a reduction Table ! 

Sunday being the first and chief day of the Christian Dominical 
week, the letters have been Pfenerallv named Domini- p***^^"'' 

71 i7-r-77- -1 1- • technique 

cat, though Jierial Letters is the correct designation. of. 
If New Year's day falls on Sunday, the Dominical 
Letter of the year is A, and every day before which A 
stands is Sunday, including the final day. Next year 
will thus begin on Monday, and the first Sunday will be 
Jan. 7, having the letter G, which becomes the Domini- 
cal of the year. In this way, in marked contrast with 
the Ferials, the Dominicals are used in retrograde order. 

In connexion with the Ferials, numbers 1 to 7 were Concur- 
likewise employed to denote the week-day concurrence teclmkue 
of March 24 with Jan. 1. These — perhaps a Western of. 
invention, dating, it may be, from the time when 
the earliest Roman Easter was March 25 — were 
called Coiicurrtints, and arose from the Julian year as 
follows. When Jan. 1 is Sunday, March 24 will be 
Friday. Friday being the 6th week-day, this is Con- 
current 6 = Dominical Letter A. When Jan. 1 falls on 
Monday, March 24 will fall on Saturday, giving Con- 
current 7 = Dominical Letter G. So on with the other 
days, the difference between Ferial and Concurrent 
being uniformly 5, except in leap-year, when the 
additional day makes it (i. The four series are the 
followinof : — 



Week-days 


s. 


M. 


T. 


W. 


Th. 


F. 


Sat. 


Ferial Numbers 


i. 


ii. 


iii. 


iv. 


V. 


vi. 


vii. 


Concurrents 


vi. 


vii. 


i. 


ii. 


iii. 


iv. 


V. 


Dominical Letters . . . 


A 


G 


F 


E 


D 


c 


B 



If every year consisted of only 52 weeks and a day, the 
foregoing would all recur each 8th year, forming heb- 

c 



XVlli TNTRODl/CTION. 

domadal cj'cles. But tlie sequence is interrupted by tlie 
insertion, every 4tli year, of tlie Julian bissextile day. 
This gives a recurrence of 28 (7x4), as in the subjoined 
])iagram, or Rota, in which No. 1 represents A.D. 1. 

A 

SOLAR CYCLE. 




Rules to (1) To find the Ferial No , Concurrent and Dominical 
Ferials, Letter of any A. I)., divide the given year by 28 : re- 
etc. mainder is the soli-cyclic No. ; if remains, 28 is the 

No. In the section denoted by the No., stand the 

required criteria, in the order in which they are here 

named. 

(2) To find the Concurrent, divide the A. D. No., plus 

the^even fourth, plus 4, by 7 : remainder is the Con- 



INTRODUCTION. 



XIX 



current ; if remains, 7. E. g. (A. D. 27 + 6 + 4) H- 7 
leaves 2, the requisite Concurrent. 

(3) To find the Dominical Letter, take the Concur- 
rent (found by Kule 2) from 7, the diff^erence denotes 
the Letter in the direct order, A— G. In A. D. 27, for 
instance, 7-2 = 5 =E (fifth letter). (In leap-year, 'the 
next folloAving is the Dominical for Jan. 1— Feb. 24.) 
If the Concurrent is 7, the Letter is G. 

The chief use of the Ferials, in addition to marking Ferials. 
the Sundays, is to find the week-day, or the moon's age, "«^ of. ' 
of a given day of any month. In connexion herewith, 
as a mnemonic aid, a continuous numeration of the 
days of the year was made, by Kalends, Nones, Ides, 
and last days of months. The earliest known instance 
is found in the Irish spurious Anatolius, hereafter 
described. The computation, minus the D and E 
columns, is given (copied, most likely, from this 
"holy man") by Bede, who describes it as handed 
down on the authority of elders.^ Tabulated it is as 
follows : — 



ANNUAL DIURNAL NUMERATION. 





A 


B 


C 


D 


[E] 




In Kal. 


InNon 


. In Id. 


In ii 


. Kal. 




Jan. 


I 


5 


13 


Feb 


31 


[3] 


Feb. 


82 


36 


44 


Mat- 


59 


[3] 


Mar. 


60 


66 


74 


Apr 


^0 


[6] 


Apr. 


91 


95 


103 


Mai. 


i20 


[IJ 


Mai. 


121 


127 


135 


Jun. 


151 


[4] 


Jun. 


152 


156 


164 


Jul. 


181 


[6] 


Jul. 


182 


188 


196 


Aug. 


212 


[2] 


Aug. 


213 


217 


225 


Sep. 


243 


[5] 


Sep. 


244 


248 


256 


Oct. 


273 


P] 


Oct. 


274 


280 


288 


Nov. 


304 


[3] 


Nov. 


305 


309 


317 


Dec. 


334 


[5] 


Dec. 


335 


339 


347 


Jan. 


365 




Jan. 


366 













^Elders. — Est autem vetus argu- 
mentum, iion modo de Calendarum, 
verum et de quorumlibet inter 



Calendas dierum, luna vel feriadig- 
noscenda repertum, aliquante 
(juidem gravius ad discendurn, sed 



P^ 



XX 



INTRODUCTION. 



Rults to 
reduce 
nionth- 
to week- 
lays. 



P]rroneous 
Chrono- 
logy of 
*lie Four 
Masters. 



For verifying tlie notation, solar and luni-solar, of 
the Annals, this Table has the great utility of enabling 
a Calendar to be dispensed with. The solar Rules are : 

(1) From the figure in the A, B, or C column, if the 
required day is Kal., Non., or Id., subtract 1, otherwise 
subtract the No. (2, 3, etc.) by which it precedes Kal., 
Non., or Id., add tlie ferial (found by Table A), plus 1, 
after Feb. 24, in leap-year, divide by 7 : what remains, 
or (if remains) 7, is the requisite feria, or week-day, 
of the day of the month. E.g., A.D. 919, Mall Black- 
knee was slain, in the battle of Dublin, on the 17th of 
the Kalends of October, 4th feria. Oct. in Kal. 274-17 
= 257. Adding the ferial, 6 (No. 28, Table A), and 
dividing by 7, we have remainder 4, i.e., Wednesday 
(Sep. 15). ^ 

(2 ) When the day of a month is reckoned directly, 
add its number, minus 1 (except in leap-year, after 
Feb. 24), to the figure of the same month in column D, 
and proceed as in Rule 1. E.g., to find the week-day 
of Sep. 15, 919: In ii. Kal. Sep. 243 + 14 (^.e., 15-1) 
= 257. Addition of the ferial, 6 and division by 7 
give remainder 4, or Wednesday. 

This example supplies a typical illustration of the 
manner in which such data have been dealt with by 
the Four Masters. According to them, Niall was slain 
Wednesday, Oct. 17, 917. To test it: In ii. Kal. Oct. 
273 + 16 = 289. Adding the ferial, 4, of 917 (No. 
21, Table A), and dividing by 7, we get 6 as remainder. 
In 917, namely, Oct. 17 Avas Friday. Tlie original was 
vitiated by the unwitting omission of Kal. from xvii. 
Kal. Oct., and the compilers saw no incongruity in 



maiorum tamen nobis auctoritate 
contraditum, atque ideo minoribus 
nostra ajque solertia tradendum 
[De temp, rat., xxii.). 

The transcript from a MS. in the 
Ambrosian Library, Milan (Mura- 
tori, Anerdota Amhroaiana, Pata- 
vii, 1713, III. 118) was njost pro- 



bably by an Irisli liand. Whether 
it was later than that in Bede 
is doubtful. Of other copies, it 
will suffice to mention one in a 
Florentine Calendar of 817 (Ban- 
dini, Catal. cod. Lat. lUhl. Lau- 
rent., Florentiae, 1777, T. '287- 



INTRODUCTION. 



XXI 



placing October 17 on Wednesday, in 917. Ultra posse 
non est esse. The lamentable result is that in these 
so-called Annals, every date from 494 to 1019 is erron- 
eous. 

(3) A third Rule^ is based on col. E, which gives the 
remainders of the numbers of col. D divided by 7. 
These Regulars denote, with the leap-year exception 
mentioned, the week-day incidence of D, when the 
Ferial is 1. The Ferial of New Year's Day being always 
given, no Regular is assigned to January. To find the 
required day, proceed as in Rule 2, substituting col. E 
for col. D. In the case of Sep. 15, 919 : 14 -f- 5 (Sep- 
tember Regular) + 6 (Ferial) -f 7 leaves 4, namely 
Wednesday. 

The Ferial Numbers having been superseded in Cal- 
endars by Dominical Letters, a Table of the latter (an 
expansion, it will be seen, of column B ; itself the D.L. 
circuit of Diagram A) is necessary in connexion with 
Paschal Tables. 

To find the Concurrent and Ferial No. of an A.D. by C To find 
and A, find the D.L. or D.LL. of the year by Table C : Concur- 

'^ . . 'L rent and 

over the Letter or Letters, are the requisite Concurrent Ferial No 
and Ferial No., in the order named, in Rota A. E.g., 919 ^y C & A. 
has D. L. C ; C has (in A) Concur, iv., Fer. No. vi. 



^ Rule. — Ideler's rule (which oc- 
cupies 26 lines = two-thirds of the 
present page, Handbuch, II. 183-4) 
is to divide the no. of days from 
the beginning of the Christian Era 
to the given date by 7 : remainder 
I is =!Sat., 2 = Sun., and so on. 
The method will sufficiently ap- 
pear from the example, Nov. 8, 



1825, according to the Old Style. 
(1825-1) -f 4 gives an ev^en quotient 
456 : 456 x 1461 [i.e. the days of 
the bissextile period] = 666,216. 
Add 304 {ih. I. j03 = 7?í u. Kal. 
Nov. 304, Table B, col. l)) + 8 days 
of Nov. Hence, 666,216 + 30 + 8 
= 666,528 days + 7 = remainder 2 
= Sunday ! 



[Table 



XXll 



INTRODUCTION, 



DOMINICAL LETTERS. 



Years under 


100. 














85 


57 


29 


1 


B 


C 


D 


E 


F 


G A 


86 


58 


30 


2 


A 


B 


C 


D 


E 


F G 


87 


59 


31 


3 


G 


A 


B 


C 


D 


E F 


88 


60 


32 


4 


FE 


GF 


AG 


BA 


CB 


DC ED 


89 


61 


33 





D 


E 


F 


G 


A 


B C 


90 


62 


34 


6 


C 


D 


E 


F 


G 


A B 


91 


63 


35 


7 


B 


C 


D 


E 


F 


G A 


92 


64 


36 


8 


AG 


BA 


CB 


DC 


ED 


FE GF 


93 


65 


37 


9 


F 


G 


A 


B 


C 


D E 


94 


66 


38 


10 


E 


F 


G 


A 


B 


C D 


95 


67 


39 


11 


D 


E 


F 


G 


A 


B C 


96 


68 


40 


12 


CB 


DC 


ED 


FE 


GF 


AG BA 


97 


69 


41 


13 


A 


B 


C 


D 


E 


F G 


98 


70 


42 


14 


G 


A 


B 


C 


D 


E F 


99 


71 


43 


15 


F 


G 


A 


B 


C 


D E 




72 


44 


16 


ED 


FE 


GF 


AG 


BA 


CB DC 




73 


45 


17 


C 


D 


E 


F 


G 


A B 




74 


46 


18 


B 


C 


D 


E 


F 


G A 




75 


47 


19 


A 


B 


C 


D 


E 


F G 




76 


48 


20 


GF 


AG 


BA 


CB 


DC 


ED FE 




77 


49 


21 


E 


F 


G 


A 


B 


C D 




78 


50 


22 


D 


E 


F 


G 


A 


B C 




79 


51 


23 


C 


D 


E 


F 


G 


A B 




80 


52 


24 


BA 


CB 


DC 


ED 


FE 


GF AG 




81 


53 


25 


G 


A 


B 


C 


D 


E F 




82 


54 


26 


F 


G 


A 


B 


C 


D E 




83 


55 


27 


E 


F 


G 


A 


B 


C D 




84 


56 


28 


DC 


ED 


FE 


GF 


AG 


BA CB 














Centuries. 












7 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 6 










14 


8 
15 


9 


10 


11 


12 13 



j 

Rules The Dominical Letter of an A.D. under 100 is the 
to find next to the ridit: A.D. 1, 29, 57, 85 have B. The 

Dominical -.^ . . ^ r ^ • -i 

Letters Dominican Letters oi the centuries are respectively next 
by Table, overhead : A.D. 100, 800, 1500 have ED. The Letter of 



INTKODUCTION. 



XXlll 



an A.D. over 100 is that at which a line from the given 
100 meets a line from the A.D. less than 100: A.D. 101 
has C ; 728, DC. In Easter Tables, the second of the 
Dominican Letters is employed. As the Old Style, 
with which alone we are concerned, was changed in 
1582, the centuries are not given beyond 15. 

With their unwieldy numbers, A.M. Eras necessi- Cycle of 
tated solar and lunar cyclic reduction in the matter of }^.'~. 
Easter calculation. The technical cycle of 28, like the 
technical cycle of 19, was accordingly an invention of 
the East ; whilst, in practice, it was confined to Eastern 
reckoning, whether Paschal or chronographic. Perhaps 



the earliest instance of a Rota, such as Diagram A, is 



Rota of, 



that inserted in the preface of a Paschalion falsely {a) in' 
attributed to Peter, bishop of Alexandria, which is ^f«^'^«'^ 

7 7 ^7 ' 7 ., . . . Chronicle 

preiixed to the Paschal Chronicle (a compilation m its 
present form of between 630 and 641). Though the 
text states the cycles of 28 and 19 will be placed before 
the Festal Cycle of 532 years, Petavius^ omitted them 
without mention ; whilst neither in the two editions 
by Du Cange,^ nor in the Bonn reprint by Dindorf,^ is 
any explanation supplied. 

Overhead is: Cycle"^ of tlie eight-and-twenty-yeav- ^^^^^-^^^^^ 
IJeriod, reverting on itself, showing throughout in each 
year the ejxicts of the sun. Underneath, are three 



^ Pttavius. — He merely states 
that the second part of the Frag- 
ment is the preface to a Paschalion, 
or Paschal computus, which its 
author reduced to tables, to which 
he had accommodated the Victorian 
Cycle of 532 {De Doctrina Tem- 
porum, Venetiis, 1757, III., p. vii.). 
But in the Appendix of Paschal 
texts in vol. II., he had given Pro- 
logue of Theophilus, bishop of Alex- 
andria, to the Emperor Theodosius, 
the forged title prefixed to the 
translation of the textual title of 
this second part ; thereby dating it 
38.5, just 72 years before Victorius 
wrote! (11.501.) See p. liv.-v., infra. 

It has to be noted that, in the 
third volume, the Uranologium (as- 



tronomical and computistic texts) 
and Varions Dissertations (of the 
author) are paginated severally, — 
a most inconvenient arrangement. 

" Du-Cange. — Paris, 1688 (a splen- 
did folio), p. 15, and in the Corpus 
Historiae Byzantinae, Venice, 1729 
(second edition), IV. Chronicon 
Paschale, p. 11. 

'■^ Dindorf—Bonu, ]832, 11. 26. 
The whole reprint is in sad contrast 
with the fine tomes, white paper 
and wide-spaced double columns of 
the folio editions. 

■^ Cycle, etc. — KvkXoq TÍjr ^oKrtoKai- 
ftKoaafTTjpidoQ Tov TjXiov (tg tavrbv 
^ avaKVKKovp.ivoQi TravroTt arjfiaivMV 
[rag] 'fj/ ÍKáaTi{) tret hiraKTaQ tov 
riKiov. (C.H.B.IV.U.) 



(C-cycle, 



XXIV INTRODUCTION. 

concentric right-to-left series of numerals in capitals, 
with B (I3issextile) over every fourth number. An in- 
scription in the centre states that the outer numbers 
denote the 28 years; the inner, the Aveek days of March 
1 ; B marking leap-years. An irrelevant exposition of 
bissextile incidence and cause fills the rest of the space, 
to the exclusion of explaining what the innermost 
mean. They indicate the ferials of March 21, in accord- 
ance with the textual statement that the jears of the 
two cycles commence on that day, the Equinox. Ee- 
duction to Diagram A proves that the first cyclic no. of 
each series is 17, forming a C-cycle, the 13th of which 
Pseudo- corresponds to A. 13. 1 (col. C, Table C). This belongs to 
tiTEra) ^-^- '5'^01 = A.D. 1,— an Era wliich may be called the 
Pseudo-Incarnation, and the origin of which will be 
explained below. 

A tripartite Comjnitiis^ ascribed to Maximus, monk 
[!) 'V and martyr, written A.D. 641, skives a similar lloUt in 

described. Part I.' The outer nos. are the ferials of March 31 
(the Paschal year beginning on April 1 !) ; the inner, 
]_28 with (the Greek) BICEK in a line (/ ander B, 
and so on) towards tlie centre from ever}^ fourth. 

In Part IIl.,-^ the Rota is repeated (BIS not radiating, 
but in a third inner circuit), enlarged to admit tlie 
septizodiiiin, or square of seven by seven ferials, for 
finding the week-days of the Julian months named, 
some on the right, some on the left. 

In Part 11.,^ it is still more extended, to make room 
(1,2) for a second 1 — 28, and, inside this, five circles of 28 
bipartite sections, the left portion of each section 
containing the solar, the right, the lunar, year or 
years wherein a 19-year cycle with 11-year Saltus 
diftered from the predominant (Alexandrine) in Paschal 
lunar days. 



(1) 



(1) 



'^ Comjiutiis. — Petavius, III., Ur- i tavian Tables: C, identical with the 
anol., 170-93. Koinan Capital C, and 22. 

-Pari I.— lb., ]). 171. The (Jreek ' =' Part III.— /6., p. 187. 
capital a has two fornifi in the Pe- [ ^Part II. — lb., p. 183. 



INTRODUCTION. XXV 

The initial no. of the series given thrice is 25 in (i) 
Diao-ram A, formingr a G-cvcle, the 5th of which p;f^^^^ 

® ^ " (Al6Xcin 

corresponds to A.D. 1 (col. G, Table C). This belongs to drine Era), 
A.M. 5493 = A.D. 1,— the Alexandrine Era. 

The initial no. of the series given once is 9 in A, form- (2) 
ing an F-cycle, the 21st of which corresponds to A.M. (Byzantine 
5509 = A.D. 1 (col. F, Table C),— the Byzantine Era. Era). 

In a 19-year Paschal Table attributed to St. John p-cycle, 
Damascene^ (857), the cycle is arranged in 4 lines of 7 ; Damas- 
the respective month-day Easter columns underneath arrange- 
identifying it as the F-cycle. To facilitate reference, ment. 
Dominical Letters are here affixed. No. ] has F; 2, E, etc. 

F-Cycle — Tabular Arrangement. 

IF 2E 3D 9C10B 5 A 6G 

7F 13 E UD 15 C 21 B 11 A 17 G 

18 F 19 E 25 D 26 C 27 B 22 A 23 G 

12 GF 24 FE 8 ED 20 DC 4 CB 16 BA 28 AG 

Why, the query at once suggests itself, were not Briefer 
these cumbersome circular and hebdomadal devices f^^^"^^^. 
replaced, as in modern Paschal Tables, by a single line ? difficult. 
The answer is obvious : Greek letters, being numerals 
in alphabetical order, did not readily lend themselves to 
a second and easily intelligible sequence of 1 to 7. 

To show the function of Tables A and C in verifying Use of,— . 
clironographic data of works based on the foret^oino; («)Alexaii- 

»1 o o drine K 

tliree principal Eastern Eras, one of the fragments of 
tlie Paschalion of 532 years of Anianus (first quarter 
of the fifth century), preserved in the Chronogixtphy 
of Syncellus (784 — 806), states,- in reference to the 



ra 



1 Damascene. — Operao7n7iia,ed. Le 
Quien, Venetiis, 1748,1.580. No 
text is given with it. The whole 
Table is incorporated and explained 
(in a manner which this is not the 
place to deal with) in the Computus 



years, the nos. of which are conse- 
quently placed underneath, in a 
fifth hne [ib. 201). 

-States — Tip [ra] (ojiq' Maavru)^ 
' avaXvaavTíQ tig 0A/3' fvpiaKOntv 
TTfpwúovg dkKa Kai Xonra v^a' trrj. 



ascribed to Isaac Argyrus, written TavTa sheveyKavrig tig rbv tov 

m 13/2. (Pet. vranol. III. p. 1J4- waaxa TÓfioi^, ivptaKOfuv rr)v id' avix- 

206.) The computist, in addition, i ^ojj/oj/ tou ^afievwtí kO', o iari tov 

gives in the text two arrangements, MopWou Kt. tt/v St KmiaK^v «i>ao- 

that of the Table and another with j ^q^oí y'^ j-ovt' iari Maonot; kQ' (C. 

blank spaces representing the leap- i jj. B. V.28). 



XXVI 



INTRODUCTION. 



(h) Eyzan 
tine Era 
(19-year 

Jiota) ; 



(c)Pseudo 
Incarna- 
tion Era ; 
origin of, 



Vicennalia of Constantine (A.D. 324), that division of 
5816 by^ 532 shows 10 periods and 496 years of the 
11th period liave elapsed. Going with this remainder 
to the Faschal Tome, we shall find, we are told, the 
14th of the moon on March 25 ; Easter on March 29. 
Divided by 28, dividend and remainder respectively 
leave (cyclic No.) 20. Next, 5816-324 = 5492 (i.e. 
5493 = A.D. 1). The Era used was the Alexandrine 
the 20th year of its cycle (G) agreeing with the 16th 
of Diagram A and col. B of Table C, and thus having 
Dominical Letters ED. 

The central inscription of a 19-year Rota in the 
Faschal Chronicle at the (otherwise vacant) consulship 
of Leontius and Salustius (A.D. 344), states that the 
cycle began^ in the 59th [60th] year of Diocletian, under 
these Consuls, March 21, A.M. 5852. To deal, for the 
present, with the solar criteria, divided by 28 this 
number leaves 0; i.e. the cyclic No. is 28. Again, 5852 — 
344 = 5508 (i.e. 5509 = A.D. 1). The Era employed was 
consequently the Byzantine; the final year of its cycle (F) 
corresponding with the 8th of Diagram A and col. B of 
Table C, with Dominical Letters AG. Hereby for chro- 
nistic purposes can be rectified the capricious Paschal ar- 
rangement whereby the (solar) year began on March 21. 

We are now in a position to explain how the Era 
A.M. 5501 originated. The same Paschalion of Anianus 
has it that the Nativity- was in 5501 ; the Resurrection 
on Sunday, March 25, 5534. This requires Dominical 
Letter G. 5534^28 gives cyclic No. 18. The cycle which 



' Began. — 'AqxV'^' ^* tXa^ev r) 
Trapovaa^ tvinaKaiSiKatTTjpig otto v9' 
tTovQ AioKXrjTiavov. ifjovv ínró ku 
KOI avTÍ'it; Toi) Mapriov fJi^jvog, koQ'' 
//J' r/ '«nji-iipia yvajpit^trai, ^tv inra- 
Tfí^ AfovTiov Kai SaXouoTf'oi», kuO' 
ovg viráTovQ to tiuv(3' iTog yevkanog 
KOCFfiOv TTiTrX/ypwrai {Covji. Jlist. 
Hifi. IV. 230). 

- Nativiti),ttc. — Tifv eKdoaiv 'Av- 
viavov . . . tv 7j Ti)v Btiav aaoKUi- 



aiv T({> f 0' 7c\Y]povn'tvi{) fcai n(»^a/uív^J 
T(p f<pa' aiToiitiKVvai, rijv dk ay'iav 
Kai u\ó<pwTOv I'lfjifpav tÍ]Q avaaraa- 
eioc Ke Toi- TTrtpa Pwjuaioig Mapriov 
fjfji'oc, roi< et Trap' AiyvTrrioig <i>a- 
/.itvioO k6', i}v Kai TrpojTOKTiarov 
r'l^épav iv'Tqj vtz avrov avaravTi 
Traaxa\i(ii tCov <p\j3"tTiov . . c)»ícró0i;<rf 
T(p t(p\S' tTti tov KUtJfiOV apla^ivi^ 
Kara Ttjv avTt)v Zojottoiov tov Trpto- 
Tov KvpioKOV TTÚaxa i'luipav (Ih. 
V. 27). 



ÍNTRODUCTION. 



XXVll 



has the requisite Letter (G)^ attached to 18 is the G 
(col. G, Table C); in other words, the Era is Alexandrine. 
Consequently, 5534, minus the Mundane Period (5492) 
of the Era, gives A.D. 42 as the Passion year,— the 
second of Claudius, instead of the hfteentli of Tiberius ! 
To eliminate the absurdity, Anianus subtracted the age 
of the Lord, 33, and hxed the Nativity in 5501 ; 
heedless, or perhaps unaware, of the fact that his 
fabricated Era fell eight years short of the accepted error of 8 
Incarnation reckoning. For 5534 in the Pseudo- -^^^^^ "^^ 
Incarnation or C -cycle is (18) C, which corresponds with 
A.D. 34. Notwithstanding, the reckoning was adopted 
by Maximus, Syncellus, Theophanes (758—818), Cedre- 
nus (1050) and some hagiographers.^ 

With regard to Concurrents, in A.M. calculation, add {d) Con- 
the Concurrent of the year that is immediately before ^^5i^^^|. 
the first of the cycle employed. For instance, A.D. cuiation : 
324, as we have seen, is Alexandrine 5816. This A.M., ^^^^^^^ 
plus the fourth, divided by 7, leaves 4. G being the 
cycle, the Concurrent of B^, 6, is to be added and 7 
deducted, giving 3 - ED. Then, 7 - 3 = 4 = ED. 

The exception is the F-cycle, Concurrent 1. For exception 
example, the same year is Byzantine 5832. The A.M., ^-cyde. 
plus the fourth, divided by 7 leaves 3 = ED; 7-3 = 4 = 
ED (as in the previous reckoning). Such is theA.D. com- 
rationale of the Rule to add 4 in A.D. reduction ; that ^^^^f^^' 
number being the final Concurrent of the cycle that is 
next previous to the B, or Incarnation, cycle. 

This was one of the " Egyptian " Rules'^ which Rule to 
Dionysius appended to his five Paschal Cycles. But, as ^?^ ^' 
will be seen, it failed to suggest to him seven by four. Dionysius, 
A.M. reckoning having been omitted from the Alexan- 



^ Hagiographers. — Ideler, Hand- 
huch der math. u. tech. Chronologic, 
Berlin, 1825-6, II. 458. 

'^ Rules. — Item, si velimus scire 
adiectionas solis, i.e. concurrentes 
septimanae dies, sumere annos 
Domini iubet [Dionysius], et, ad- 
dita quarta parte, iiii. insuper regu- 



lares semper adiicere docet, ac sic 
tandem per vii.partiri,quia nimirum 
V. erant concurrentes anno quo na- 
tus est Dominus, ut et computandi 
fixa series procurrere posset, necesse 
liabeat computator iiii. quae prae- 
cesserunt annectere ( De temp. rat. 
xlvii. Cf. r.L. LXVII. 500-1). 



XXVlll 



INTEODUCTIOX. 



Concur- 
rents 
explained 
by Bede; 



drine 100-year List drawn up for the West in 385, 
knowledge oi' the multiple had, it thus appears, in some 
measure died out by 525, when the " Abbot " wrote. 

Explaining Solai^ Epacts, or Concin^-ents, Bede states 
the circle^ consists of 4 times 7 3'ears, as it cannot be 
completed until the bissextile falls on the feriae in the 
following order : Sunday, Friday, Wednesday, Monday, 
Saturdaj^ Thursday, Tuesday. The calendar week end- 
ing on ]\[arch 24 makes this plain. 

March 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 
Dominical Letters G A B C D E F 

March 24, on Sunday in leap-year, requires GF ; on 

Friday, BA; on Wednesday, DC : on Monda}^, FE ; on 

Saturday, AC ; on Thursday, CB : on Tuesday, ED. 

rwta tran The Concurrents in the circle, he continues, indicate 

scribed by the f eria of March 24,- Omission to claim authorship-^ is 

clear proof that the circle existed before his time. It 

is given in the Ephemeris^ (in the Dubious and 

Spurious Didascalics), and is the same as series 3 of 

Diagram A, commencing at no. 20, with B above nos. 1, 

originated 5, 9, 13, 17, 21, 25. Such is the commonplace origin, 

which Petavius admitted his inability^ to discover, of 

the so-called Vulgar Cycle, beginning at B.C. 9. Whence 

the egregious rule to add 9 to the A.D. before dividing 



Vulgar 
Cvcle ; 



^ Circle. — Circulus habet annos 
quater septenos, . . quia nimirum 
non ante potest cousummari quam 
bissextus . . cunctos septimanae 
dies coutingatjdominicam, videlicet, 
sextam feriam, quartam feriam, 
secundam feriam, sabbatum, quin- 
tam feriam, tertiam feriam ; hoc 
etenim illos ordiue percurrit {ih. 
c. liii.). 

- March 2 4. — Haequae in circulo 
adfixae concurrentes sunt, speciali- 
ter quae sit ix. Kal. Apr. feria 
designant {ih.). 

^ Authorship. — Cf. c. xix. De 
temp, rot., where he explains his 
Tables for finding the position of 
the moon on a given day in the 
Zodiacal circuit. 

Epheineris. — Migne, F.L. XC. 



731-2. The numbers under the 
Concurrents denote the j-ears of re- 
currence, according to the rules 
given in chapter Iv. 

^ Jnahiliti/. — Cycli primus annus 
litteras habet G F, f^ecundus E, 
tertius D. Ita nonus annus habet 
D C, qui est annus primus cycli 
Dionysiani : primus autem aerae 
Dionysianae litteram B. Quan- 
donam institutus sit iste cy;ius, 
compertum non habeo. Divinat 
enim Scaliger, cum, lib. iii. Isacfog. 
Can. p. 172, ab A. C. cccxxviii. 
dimisso Kicaeno consessu institu- 
tum esse dicit ; quod ex opinioue 
ilia falsa derivatur, qua Xicaenam 
synodum ad ilium usque annum 
perseverasse putat {De doc. temp. 
1. VI. c. xxvii., vol. 1., 344;. 



INTRODUCTION. 



XXIX 



by 28. One fact is decisive : in every authentic cycle, 
the leap-year, for an obvious reason, is denoted by 4 
going even ; in this, by 4 and 1 over. Fitting factor in 
that most useless and misleading of all fictitious Periods, 
the Julian ! 

March 24, Bede proceeds,^ was denoted, that, being his expia- 
placed rather close (propius) to the beginning of the "^^JiJ^j^j"" 
Paschal festivity, the Concurrents may most easily 
indicate the feria of the 14th of the moon, and thereby 
facilitate the finding of Easter. But, if so, why were 
they not fixed on March 21, instead of three days later ? 
This apparently insuperable objection still awaits satis- 
factory solution.2 Perhaps they had their rise in con- Suggested 
nexion v^rith Western Paschal computation, when the origin of. 
earliest Easter was March 25. Notwithstanding the par- 
tially proleptic character, the advantage of a common cal- 
culation would lead to adoption at Alexandria, whilst 
East and West still adjusted their Easter differences. 
They appear for the first time in the Athanasian Faschal 
Chronicle, written after the death of Athanasius. 
They were not included in the Theophilan 100-year 
List. Insertion in the Cyrillan cycles (A.D. 447) took 
place when the Alexandrines insisted on the exclusive 
use of their own system. 

II. — The lunar notation used is what is known as that iij 
of the Alexandrine 19-year, or Decemnovenal, Cycle. ^ud'^V 
'['he presence thereof in the Julian year; the aid afforded 
thereby in rectifying the A.D. error of these Annals ; 
and the textual entries relative to the advent of Patrick, 
Easter of 455, Victorian Cycle, Dionysian Cycles and 
Paschal change in lona render it incumbent to ex- 
plain the principles of Paschal computation and system- 
atize the Paschal Cycles. This becomes all the more 



On the other hand, L'Ai-t de verif. 
ks dates (Paris, 1818, I. 76) gives 
A.D. 20 G. r. as the first year of tlie 
Solar Cycle. 

Proceeds. — De temp, rat. , c. liii. 
His words are freely translated in 
the text. 

Solution.— miQ laboured theory 



of Van der Hagen, to prove that the 
Concurrents were fixed on August 
29, and the arbitrary, complicated 
rules to find Easter founded there- 
on are based on pure conjecture 
( Ohservationes in Prosperi Aquitani 
CJironicon, etc., Amstelodami, 1733. 
p. 206-10). 



XXX 



INTPvODrCTIOX. 



necessary, as liitlierto, although, every known Cycle is 
either based on, or accommodated to, the Julian year, no 
serious effort has been made to reduce any, save the 
Alexandrine,^ to the Julian Calendar: whilst, as regards 
the Paschal controversy brought to a close in 716, to 
set forth the main outlines of the rival sj'steras, as 
derivable from original authorities, is an admitted 
desideratum. - 

Paschal Computation was based on the luni-solar year, 

i.e., lunar days and months adjusted to, and reckoned by, 

principles the days and months of the fixed solar year. A synodical 

lunr-solar l"U-iiation, or the interval between two consecutive new, 

reckoning, or full, nioons, consists of 29d., 12h., 44m., 3s. For 

practical purposes, however, the Greeks'' and Romans-^ 

had, of necessity, to employ round numbers. Hence, 

as the bimestral period, omitting hours, minutes, 

and seconds, contained 59 days, they divided it into 



Paschal 
computa- 
tion : — 



^ Alexandrine. — Petavius (VII. 
vii., vol I., 354) gave a Tahle of the 
Dionysian Great Cycle, apparently 
(p. 353) compiled by himself. 

The first vertical line contains 
the Dominical Letters ; the second, 
the nos., of the Cycle, beginning 
with G F. The first and second 
horizontal lines give the Paschal 
Terms ; the third line has the D. L. 
of same ; the fourth, the 19 Golden 
Nos. The Easters are arranged in 
532 squares (28 x 19^. It pro- 
bably did not occur to him that 
they could be lessened by one- 
fourth (19 x7). 

- Desideratum. — " The Alexan- 
drine [Cycle] of 19 years, as 
amended [sic] by Dionysius 
Exiguus, was adopted by tlie 
Roman Church ; whereas the Celts 
continued to use an older cycle of 
84 years. What amount of diver- 
gence might arise from this cause 
I do not know" (Bede, H. E., ed. 
Oxon. 1896, II. 350\ 

"^ Greeks. — -'Eort ce ó fuv^iKoifirjQ 
fir]via1oQ '^(^oóvog . . . »//<fptDj^ kO' 



/3 ^r 



— . o\ Ci TTOOQ Tl)v 7ro\tTlK))l' 



ayojyriv 6\ocr\epé(TT(piv XafijSavó- 
fxevoi fi}]via7oL xpóvoi daiv ijfisuai kQ' 

— , iú(TTí Tov di/Jiijvov xpóvov ysvsnGai 

■t)f.upujv v9'. oBtv ^iá TavTTjv rrjv 
air'iav o'l Kara ttoKiv iJiiji'tg ivaWá^ 
dyovrai TrXi'jpiic Kai koIXoi' cia to 
Tj)v (ri\{jvT]v difitjvov rjfitoSJv tlvai 
1.0' ... 

'E^rjzíÍTO ovv xpóvoQ viro twv 
aaTOoXnyiov. oq 7rtpis\(t o\ac rjuk- 
pac, Kol hXovQ fx^vac, Kai uXovg 
h'lavTOVQ ((ieminus : Introduction, 
c. vi. Con the months), Pet. Ura- 
nol. III. 18). 

■* Romans.— The earliest express 
authority is the Eusebian Chronicle 
Ol. 186.4 (B.C. 33) : Lnnae secun- 
dum Ronianos cursus inventus est. 
The expression secundum Bomanos, 
indicatinga Greek originaKMomm- 
sen, AhhndL, uhi sup. 687), shows 
the invention was native, not for- 
eign. As already the Romans could 
hardh' liave failed to discover the 
iO-day term, February, it may be 
inferred, was made to consist of 
28 days, in order to adjust the 
initial months of tlie Julian 3'ear 
to the lunar bimestral period. 



INTRODUCTION. 



XXXI 



a month of 30, and a month of 29, days. The first was 
csillea full { nKijpTjr, 2^/e;m.s ) ; the second, holloiv [ko'iKoq^ months, 
cavus). Twelve synodical lunations make up a \\xni- jI^hq^,^ 
solar year of 354d., 8h., 48m., 36s. But, for the Lame 
reason as before, the three fractional items were 
neglected, and eleven days added, to complete 365. 
These were named epacts ^ (fVoKrai rifuépai), or embolismaP 
days (ifxPoXifioi fifxepai). Assuming the solar and lunar Epacts 
years to commence on Jan. 1, the latter year has epact 1 ; 
will end on Dec. 20 ; be twelve days in advance (i.e., have 
epact 12) on next Jan. 1 ; 23, on the third New Year's 
day; 34, on the fourth. The 34 make up an embolism al 
full month of 30 days, with four over: which four 
become the epact of the fourth year. In this way, by 
increment of 11 (with exceptions hereinafter noted) and 
deduction of 30, luni-solar reckoning was effected. 

The earliest Christian evidence on the subject is con- Evidence 
tained in the Hippolytan luni-solar Heading and Table ; rgckon^ngi 
which only lacks completeness owing to non-mention of 
the hollow month. In the Filocalan Calendar, A — K Lunar 
were used to denote the alternate full and hollow Letters. 
months. The first was done by placing the letters at 
double-day intervals^ ; the second, by having but a single 
day between E and F. The two series, each recurring 
six times, thus respectively ended on Nov. 21 and Dec. 
20; Dec. 21 had A ; Dec. 30, D (Dec. 31, D"). For con- 
jectures respecting the manner of their employment to 
find the moon's age, when the epact was other than 1, 
the authorities* mentioned at foot are referred to. 

As January and February have 59 days, the March Months 
and April lunations (with exceptions to be men- J'j^^^g*^*^! 
tioned) respectively correspond, as far as April 28, with reckoning. 



1 Epacts.— See Stephanus, The- 
saurus (Lond, 1819-21), 886 B, 
911 A. 

^ Embolismal. — For the corrupt 
epenthesis of s, see ih. (Lond. 
1821-2), s. V. 'ífiiSóXifxoc; (2610A). 

'^ Intervals.— See Table W, § LL. 
Authorities. — Mommseu : Rom- 



is che Chronologie, 2 Ausg. p. 309 ; 
Sickel : Die Lunarbtichstahen in 
den Kalendarien des Mittelalters 
(Sitzungberichte der Phil.-Hist. 
Classe der Kais. Akad. der Wssn- 
schftn., 38 Band, Wien, 1862), p. 
155-6 ; Krusch : Der S4.jdhrige 
Ctjclus, p. 153 scj. 



XXXU INTRODUCTION. 

tliose of tlie two previous montlis. Tlie first-named 
montlis can accordingly be passed over in Pasclial luni- 
solar computation, and epact signify the moon's age on 
March 1, as well as on Jan. 1. Similarly, the interca- 
lary (bissextile) day was left out of account (February 
moon being taken as 30) ; but, of course, it has to be 
added in making out the true equation of the solar and 
luni-solar years. Lunar months are regularly named 
from the solar in which they end. 
Liini-solar ^ luni-solar cycle consists of a number of years, 
at the expiration of which the same epacts recom- 
mence. How the recurrence is effected will appear 
in dealing with the various cycles. In mediseval 
Calendars, the numerals from I. to XIX., denoting 
the consecutive years of the Alexandrine Cycle, 
were placed on the margin, to mark all the days 
whereon the new moons of the respective years fell. 
They were designated Golden, either from siipposed 
excellence, or, most probably, from having been rubri- 
cated. By natural extension of meaning, Golden 
Number came to signify an Alexandrine cyclic year, 
and can be used to indicate the year of any luni-solar 
cycle. The sole practical use of the Numbers lies in 
the construction of Tables for finding Easter. 
Age of To find the age of the moon on a given day of the 

moon, rule year, the general Eule is : to the number of the day 
(found by Table B, Rule 1) add the epact of the year 
and divide by 59 : remainder, if under 30, is the age. 
If over, take 30 from it, what remains is the age. If 
59 goes even, 30 is the age. 
Paschal These general principles premised, we proceed to the 

Tables:— technique of the Paschal Tables. The earliest known 
que of) extant Tables are engraved on tbe sides of a marble 
Hippo- chair, whereon is seated a (supposed) bishop. The 
I^^ff monument was found near the church of St. Laurence 

lables: ^^ i t j. 

outside the Walls, in 1551, and is preserved m the Late- 
ran Museum. Eusebius^ mentions that Hippolytus 

Euaehius. — ' ImróXvTOQ anvTUr- ! rai nvyyoaixfia, fv m twv xP'Íí^w^ 
T(uv . . . ro TTfoi roTi TTifo-Y" T^íTToíí/- \i)'ayi)á(])r}t> UOsiáívoc Ku'iTtva Kav- 



% 



INTRODUCTION. XXXlll 

composed a work on Easter to which he prefixed 
a 16-year Easter Canon, beginning with the first year 
of Alexander (A.D. 222). On the back of the chair, 
is a list of works, some of which Hippolytus is known 
to have written. Furthermore, one of them is entitled : 
Exposition^ of the times, as [given] in the [Paschal] 
Table. The Headings and Tables on the sides of the 
chair tally with the description of Eusebius ; whilst the 
times, with two exceptions, are Old-Law celebrations of 
the Pasch, mentioned in the Table of Paschal 14th- 
moons, on the right side. Whence it is manifest that 
thelong-lostHippolytan GanonilnnoiY Table and Easter 
Table) has been brought to light. The numerous and 
warmly disputed questions connected with the author 
do not fall within the scope of the present inquiry. 

On the right side (left, to the onlooker in front), is a (i) 
Heading: In'^ year I. of the Jcingship of Alexander, }^^Vf^^^^ 
autocrat, the IJfthof the Pasch was on the Ides [loth] o/ heading, 
April, Saturday ; an embolismal month having passed. 
It will be in the future years as it is arranged in the 
Table. It was likewise in the elapsed [years] as it is 
marked [in the Table]. Fasting is to be ceased from 
when Sunday occurs. 

Underneath, down along what may be called the arrange- 
margin, are 12 contractions (6 in duplicate), of which "^^'^^' 
more anon. Next, is a column of 16 Roman month- 
days, on which the Paschal 14th-moons fell in 16 respec- 
tive years. The rest of the space is occupied by seven 
16-item columns of Greek numerals, 1 — 7, indicating 
the ferial incidence of the respective month-days, on the 
first and every seventeenth year thereout, based (cor- 
rectly, according to Diagram A) on the Julian year. 



ova iKKaLdeKaertjpiSog, Trepi tov 
TTá(7xa TrpoOíÍQ éttí ró ttqiutov ÍTog 
^AXt^ávdpov avTOKparopoQ rovg xpó- 
vovQ 7r(piypá(pti {H. E. vi. 22). 

For Du Cange's preference of 
TrpoaQtic, a Valesian variant, to 
TrpoOtÍQ, and the extraordinary 



see C. H. B, IF,, Praef. p. ix. 

^Exposition. — AnOAElllC XPO- 
NwN— TOY nACXA— KATA EN 
T(o niNAKI (Lines 18-21, on 
back of chair. End of line is here 
denoted by — ). 

2 In, etc.— For text and transla- 



Qonclusion he draws therefrom, tionof the Tables, see Appendix A 

d 



XXXIV 



INTRODUCTION. 



adjust- 
ment to 
Julian 
Calendar. 



To adjust to tlie Julian Calendar, it has to be pre- 
mised tliat the second 8 dates of col. 1 are a replica of 
the first; making the second 56 (8x7) week-days a 
repeat of the first. The lunar cycle, we have thus 
discovered, was octennial; the Greek Octaeteris, de- 
scribed by Geminus^ and Epiphanius,- and idly theoriz- 
ed upon by Petavius.'^ Given moon 14 on April 13, and 
counting back, we get new moon on March 31. The 
previous lunation, we learn, was embolismal, i.e., had 
30 epactal days: giving new moon on March 1, and 
showing that March 1 and 31 have the same lunar age. 
This method produces the results classified in the 
following Table. 



HIPPOLYTAN LUNI-SOLAR DATA. 



1 2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


1 ' i 


D.L. A.D. 




Moon U 


Week-day 


New Moon 


Epact 


Golden 
No. 


F 222 


Em. 


Ap. 13 


Sat. 


Mar. 31 


1 


I. 


1 E 223 




Ap. 2 


Wed. 


Mar. 20 


12 


II. 


DC 1 224 

B 225 

1 


SS. 


Mar. 21 


Sun. 


Mar. 8 


24 


[II. 


Em. 


Ap. 9 


Sat. 


Mar. 27 


5 


IV. 


A 


226 




Mar. 29 


Wed. 


Mar. 16 


16 


V. 


G 


227 




Mar. 18 


Sun. 


Mar. 5 
]\Iar. 23 


27 


VI. 


i FE , 228 

1 


SS. Em. 


Ap. 5 


Sat. 


9 
~20~ 


VII. 
VIII. 


D 229 




Mar. 25 


Wed. 


Mar. 12 



1 Gem inns. — In the sixth chapter 
of the Introduction ( Uranol., De 
doc. temp. III. 121-3). He does 
not explain how the three inter- 
calary months were inserted, so as 
to give the same epacts every 
ninth year. 

- Epiphanius. — Ileres. Ixx. {de 
schi'imate Audianornm: ed. Peta- 
vius, Paris, 1622, I. 825). The 



Petavian Paschal commentary, so 
often referred to by the author (in 
the Doc. temp.) and other writers, 
is in vol. II. 297 sq. The technical 
portion is as obsolete as that of the 
later work. E.g. the Octaeteris 
had embolism in the 3rd, 6th and 
8th years 

'^Petavius.—ThG 8th chapter of 
book II. (54 sq.), conjectures as to 



INTRODUCTION. 



XXXV 



Columns 3, 4, 5, are taken from the Table, which they 
partly compose. Em. stands for £/i/3ó\t/ioc embolismal; 
referring, the Heading shows, to the pre-Paschal month, 
and signifying that it was made up of epacts. The 
large Greek epUimon, or cypher for 6, closely resembles 
the Roman Capital S. Whence the digraph 88. 
{^hlatlroQ), like Bis., marks the JuUan leap-years. 

The epact column reveals the structural data of the Structure 
cycle. By the Rule of adding 11 and deducting 30, 
when the sum exceeds 30, the results would be : — 



Epact 


. 1 


12 


23 4 


15 


26 7 18 


Golden No. . . 


. I. 


II. 


III. IV, 


V. 


VI. VII. VIII 



This arrangement gives 88 (8x11) epacts, i.e., 2 em- Sa/his, 
bolismal months and 28 days. Hereby, however, the ^^^ 
recurring epact of Golden No. 1. would be (not 1, but) 
29 ; whilst the 8 years would not form a luni-solar cycle, 
which requires, in this case, epact 1 (or new moon on 
March 1 and 31). The defect was supplied by adding 2 
to the epacts, completing the embolismal month and 
the cycle. This was effected by shortening the luni- 
solar year and increasing the epact: i.e., the final 
bimestral period was twice made to consist of 58, 
instead of 59, days; having, namely, two hollow moons 
in succession. 



the Greek Octaeteris, and the 60th 
(109 sq.), Scaliger's opinion on 
Octaeteris, are mainly barren dis- 
putation. The 61st (110 sq.), a 
refutation of Scaliger concerning 
the Hippolytan 16-year cycle, 
gives a Table of Hippolytan and 
Nicene (i.e. Alexandrine) new- 
moons, 14th-moons and Easters, 
from A.D. 222 to 240 ; the former 
portion: cujusmodi in vetere mar- 
morea statua colli gitur, quam in 
appendice describemus. The 
errors, some thrice, some twice, re- 
peated, are, with reference to Table 
D :— III. col. 4, Mar. 21, 22, for Mar. 
21 ; col. 6, Mar. 8, 9, for Mar. 8 : 
VIII. col. 6, Mar. 11, for Mar. 12. 

But these are cast in the shade 
by the statement made in refer- 



ence to the Dionysian Octaeteris 
(of which hereafter) and the Hip- 
polytan, that the new moons do 
not return to the same week- 
days until after 112 years ! Post 
primam octaeteridem [Dionysii] 
deinceps neomeniae ad eosdem 
dies redeunt ; non tamen ad 
easdem ferias, quod non asse- 
quitur nisi post annos cxii., hoc 
est hecceedecaeteridas vii (p. 110). 
Reliquae octaeterides [Hippoly- 
tanae] eosdem in Juliano mense 
terminos repraesentant, non tamen 
easdem ferias, quae non nisi post 
annos cxii. redeunt, sive heccae- 
decaeteridas septem (p. 111). 
Needless to add, the promised 
description did not appear in the 
Appendix. 

(f2 



XXXVl 



INTRODUCTIOX, 



insertion 
of. 



exception 
caused by. 



Hippo- 

lytan 

Octae- 

teris : — 

equations 

of: luni- 

solar, 



In the Julian Calendar, which alone we are concerned 
with, the lunar month ending in December began, for 
this purpose, on what would otherwise be the 30th of 
the month ending in November. Thus, in Table D, (a) 
to give epact 24 (in place of 23) to III., new moon fell 
on Nov. 10 and Dec. 9 (not Nov. 11 and Dec. 10) ; (6) 
to give epact 9 (in place of 8) to VII., new moon fell on 
Nov. 25 and Dec. 24 (not Nov. 26 and Dec. 25). 
Such omitted days the Greeks^ termed exemptile 
{'e^fíipÉaifioi 7)/xépai). To judge from a passage in Cicero^ 
explanatory of these words, the Romans, in his time, had 
no practical knowledge of the system. The method 
was styled moon's leap [Saltus lunce: i.e., salit in retro) 
by the computists who wrote in Latin. To avoid the 
anomaly of a bimestral period of 57 days, which would 
ensue here, were 13 {i.e., the epact 11 + 2 days of Saltus) 
to be added, a Saltus of one day was respectively 
inserted in two years. 

The Saltus occasions an exception to the Rule for 
finding the age of the moon on a given day. If the 
day in question falls within the December and January 
Saltus-lunations, 1 is to be added to the age as found by 
the Rule. 

The equations of the Hippolytan Octaeteris are the 
following : — 

In luni-solar equation : — 

8 Julian years = 2922 days. 

8 luni-solar years (with bissextile increment) of 
354i days each +88 epacts = 2922 days. 



^ Greeks. — The expression is used 
by Geminus in describing the 19- 
year cycle : 'iva iiaXiara Si laov rj 
tCjv i\aipt(TÍnu)V jjfitpCJv yivTjTai 
irpayfiaTtia ; also in the singular : 
At' rifispuJv ''apa ^y t^aipkai^ov Tt)v 
r'fiJLtpav aytiv ^éI 'tv avry ri) 7rtpióS(f>. 
oúSé yivtTai 'í^a/pÉ(Ti/iog 7j TpiaKug 
did iravTOQ, áXV 77 Ciá tCjv ^y' 
TJfispuiv TTÍTTTOvaa 'eKaip'eaifiOQ Xsyf- 
rat— thus rendered by Petavius : 



ut . . maxime ex iequo dierum 
exemptilium administratio fieret. 
Per dies igitur 63 oportet unum 
exemptilem facere diem in eadeni 
periodo, neque semper fit exenip- 
tilis dies tricesimus, sed is, qui 
post 63 dies cadit, exemptilis 
dicitur (c. vi. ad finem, ubi sup., 
23). 

2 Cicero. — Est consuetudo Sicu- 
lorum ceterorumque Graecorum, 



I 



INTRODUCTION. 



XXXVll 



In mathematical : — 

99 sy nodical lunations = 2923d., 12h., 40m., 57s.: mathema- 
in round numbers, one day and a half in excess of *^^^^ ' 
the cyclic sum. The resultant error could be de- error of, 
tected by eyesight. In the first year of the second 
octennial cycle, the Hippolytan new and full Calen- 
dar moons would fall six and thirty hours before the 
true ; in the first of the third, three days: by 
which time, to use the cycle would be out of the 
question. In fact, to judge from the Cyprianic 
cycle given below,it lasted but 22 years(to A.I).243). 

On the left side of the chair, is the Heading : Iin} the (2) 
Year I. of Alexander Caesar [is] the beginning. The XaSe* 
Sundays of Easter year hy year. The marginal punc- 
tures [omitted by the graver] denote the Bissextile. 
Underneath, arranged in seven columns of 16, to corres- 
pond with the lunar columns, and respectively headed 
with the Greek numerals, 1 — 7, are the Easter Sundays 
derived from the 112 14th-moons of the right side. 
As in the lunar Table, the second 56 Easters are a 
repetition of the first. 

222^8 leaves 6 : hence, to find the Hippolytan Grolden Golden 
No., add 3 to the given A.D., and divide by 8: whatj.yjgg^o 
remains is the Golden No. If 8 goes even, itself is the find. 
No. The Numbers can be found by inspection in the 
following Table. 



quod suos dies mensesque con- 
gruere volunt cum solis lunaeque 
ratione, ut nonnunquam, si quid 
discrepet, eximant unum aliquem 



diem, aut summum biduum, e 
mense, quos illi 't^aipeaífjiovg dies 
Dominant {in Verr. 2,52). 
^ In, etc. — See Appendix A. 



[Table. 



XXXVlll 



INTRODUCTION. 



HTPPOLYTAN GOLDEN NUMBERS. 







Years 


less than 


100. 








1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 




9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 




17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 




25 


26 


27 


28 


29 


30 


31 


32 




33 


34 


35 


36 


37 


38 


39 


40 




41 


42 


43 


44 


45 


46 


47 


48 




49 


50 


51 


52 


53 


54 


55 


56 




57 


58 


59 


60 


61 


62 


63 


64 




65 


6(5 


67 


68 


69 


70 


71 


72 




73 


74 


75 


76 


77 


78 


79 


80 




81 


82 


83 


84 


85 


86 


87 


88 




89 


90 


91 


92 


93 


94 


95 


96 




97 


98 


99 













Cen. 



8 1 



Rules of 
Table. 



Of an A.D. less than 100, the G. N. is the next below 
the column: 1 and 97 have 4; of an even lOJ, the 
G. N. is next opposite : 100 has 7 ; of a year over 100, 
the No. is found where a line from the 100 meets another 
from the year less than 100 : 199 has 2. 

The foregoing Table is to be used in connexion with 
the following : — 



INTRODUCTION. 



XXXIX 



HIPPOLYTAN PASCHAL TABLE. 



G.N. 


Ep. 


A i 


B 


C 


D 


E 


F 


G 


I. 

Em. 


1 


A 16 

17 ' 


A17 

18 


A 18 
19 


A19 
20 


A 20 
21 


A 21 

22 


A 15 
16 


IL 


12 

s. 


A9 
21 


A 10 

22 


A 4 
16 


A5 
17 


A6 

18 


A7 
19 


A8 
20 


III. 


24 


M26 
19 


M27 

20 


M28 
21 


M29 
22 


M23 

16 


M24 

17 


M25 

18 


IV. 

Em. 


5 


A 16 

21 


A 17 

22 


All 
16 


A12 
17 


A13 
18 


A 14 
19 


A 15 
20 


V. 


16 


A2 

18 


A3 
19 


A 4 

20 


A5 

21 


A 6 

22 


M31 

16 


A 1 
17 


VI. 


27 
S. 


M26 
22 


M20 
16 


M21 
17 


M22 
18 


M23 
19 


M24 
20 


M 25 
21 


VII. 

Em, 


9 


A 9 

18 


A 10 

19 


All 

20 


A 12 
21 


A 13 

22 


A7 

16 


A8 
17 


VIII. 


20 


A2 

22 


M27 

16 


M28 
17 


M29 

18 


M30 
19 


M31 

20 


A 1 
21 



To find the Hippolytan Easter, having got the Easter, 
Dominical Letter by Table C and the Golden No. by find by 
Table E, the required date will be found in the square Tables. 
where a line from the D.L. (the second in a leap-year) 
meets a line from the G. N. (The figures under the 
Easter dates denote the respective Easter lunar days.) 
A.D. 222 (the initial year) is F L, Easter, April 21, 
moon 22 ; 333 (the final year) is G VIII., Easter, April 
1, moon 21. 

In the Hippolytan Cycle, the Paschal Term (14th data, 
of the moon) fell from March 18 to April 13; Easter, from 
March 20 to April 21 ; the Easter lunar days were 



xl 



INTRODLX'TIOX. 



and dis- 1 6 — 22. It has to be added, as additional proof of early 
cycle^' and complete disuse, that no instance of the Hippolytan 

lunar reckoning has been found in epigraphy. 
Cyprianic The radical defect^ of the Hippolytan Cycle being the 
ens, iui^i_gQiai' anticipation, the remedy lay in adjusting the 
object and ^P^^ts to the observed or calculated new or full moons, 
date of. at the end of every sixteen years. An attempt of the 
kind was made in a Table of 112 years, drawn up in 
the consulship of Arrianus and Papus (A.D. 243), ex- 
tending from 241 to 852, and attributed to St. Cyprian. 
In this, the epacts were decreased^ by three, thereby 
giving correspondingly later Calendar new moons ; one 
of which, however, for the reason assigned below, pro- 
duced an untoward result. From the data appended to 
a Paschal treatise^ of the same reputed authorship, the 
Golden Numbers and Easter Table can be established 
wáth certainty*. 



^ Defect.— See Browne : Or do 
S<xdoriim (London, 1844), p. 477 
sq., for the cycles of observation 
on -which the Hippolytan and 
Cyprianic Octaeterids were based. 

^ Decrcdsed. — De Rossi, unac- 
countably, states the very con- 
trar}" : lunam vero, Cjuae Hippoly to 
prima est, quartam numerat et 
sic reliquas {Inso'iptiones Chris- 
tians Z'rbis RoiiM, 1861, p. Ixxxi.). 
The synopses following Table H 
(p. xliii., infra) show the error 
verj' clearly. 

"' Treatise. — Migne, P.L. IV. 
942-66. The Paschal Table fol- 
lows (967-71 ). Why the cycle was 
made to begin with 241 is ex- 
plained in the Ordo Sadorxim 
(p. 478), which like-v^ise gives a 



Table similar to the Hippolytan 
(p. 479). 

* Certainty. — Paschoe computum, 
cum novis praesidiis nullis eraen- 
dare possem, ex Oxoniensi editione 
ad verbum fere in hanc receptam 
esse nemo vituperabit {Corpus 
Scriptor. Ecclenasticor. Latinor. 
Cypriani Opera Omnia, ed. Hart el, 
Viennae, 1871, Vol. III. Pars. I. 
p. Ixiv.). 

In striking contrast with the Ox- 
ford edition and Vienna reprint is 
the reconstruction of the Cyprianic 
Table in question by Dr. Krusch, 
which is accurate throughout. {Der 
S^jdhrige Ostercyclus, 189-92.) 
Apparent]}', however, the learned 
author has failed to discover that, 
beginning with 297, the solar, luui- 
solar and Paschal criteria repeat 
themselves to the end. 



[Table 



INTRODUCTION. 



xli 



241-^8 leaves 1 : hence, to find the Cyprianic Golden Golden 
No., divide the A.D. by 8 : what remains is the Golden ^^^' 
No. ; if remains, 8 is the No. The Rules to find the find 
Nos. by Table (G) are the same as for Table E. 



CYPRIANIC GOLDEN NUMBERS. 







Years less than 


100 








i 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 




9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 




17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 




25 


26 


27 


28 


29 


30 


31 


32 




33 


34 


35 


36 


37 


38 


39 


40 




41 


42 


43 


44 


45 


46 


47 


48 




49 


50 


51 


52 


53 


54 


55 


56 




57 


58 


59 


60 


61 


62 


63 


64 




65 


66 


67 


68 


69 


70 


71 


72 




73 


74 


75 


76 


77 


78 


79 


80 




81 


82 


83 


84 


85 


86 


87 


88 




89 


90 


91 


92 


93 


94 


95 


96 




97 


98 


99 












Cen. 




















1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


1 


4 5 


6 


7 


8 


1 


2 


3 


4 


2 


8 1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


3 


4 5 


6 


7 


8 


1 


2 


3 


4 


4 


8 1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


5 


4 5 


6 


7 


8 


1 


2 


3 


4 


6 


8 1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 



The Epacts, places of Saltiis, Easters and Easter lunar 
days are given in the following Table. Rules to find 
Easter are the same as for Table F. 



xlii 



INTRODUCTION. 



H 



CYPRIANIC PASCHAL TABLE. 



G. N. 


Ep. 


A 


B 


C 


D 


E 


F 


G 


I. 

Em. 


2 


A 16 

18 


A 17 
19 


A 18 
20 


A 19 
21 


A 20 

22 


A 14 
16 


A 15 
17 


II. 


13 


A 9 

22 


A3 

16 


A4 
17 


A 5 

18 


A 6 
19 


A7 
20 


A8 
21 


III. 


24 

S 


M 26 
19 


M 27 
20 


M 28 
21 


M 29 

22 


M23 

16 


M24 
17 


M25 

18 


IV. 

Em. 


6 


A 16 

22 


A 10 
16 


All 
17 


A12 
18 


A 13 

19 


A 14 

20 


A 15 
21 


V. 


17 


A 2 
19 


A 3 
20 


A4 
21 


A5 

£2 


M30 
16 


M31 
17 


A 1 

18 


VL 


28 


M19 
16 


M20 

17 


M21 

18 


M 22 
19 


M23 

20 


M24 
21 


M25 

22 


VII. 
Em. 


9 

S. 


A 9 
18 


A 10 
19 


All 
20 


A 12 

21 


A 13 

22 


A 7 

16 


A 8 
17 


VIII. 


21 


M 26 
16 


M27 
17 


M 28 
18 


M 29 
19 


M30 
20 


M31 
21 


A 1 

22 



data, The Cyprianic Paschal 14th-moons were March 17 — 

April 12; Paschal Calendar days, March 19 — April 20 ; 

of cycle!^^ Easter lunar days, 16 — 22. Like the Hippolytan and, it 

may be concluded, for the same reason, the luni-solar 

reckoning is not met with in Inscriptions. 

Easters, The difierences between the Hippolytan and Cyprianic 

(hyergent gygtems appear in the following synopses. For the 

tan and reason given above, the fourth year of the former 

Cyprianic corresponds with the first of the latter, and so on 

throughout. 

(G. N., Golden No.; Em., Embolism; Ep., Epact; 
S., Saltus; N. M., New Moon; EE., Easters; M., IVJarch ; 
A., April.) 



INTRODUCTION. 



xliii 



HIPPOLYTAN CYCLE. 



G.N. 


IV. 

Em. 


V. 


VI. 


VII. 

Em. 


VIII. 


I. 

Em. 


11. 


III. 


Ep. 


' 


16 


27 S. 


9 


20 


1 


12 S. 


24 


N. M. 


M27 


M16 


M 5 


M23 


M12 


M31 


M20 


M8 


EE. 


A 11 
A 12 
A 13 


M31 
A 1 

A 2 


M20 
M21 
M22 


A 7 

A8 
A 9 


M27 

M28 
M29 


A 15 

to 
A 21 


A 11 
A 12 
A 13 


M23 
M24 
M25 



CYPRIANIC CYCLE. 



G. N. 


I. 

Em. 


11. 


III. 


IV. 

Em. 


V. 


VL 


VII. 

Em. 


VIII. 


Ep. 


2 


13 


24 S. 


6 


17 


28 


9S. 


21 


N.M. 


M30 


M19 


M8 


M26 


M15 


M4 


M23 


Mil 


EE. 


A 18 
A 19 
A 20 


A7 

A 8 
A 9 


M27 
M28 
M29 


A 14 

A 15 
A 16 


A3 
A4 

A5 


M19 

to 
M25 


A 18 
A 19 
A 20 


M30 
M31 
A 1 



The deviation in the Cyprianic Saltus incidence took saltus 
place in order to secure uniform decrease of 3 in the deviation, 
epacts. The result was, the Easters in 21 years were 
one week later ; in 7 years, one month earlier, than the 
Hippolytan. The alteration thus extended to one half 
of the Paschal Table. 

Very notable is the change from April 15 — 21 to March Cyprianic 
19 — 25. New moon of the first cycle being on March 31, E^asters 
the Paschal of the second, to be consistent, should be that 
which fell on April 2^, three days later ; giving Easter on 
April 17 — 23. Theprevious lunation was, however, chosen 
instead : new moon on March 4, Easter on March 19 — 
25. For this radical modification, which, to the extent ^^^^^ °^' 
noted above, aggravated the error it was intended to 



1 April 2- See Table W, April 2, § B., col. C. 



xliv 



INTRODUCTION. 



Petrine 
tradition, 



Octaeter- 
is, chief 
value of. 



Dionysian 
Octaeteris. 



19-year 
Cycle : 



inventor, 
technique, 



correct, no reason can be assigned except the Petrine 
tradition (hereafter mentioned) held by the Romans, — 
not to celebrate Easter after April 21. 

These authentic Hippolytan and Cyprianic data are 
of the utmost value, proving, as they do, that the 
Alexandrine principles, (a) Paschal Term (on or after 
the received Egyptian Vernal Equinox), March 21 — 
April 18 ; (6) Easter (after same Equinox), March 22 — 
April 25 ; (c) Easter lunar days, 15 — 21, are utterly at 
variance with the oldest Paschal Cycles. 

The publication of the Cyprianic Cycle, to all 
appearance, it was that caused Dionysius, bishop of 
Alexandria (248-266), to state in a Paschal Letter that 
Easter should not be celebrated before the Vernal 
Equinox, and to insert in same an Octaeteris^ for the 
necessary computation. If the Equinox intended was 
March 21, of which, however, there is no proof, the 
Cyprianic, with the April replacing the March luna- 
tion in the sixth year, would be a Cycle of the kind. 
That the Octaeteris was followed, in some places, for 
a century longer, appears from the chapter of Epi- 
phanius' work against heresies already referred to. 

The next known Paschal Cycle was the work of 
Anatolius, bishop of Laodicea about 280. He employed 
(not the 8-year, but) the 19-year cycle, called the 
Metonic, from the inventor, Meton,- a Greek mathema- 
tician (5th cent. B.C.). The cyclic technique is : — 

19 years X 11 = 209 epacts = 6 embolismal months 
and 29 days. One Saltus (in the 19th year) com- 
pletes the month and the cycle. 



1 Octaeteris. — 'Ev y kui Kavova 
'tKriOerai 'oKTaerrjpidog, on fiv «X- 
XoTf fi fiera ttjv 'tapivvv 'larjfiepiav 
irpom'jKoi T-qv rov iraaxa éopTÍjv 
'eTTiTéXetp Trapiaráfitvog {H. E. vii. 
20). 

'^ Meton. — Geminus ascribes the 
origin of the cycle to Euctemon 
[B.C. 408], Philip [B.C. 292] and 
Calippus [B.C. 330] : hkpav irtpio- 
dov avi t(TTÍ]<TavTO rifv TÍjg kvvtaKai- 
dtKaerr-iSoQ ot Trtpi 'EvKrijfiOva. Kai 



^iXnnrop Kai KaXnnrov'aarpoXoyoi 
(Pet., Uranol. III. 23). Whereupon 
Petavius observes : Mirum de 
Metone tacuisse Geminuni, cui 
tamen prítícipue inventum illud 
decemnovennalis cycli tribuitur 
(i6.). 

^ Extract. — As the original and 
the versioii of Rufinus are referred 
to in connexion with the descrip- 
tion of the spurious Anatolius, 
they are here given. 



INTRODUCTION. 



xlv 



In luni-solar equation : — 

19 Julian years = 6939d., 18h. 
(354i(i.xl9) + 209 epacts = 6939d., I8I1. 



equations, 



In mathematical : — 

235 synodical lunations =6939d., I6I1., 31m., 45s. ; 
falling short of the cyclic period by only Ih., 28m., and slight 
15s. = one day in 308 years: making this the most ^^^°^' °^- 
accurate cycle that can be devised. 

All that is known of the Anatolian Cycle is contained Cycie°/^" 
in an extract^ from the Prologue preserved in Eusebius. 
New moon of the initial year is placed on Phamenoth 
26, i.e., March 22 ; on which day, it is added, the sun 
has not alone entered, but is passiní^ through, the 4th 
day of the first zodiacal Sign (Aries). This fixes the 
Vernal Equinox at March 19. The previous Sign, it 
continues, is the last of the planetary period; whence 
they err egregiously who make that the first (Paschal) 
month and compute pursuantly the 14th of the Pasch. 

New moon on March 22 requires epact 10. This older than 
being, as will appear, the Alexandrine epact of A.D. drine, 
277, the cycle, it has been inferred, began with that 
year. But it remains yet to be proved that the Alexan- 
drine cycle existed at the time. Before 276, the 
Audiani accused the Catholics of having abandoned 
the Octaeteris in favour of another system. Had this 
been the Alexandrine, the basis of which was Equinox, 



Euseh., H. E. 

vii. 32, 

"E^ft Toivvv iv 

ryj 7rp(i)T(ft trei 

T-qv vovfirjviav 

TOV TrpUTOV filJV- 

og, iJTiQ a-náariQ 
iarlv ápx») ttíq 
' tvviaKaidtKatTT}- 
pidog, ry Kar 
AiyvTrriovg /itv 
^afievdiO (t'' (Cat k', 
Kara Sé Tovg Ma- 
KsdovuiV firjvag, 
^varpov /3' icai 



Rufinus, vii. 28. 
Est ergo, in- 
quit [Anatolius], 
in primoannoin- 
itii[-ium] primi 
mensis, quod est 
decern et novem 
annorum circuli 
principium, se- 
cundum JEgyp- 
tios quidem 
mensis Fame- 
noth xxvi. die, 
secundum Mace- 
dones Dystri 



K' b)g d'av eÍTroiev 
PwjLtaToi, Trpo la' 
KaXavSwv ' ATrptX- 
Xiiov. 



TjiipiaKeTai de 6 
ijXiog kv ry ttqo- 
KEifxkvy ^afievojO 
(T^ Kai K ov fióvov 
'S7ri(3ág TOV 7rpa>- 
Tov TfiijfiaTog, 
'aXX' ijdr] Kal rt- 
Táprrjv rjixipav kv 

aVTM dlUTTOpiV- 
ÓfXÍVOQ 



mensis xxn., se- 
cundum Rom- 
anos vero xi. 
Kalendas Apri- 
lis. 

In qua die sol 
invenitur non 
solum conscen- 
disse primam 
partem, verum 
etiam quartam 
iam in ea die[m] 
habere, id est, 
in prima ex duo- 
decim partibus. 



xlvi 



INTRODUCTION. 



Golden 

Nos. of, 
Rules to 
find, by 
calcu- 
lation. 



March 21, would an alumnus of Alexandria, such as 
Anatolius was, have adopted different equinoctial inci- 
dence ? The Anatolian was accordingly prior in time 
and manifestly alluded to by the Audiani. Taking the 
Equinox to be March 19, the bishop carried the 
Dionysian injunction into effect by means of the more 
accurate lunar cycle. The foregoing and a fact to be 
mentioned and hitherto unnoticed refer the opening 
rather to 258. (The two years have the same number 
in a decemnovennal cycle.) 258-!- 19 leaves 11; hence, 
to find the Anatolian Golden No., add 9 to the A.D., 
what remains is the No. ; if remains, 1 9 is the No. 



ANATOLIAN GOLDEN NUMBERS. 











Years Less 


THAN One Hundred. 








1 

I 




1 


2 3 


4 5 6 7 8 


9 


10 11 


12 


13 14 


15 


16 


17 


18 19 ' 






20 


21 22 


23 24 25 26 27 


28 


29 30 


31 


32 33 


34 


35 


36 


37 38 






39 


40 41 


42 43 44 45 46 


47 


48 49 


50 


51 52 


53 


54 


55 


56 57 i 






58 


59 60 


61 62 63 64 65 


66 


67 68 


69 


70 71 


72 


73 


74 


75 76 






77 


78 79 


80 81 82 83 84 


85 


86 87 


88 


89 90 


91 


92 


93 


94 95 






96 


97 98 


99 


















Cen. 


10 


11 12 


13 14 15 16 17 


18 


19 1 


2 


3 4 


5 


6 


7 


8 9 


1 


14 15 


16 17 


18 19 1 2 3 


4 


5 6 


7 


8 9 


10 


11 


12 


13 14 


2 


19 1 


2 3 


4 5 6 7 8 


9 


10 11 


12 


13 14 


15 


16 


17 


18 19 ; 


3 


5 6 


7 8 


9 10 11 12 13 


14 


15 16 


17 


18 19 


1 


2 


3 


4 5 1 


4 


10 11 


12 13 


14 15 16 17 18 


19 


1 2 


3 


4 5 


6 


7 


8 


9 10 


5 


15 16 


17 18 


19 1 2 3 4 


5 


6 7 


8 


9 10 


11 


12 


13 


14 15 


6 


1 2 


3 4 


5 6 7 8 9 


10 


11 12 


13 


14 15 


16 


17 


18 


19 1 



recon- The epacts thus present no difficulty. What is purely 

of. conjectural is the determination of the Paschal lunar 

Terms. On the not unreasonable assumption that the 



INTKODUCTION. xlvii 

only changes introduced into the Anatolian method by 
the framers of the Alexandrine consisted of such as were 
necessary to make the earliest Easter fall on March 22 
and the latest, consequently, on April 25, the following 
Paschal Table is constructed. The Saltus is in the 
19th year; i.e., 12 (instead of 11) are added to 28, to 
produce 10 (40-30), not 9, as epact of the initial year. 



[According to Duchesne (La question de la Páque au concile 
de Nicee : Revue des Questions Historiques^ xxviii., 5sq.), in 
stating that the sun was four days in Aries on March 22, 
Anatolius seems to fix the Equinox on the 18th, which is in 
contradiction with the context. [2] All that is required is a 
* 'slight palseographical correction" — reraprrip fj/jiepag iov TETaprrjv 
rjjjLÍpav; i.e., the sun was Jth of a day in the Sign on the 22nd. [3] 
In Hipparchus' time (B.C. 141) the Equinox was March 22; 
and [4] the precession of the Equinoxes, at 50s. per an., gives 
for 418 years (to the time of Anatolius) very nearly 6 hours, 
-Jth of a day. 

But [1] there is an ominous error in limine : 22 = 4 gives 19 
(notl8) = l. [2] Apart from the extreme dissimularity be- 
tween y and c, the " shght correction " assumes that the femi- 
nine adjective can be iised Hke the neuter ! [3] Ptolemy 
states (Ideler, Handhuch^ I. 34) that Hipparchus found the 
Vernal Equinox of B.C. 146 on March 24, 11 a.m., in the 
meridian of Alexandria. Whence it fell on the same day, at 
10.4 a.m., in B.C. 141. [4] The anticipation in question falls 
ll|m. short of 6 hours {CJ. Pet. De doc. temp. tom. III. Lis. 
Var. 1. I. c. iv., p. 5). The difference represents 14 years, 
dating the Anatolian Cycle at 291, instead of 277, the year 
adopted by Duchesne !] 



íTable 



xlviii 



INTRODUCTION. 



ANATOLIAN PASCHAL TABLE. 



G. N. 


Ep. 


A 


B 


C 


D 


E 


F 


G 


I. 


10 


A 9 
19 


A 10 

20 


A 11 
21 


A5 
15 


A 6 
16 


A7 

17 


A 8 

18 


11. 


21 


M 26 
16 


M 27 
17 


M 28 

18 


M 29 
19 


M 30 

20 


M 31 

21 


M 25 
15 


III. 


2 


A 16 

18 


A 17 
19 


A18 
20 


A 19 
21 


A 13 
15 


A 14 
16 


A 15 
17 


IV. 


13 


A 2 

15 


A 3 

16 


A 4 
17 


A 5 

18 


A 6 
19 


A7 

20 


A 8 
21 


V. 


24 


M 26 
19 


M 27 
20 


xM 28 
21 


M 22 
15 


M23 

16 


M24 
17 


M 25 

18 


VI. 


5 


A 16 
21 


A 10 
15 


A 11 

16 


A 12 
17 


A 13 

18 


A 14 
19 


A 15 

20 


VII. 


16 


A 2 
18 


A 3 

19 


A 4 

20 


A 5 
21 


M 30 
15 


M 31 
16 


A 1 

17 


VIII. 


27 


A 23 
20 


A 24 
21 


A 18 
15 


A 19 
16 


A 20 
17 


A 21 

18 


A 22 
19 


IX. 


8 


A 9 
17 


A 10 
18 


A 11 

19 


A 12 
20 


A 13 

21 


A 7 
15 


A 8 
16 


X. 


19 


A 2 
21 


M 27 
15 


M 28 
16 


M 29 
17 


M 30 

18 


M 31 

19 


A 1 

20 


XI. 


30 


A 16 
16 


A 17 

17 


A 18 

18 


A 19 
19 


A 20 
20 


A 21 
21 


A 15 
15 


XII. 


11 


A 9 
20 


A 10 
21 


A 4 
15 


A 5 

16 


A6 
17 


A 7 
18 


A 8 
19 


XIIL 


22 


M 26 
17 


M 27 
18 


M 28 
19 


M 29 
20 


M 30 
21 


M24 
15 


M 25 
16 


XIV. 


3 


A 16 

i9 


A 17 

20 


A 18 
21 


A 12 
15 


A 13 
16 


A 14 
17 


A 15 

18 


XV. 


U 


A 2 

16 


A 3 
17 


A 4 

18 


A 5 

19 


A6 

20 


A7 
21 


A 1 
15 


XVI. 


25 


M 26 
20 


M 27 
21 


M 21 
15 


M 22 
16 


M 23 
17 


M 24 

18 


M 25 
19 


XVII. 


6 


A 9 
15 


A 10 
16 


A 11 
17 


A 12 

18 


A 13 
19 


A 14 
20 


A 15 
21 


XVIII. 


17 


A 2 

19 


A3 

20 


A4 
21 


M 29 
15 


M 30 
16 


M 31 
17 


A 1 

18 


XIX. 


28 
S. 


A 17 
15 


A 18 
16 


A 19 
17 


A 20 

18 


A 21 
19 


A 22 
20 


A 23 
21 



INTRODUCTION. 



xlix 



That the Cycle was likewise intended for the Roman intend- 
church is proved, as in the case of the Alexandrine ^d for 
cycles, by the equation of the Egyptian month-day with chTch, 
the Julian. Independent confirmation, which also proofs 
shows that it was drawn up before 269, is found in a ° * 
luni-solar date in a Catacomb epitaph^ of 269 : Nov. 5, 
Friday, moon 24. This has hitherto been inexplicable 
by any known lunar system. But it is derived from 
epact 11, which is that of A.D. 269 (Golden No. XII.) 
in the Anatolian Cycle. 

That it continued to be employed for nearly a 
century longer in Rome is established by proof of the 
same unimpeachable authenticity. An Inscription^ of 
the year of consuls Jovian and Varronianus (A.D. 364) 
has May 8, Saturday, moon W. No other cycle has the 
required epact, 11, except the Anatolian, in which 364, 
like 269, is Golden No. XIL 

But the main interest of the excerpt given by Euse- Irish fab- 
bius centres in the fact that it gave occasion and o^^f^f^g^^e^i 
furnished data to an unscrupulous partisan of the Irish by. 
Paschal system to fabricate a new solar cycle and a new 
cycle of 19 in the name of Anatolius. Fully to expose 
the fraud, which will be found described in the account 
of the Irish Paschal controversy, the pseudo-Anatolian 
Solar Cycle and Paschal Table have been drawn up^ 
from data supplied in the forgery. 



^Epitaph. — I.e., p. 18 ; Epitaphs 
of the Catacombs, p. 19 (where the 
whole of this remarkable inscrip- 
tion is given from the /. C. in a 
woodcut). The year is of Consuls 
Claudius and Paternus. The let- 
ters,except in the Roman numerals, 
are Greek capitals. The phonetic 
can be estimated from the luni- 
solar portion : Na>NEIC I NOBEN- 
BPEIBOYC AEIE BEISEPEC 
LOYNA XXIIII (Nonis Novem- 
bribus, die Veneris, luna xxiiii.). 

After stating that the data 
cannot be explained by the Hippo- 
lytan and Cyprianic cycles, De 
Rossi observes that they corres- 



pond most accurately to the cal- 
culated epact of 269, which, at 
Rome, according to Secchi, was 
lOd. 2h. 24m. "Whether the 
Romans, in the yeax 269, com- 
puted the lunar months so well by 
the aid of any and of what cycles, 
I candidly know not" {I.C. p. 
Ixxxii.). The Anatolian, the in- 
scription proves, it was that 
afforded the requisite assistance. 

"^Inscription. — VIII. IDVS 
MADIAS I DIE SATVRNIS 
LVNA VIGESIMA [I.C, p. 92). 

"^ Brawn up. — Cycle, p. cxxiv, ; 
Table, p, cxxvi., infra. 

e 



INTRODUCTION, 



Alexan- 
drine 
Cycle :- 
Golden 
Nos., 
Rules to 
find by 
calcu- 
lation, 



Epacts, 



The next cycle of 19 was perhaps the Alexandrine, 
To find the Golden Nos., about 385, Theophilus, patri- 
arch of Alexandria (385 — 412), drew up a list of 14th- 
moons and Easters for 100 years, beginning with 
A.D. 380) the first consulate of the emperor Theo- 
dosius, to whom it was dedicated. 380-1-19 leaves 0: 
hence, to find the Alexandrine Golden No., add 1 to 
the AD., divide by 19, remainder is the G.N. ; if 
remains, 19 is the G.N. 

As the work of Theophilus is lost, the epacts have to 
be found otherwise. The Chronicle prefixed to the 
Syriac Version of some of the Festal Letters of Athana- 
sius (of Alexandria, 328 — 373) states^ that in 328 Easter 
was April 14, moon 18. New moon thus fell on March 
28, giving G. No. VI.=(Roman) epact 4. The (Alex- 
andrine) epact, the Chronicle adds, was 25. As this was 
the moon's age on March 22, it gives YI. =25. Pursu- 
ant hereto, G. No. I. has Roman epact 9 (reckoned, 
namely, from March 1) and Alexandrine, 30 (reckoned 
from March 22). The proleptic computation was due to 
the adjustment to the Julian year. The two series are. 



ALEXANDRINE CYCLE— EPACTS. 

OGDOAD. 



Golden No. 
Roman Epact 
Alexandrine 



I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIIL 

9 20 1 12 23 4 15 26 

30 = 11 2-2 3 14 25 6 17 

HENDECAD. 



G. 


No. 


IX. 


X. 


XI. 


XIT. 


XIII. 


XIV. 


XV. 


XVI. 


XVII. 


XVIII. 


XIX. 


R. 


Ep, 


7 


18 


29 


10 


21 


2 


13 


24 


5 


16 


27 


A. 


)) 


28 


9 


20 


1 


12 


23 


4 


15 


26 


7 


18 



^ states. — According to the 
Chronicle^ the first epistle was 
written (for the following Easter) 
in the year 44 of the Diocletian 
Era; Easter, Pharmuthi 16 [19], 
Ap. 14, moon 18. His predeces- 
sor, Alexander, died Phar. 22 
[Ap. 17], Athanasius succeeded 
Payni 14 [June 8], Indiction I, 



Consuls Januarius and Justus 
[A.D. 328], epact 25, Concurrent 
1 [lit. Isi (feria) o/ the Gods; i.e. 
the planetary deities, Sun, etc., 
presiding over the respective 
week-days. March 24 fell on Sun- 
day in 328 G F, hence Concurrent 
1]. (Mai : Xova Patrum Bibliotheca, 
Roniae, 1853 ; t. VI., pp. 1, 2.) 



INTRODUCTION. ll 

The Saltus is placed in the last year (i.e. 12 are to be Scaltus, 
added to the 27 and 18 of XIX. in order to respectively 
obtain the Roman epact 9, and the Alexandrine 30, of I.). 
Ogdoad ('Oy^ortc) signifies the eight first years; Hendecad 
('Eí/^tmc), the eleven last. The terms, which have Ogdoad, 
no Paschal or chronographic value,^ are sometimes found Hende- 
on the margins of the Western Cycles, to identify their 
years with the Alexandrine. 

The Paschal computation is derivable from the letter Paschal 
of Proterius of Alexandria (452 — 458) to Leo the Great T^^ms, 
on the Easter of 455. The Paschal month (14th of the 15— 2i'. 
moon) began on March 21, the Vernal Equinox.^ If it 
fell on Sunday, the feast was to be put off ^ to the next 
Sunday. The lunar days were thus 15 — 21. 

As to the Calendar days, the initial year of the Paschal Calendar 
Letters of Cyril of Alexandria (412 — 444) has Easter on íf^lA— 
March 221 This was A.D. 414 = XVL D. In 387, a." 25. 
Proterius states that moon 14 was on April 18; Easter 
on April 251 This year was VIII. C. The Calendar 
limits were accordingly March 22 — ^April 25. 



^ Value. — The sixth book of the 
De Doctrina Temporum, dealing 
with the so-called Roman and 
Alexandrine Golden Nos. and the 
construction of Calendars em- 
bodying them, is a melancholy 
monument of labour utterly mis- 
spent (I. 285-347). 

2 Equinox. — Oportet attendere, 
quod errent nimium qui primi 
mensis initium lunaris cursus a 
XXV. die mensis Phamenoth, qui 
est xii. Kal. Apr., omnino esse 
constituunt : eo quod tune initium 
verni temporis . . . esse videatur; 
et manifeste quidem, secundum 
cursum solis, xxv. die mensis 
Phamenoth, qui est xii. Kal. Apr., 
sequinoctium esse cognoscitur {De 
doc. temp., II. 498). 

^ Put off. — Nam et priscis tem- 



poribus, si quando die dominico 
xiv. luna reperta est, in sequentem 
septimanam est dilata festivitas 
{ih. p. 497). 

4 March 12.—Cyrilli Alexan- 
drmi Sermo7ies Paschales, ex inter- 
pretatione Antonii Salmatiae, 
S. Theol. in Ambrosiano Col- 
legio Doctoris, Antverpiae, 1618, 
p. 13. 

^ April 25. — In c. quoque iii. 
anno ab imperio eiusdem Diocle- 
tiani, cum luna Paschalis xiv. 
Parmothi xxiii. die, qui est 
xiv. Kal. Mail, esset die dominico 
superventura, iterum septimana 
quaesita est, et dominicum Pas- 
chae XXX. die mensis ipsius Par- 
mothi, qui est vii. Kal. Maii, con- 
stat esse celebratum {Be doc. temp. , 
II. 498). 



iii 



JNTROPUCTION. 



K 



ALEXANDRINE GOLDEN NUMBERS. 



Years Less than One Hundred. 



1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 U 15 16 17 18 19 

20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 

39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 

58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 61 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 

77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 
96 97 98 99 



Cen. 

1 
2 
3 
4 

5 
6 
7 
8 
9 

10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 



2 3 4 5 6 7 8 

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 

16 17 18 19 1 2 3 4 
23456789 

7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 

12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 

17 18 19 1 2 3 4 5 
3456789 10 

8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 

13 14 15 16 17 18 19 1 

18 19 1 2 3 4 5 6 
4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 

14 15 16 17 18 19 1 2 

19 1234567 



9 10 11 12 13 14 15 


16 


17 


18 19 1 


14 15 16 17 18 19 1 


2 


3 


4 5 6 


19 1 2 3 4 5 6 


7 


8 


9 10 11 


5 6 7 8 9 10 11 


12 


13 


14 15 16 


10 11 12 13 14 15 16 


17 


18 


19 1 2 


15 16 17 18 19 1 2 


3 


4 


5 6 7 


12 3 4 5 6 7 


8 


9 


10 11 12 


6 7 8 9 10 11 12 


13 


14 


15 16 17 


11 12 13 14 15 16 17 


18 


19 


12 3 


16 17 18 19 1 2 3 


4 


5 


6 7 8 


2 3 4 5 6 7 8 


9 


10 


11 12 13 


7 8 9 10 11 12 13 


14 


15 


16 17 18 


12 13 14 15 16 17 18 


19 


1 


2 3 4 


17 18 19 1 2 3 4 


5 


6 


7 8 9 


3 4 5 6 7 8 9 


10 


11 


12 13 14 


8 9 10 11 12 13 14 


15 


16 


17 18 19 



INTRODUCTION. 



liii 







ALEXANDRINE 


PASCHAL 


TABLE. 




G. N. 


Epact. 


A 


B 


C 


D 


E 


F 


G 


I. 


Rom. 

9 


Alex. 

30 


A9 
18 


A 10 
19 


All 
20 


A12 
21 


A6 

15 


A7 

16 


A8 
17 


II. 


20 


11 


M26 
15 


M27 

16 


M28 
17 


M29 
18 


M30 
19 


M31 
20 


A 1 
21 


III. 


1 


22 


A 16 
17 


A17 
18 


A18 
19 


A19 
20 


A 20 
21 


A 14 
15 


A 15 
16 


lY. 


12 


3 


A9 
21 


A3 
15 


A4 

16 


A5 

17 


A6 

18 


A7 

19 


A8 
20 


V. 


23 


14 


M26 

18 


M27 
19 


M28 
20 


M29 

21 


M23 

15 


M24 

16 


M25- 
17 


VI. 


4 


25 


A 16 
20 


A 17 
21 


All 
15 


A12 
16 


A 13 
17 


A 14 
18 


A 15 

19 


VIL 


15 


6 


A2 
17 


A3 

18 


A4 
19 


A5 

20 


A6 
21 


M31 
15 


Al 
16 


VIII. 


26 


17 


A 23 
19 


A 24 
20 


A 25 
21 


A 19 
15 


A 20 
16 


A21 
17 


A 22 
18 


IX. 


7 


28 


A9 
16 


A 10 
17 


All 
18 


A 12 
19 


A13 

20 


A 14 
21 


A8 
15 


X. 


18 


9 


A2 

20 


A3 

21 


M28 
15 


M29 
16 


M30 
17 


M31 

18 


Al 
19 


XI. 


29 


20 


A16 
15 


A 17 
16 


A 18 
17 


A19 

18 


A 20 
19 


A21 
20 


A 22 
21 


XII. 


10 


1 


A9 
19 


A 10 
20 


All 
21 


A5 
15 


A6 
16 


A7 

17 


A8 
18 


XIII. 


21 


12 


M26 

16 


M27 
17 


M28 
18 


M29 
19 


M30 

20 


M31 
21 


M25 

15 


XIV. 


2 


23 


A16 
18 


A 17 
19 


A 18 
20 


A19 
21 


A 13 
15 


A 14 
16 


A 15 
17 


XV. 


13 


4 


A2 
15 


A3 

16 


A4 
17 


A5 

18 


A6 

19 


A7 
20 


A8 
21 


XVI. 


24 


15 


M26 
19 


M27 
20 


M28 
21 


M22 
15 


M23 
16 


M24 
17 


M25 

18 


XVII. 


5 


26 


A 16 
21 


A 10 
15 


All 
16 


A12 
17 


A 13 

18 


A 14 

19 


A15 
20 


XVIII. 


16 


7 


A2 
18 


A3 

19 


A4 

20 


A5 

21 


M30 
15 


M31 

16 


Al 
17 


XIX. 


27 


18 


A 23 

20 


A 24 
21 


A 18 
15 


A19 
16 


A 20 
17 


A21 

18 


A 22 
19 



liv 



INTRODUCTION. 



emploj'ed 

by: 
Athana- 
siuB, 



(Irish 
Athana- 
sian fabri- 
cation.) 



Theophi- 

lus, 



The earliest known user of the system, was Athanasius, 
as shown, with the exceptions and for the reasons here- 
inafter mentioned, in the Festal Letters^ preserved in 
the Syriac. In the Chronicle, are given the Easters, in 
Egyptian and Eoman month-days, of 328 — 373, with 
Easter lunar days, Alexandrine epacts, Indictions, Con- 
currents and Consuls and Prefects of Egypt. The 
Letters have headings, giving the respective Easters, 
omitting some of the Chronicle items, hut adding the 
years of Diocletian, found in the Chronicle only at the 
first year (A.D. 328 = 442 of the Diocletian Era). 

Knowledge, whether at first, or more likely at second, 
hand, furnished occasion to an Irish fabrication, the 
Tractate of Athanasius, bishop of Alexandria, on the 
Paschal system, hereafter described. 

The next was Theophilus. His 100-year List was 
kept in the Curia for reference, as we learn from the 
Letters^ of Pope Leo on the Easter of 455, in which it 
is styled Adnotatio, Adnotatio Centenaria and Ceoiten- 
aria Su2)putatio. The Greek portion of the Prologue 
(the Latin, addressed to Theodosius, is manifestly 
genuine) is the second part of the pseudo-Petrine Pas- 
chal tract, as given in the Paschal Chronicle,^ Petavius^ 
and Bucherius^. It was 'added from the first-named 
source by a redactor (Petaviusfelicitously suggested Dio- 
nysius '' Exiguus," of whom below), who gave a Latin 
version, with Theophilus, bishop of Alexandria, pre- 



^ Letters. — Fifteen are preserved 
in the Syriac Version. The last (for 
A.D. 348) ends without the Paschal 
data {cetera desiderantur, Mai's 
jejune edition, p. 149). For the five, 
some not written and others not 
sent, see ih., p. 4-6 ; 95-131. 

- 44. — The first of Diocletian was 
Aug. 29, 284— Aug. 28, 285 ; the 
Easter falling in the latter year. 
Hence, in Paschal reduction, 284 is 
to be added to the no. E.g. 44 + 
284 =r A.D. 328. 



^ Letters. — Adnotatio in letter to 
Paschasinus of Lilybaeum ; Centen- 
aria Adnotatio and Centenaria Sup- 
putatio, in letter to Marcian. 

4 Chronicle. — CM. B., IV. 15. 

^ Bvcherius. — De Doctrina Teni- 
porum, commentarius in Victorium 
Aquitanxnn (Antverpiic, 1634), p. 
471. 

^ Petavius. — De doc. temp., 11. 
501. 



INTRODUCTION. 



Iv 



fixed to the original heading, and the texvual (moon) 
13, 14, 16 rendered by 14, 15, 17 ! But neither all 
this, nor the incongruity of a document written partly 
in Latin and partly in Greek, awakened suspicion in 
the editors. 

The third was Cyril, nephew and successor of Theo- Cyril, 
philus. His Paschal Letters^ from 414 to 442 have been 
preserved. In addition, although 44 of its years were to 
come, owing, not improbably, to the meagreness of the 
Theophilan List, Cyril compiled a Table of 5 decemno- 
vennal cycles, from the 153rd to the 247th of Diocletian 
(A.D. 437 — 531). The annual numeration of the List 
was replaced by the Diocletian years ; Indiction, 
Epacts, Concurrents, and Lunar Cycle (with the 
same Paschal Terms as, but beginning three years 
later than, the decemnovennal) were prefixed to the 
dates of the 14th-moons ; and lunar days added to the 
Easters. The so-called Prologue, which imposed upon „, , 
every writer on Paschal subjects from Petavius to Ideler, of, 
Mommsen and De Kossi, is now proved to be a fabri- «P^^rious, 
cation^ of probably Spanish origin, dating from the 
seventh century. A similar patchwork of the same i^-^^-^ 
attribution, but of Irish authorship, the Epistle of Cyrillan 
Cyril, will be dealt with in due course. forgery. 

The fourth was Dionysius^, a Scythian, and monk of a Dionysius 
Eoman monastery. In 526, when six years of the Cyriilan 



^ Letters. — Supra, p. li., note 4. 

- Fabrication. — The exposure, a 
model of its kind, is due to i)r. Bruno 
Krusch {Der 84jahriye Ostercyclus, 
etc., Leipzig, 1880, p. 89 sq.). 

■^ Dionysius. — Fuit enim nostris 
temporibusetDionysiusmonachus, 
Scytha natione, sed moribus om- 
nino Romanus, . . . Qui mecum 
dilecticam legit (Cassiodorus : De 
Instit. divinar. litterar. c. xxiii. 
P. L. LXX. 1137). 

Bade was apparently the first to 
call him abbot (abbas Romanae 
urbis, De temp. rat. xlvii ) ; but 
his fellow-student, who survived 
him, we may be sure, was well 



aware of his monastic position. 
Perhaps, as Jan suggests {P.L. 
LXVII, 519), the title was honor- 
ific, as in the Rule of St. Colum- 
banus, which mentions 1000 ab- 
bots under one archimandrite (c. vii. 
P. L. LXXX. 213). 

The greeting of the first epistle 
is : Domino beatissimo et multum 
desideratissimo [!] patri, Petronio 
episcopo, Dionysius exiguus ; of the 
second: Plurimum venerandis 
Bonifacio, primicerio notariorum et 
Bono, secundicerio, Dionysius exi- 
guus salutem (Pet., De doc. temp. 
II. 498-9; P. L. LXVII. 483, 
513). 



Ivi 



INTRODUCTION, 



textual 
falsifica- 
tion by, 



Table were still to run, he drew up five 19-year cycles, ^ 
from 532 to 626. Prefixed were two explanatory epistles 
and appended the Proterian Letter on the Easter of 455 
in a Latin version and Egyptian computistic Rules. The 
opening sentence of the first epistle contains one of the 
most audacious falsifications^ on record. In elucidating 



So, likewise, in five of his other 
prefatory' epistles {P.L. LXVII. 9, 
139, 231, 345, 407). Perhaps be- 
cause addressed to an abbot, the 
sixth salutation has not the ad- 
jective (<6. 417). 

Whence, by a ludicrous blunder, 
he has been styled DionysiusExiguus 
(not, however, by Bede), Denys le 
Petit, Dionysius tkc Little! The 
word, the context shows, is used in 
the self-depreciatory sense peculiar 
to correspondence, denoting quality 
of mind not body. Statura pusillus, 
exiguus meritis, St. Ambrose had 
distinguished long before. As well 
may the terms be applied to his 
contemporary, the Carthaginian 
Deacon, because, in the saluta- 
tions of his fourth and sixth 
Epistles, he styled himself Ferran- 
dus exiguus {P.L. LXVII. 908, 
921) ; or to St. Boniface, because 
he subscribed : Hoc autem indicu- 
lum sacramenti ego, Bonifacius exi- 
guus, manu propria subscripsi 
{Neues Archiv der Gesell. fiir alt. 
deutsche Gschtsknde., IX. 24). 

'^Cycles. — All the Dionysian works 
mentioned in the text are best 
given in the Historia Cycli Diony- 
siani (Wittemb. 1718 ; reprinted, 
P. L. LXVII. 453-520), a most 
valuable little work, based on MS. 
materials : cycles, (/'. L. LXVII.) 
495-8 (with final Cvrillan cycle. An, 
Diocl. 229-247, «.e.A.D. 513-31, pre- 
fixed, 493-4) ; first epistle, 483-94; 
second, .'• 13-20 ; Proterian Letter, 
Í.07-14 ; Egyptian Rules, 497-508. 
Jan'ssuspicionthat,of the Rules, 
§§ 11-16, both inclusive (503-8), 
were later additions is fully con- 
firmed by the Vatican MS. 5755, 
Mhich has, after § 10 : Finiunt 
art/umenfa paschalium titulorum 
(fol. 2b. Zimmer : Gloss. Hih. 260). 



According to Krusch, Cassio- 
dorus most earnestly recommended 
the Pinax, or Easter Table, of 
Dionysius to his monks. " Cassiodor 
in den ' Inst, divin. litt.' seinen 
Monchen den ' Pinax ' des Diony- 
sius — so werden Ostertafeln schon 
vom 3 Jahrh. an genannt — , angele- 
gentlichst empfiehlt" {Neues Ar- 
chiv^ etc., IX. 113). This is an 
aggravated case of work at second- 
hand, which Riihl (Chrofiologie, 
etc., 1897, p. 131), improves upon 
by giving c.^xxiii. of the Inst. div. 
litt. as the authority. 

The chapter in question is xxv., 
headed Cosmoyraphia a monachis 
legenda (P. L. LXX. 1139-40) ; 
Dionysius is Periegetes, the geo- 
grapher. After recommending 
the lihellus of Julius Orator and 
Marcellinus'four libelli, descriptive 
of Constantinople and Jerusalem, 
the text has : Deinde Pinacem 
Dionysii discite breviter compre- 
hensum, ut quod auribus in supra- 
dicto libro percipitis, pene oculis 
intuentibus videre possitis. 
Falsifications. 



Proterius. 
(Pet. III. 498, 
col. 1.) 
Beatissimi pa- 
tres nostri [A- 
lexandrini] cy- 
clum decem- 
novennalem cer- 
tius afiBgentes, 
quem violari im- 
possibile est, ve- 
lut crepidinem 
ac f undamentum 
et regulam, hunc 
decemnovenna- 
lem compotum 
statuerunt. 



Dionysius. 
(Pet. 11. 498, 
col. 2). 
Sequentes per 
omnia venera- 
bilium coo. X. 
et viii. ponti- 
ficum, qui apud 
Nicaeam, civita- 
tem Bithyniae 
. . . conven- 
erunt, etiam rei 
huius absolutam 
veramque sen- 
tentiam, qui 
quartas decimas 
lunas Paschalis 



observantiae x. et ix. annorum 



INTRODUCTION. 



Ivii 



the Easter method, he'follows,- he states, in all things 
the decree of the 318 Nicene Pontiffs, who composed a 
decemnovennal cycle of Paschal 14th-moons, to last for 
ever, — a rule sanctioned by them, not so much owing to 
secular knowledge, as to illumination of the Holy Spirit. 
This is taken from the Proterian Letter, with 318 
Nicene Pontiffs substituted for our most blessed [Alex- ^yj^ich im- 
andrine] Fathers of the original ! The attempt thus posed on 
made by Dionysius and laboured to the utmost by Bede ^®^®- 
to make the Alexandrine Cycle infallible, it has to be 
observed in passing, was frustrated in advance by the 
Conciliar and Papal testimony hereinafter cited. 

Dionysius employed the Incarnation^ years instead of 
those of Diocletian. Where he found them presents ^P^^^ 
little difficulty. Why the 95 years do not perfectly dating. 
repeat themselves arises, according to him, from the 
Concurrents^. These form a 7-year circuit, wherein you 
add 1 in common, and 2 in leap, years. Thus demon- 
strably io^norant of the solar cycle of 28 (7 X 4), Dionysius , 

'JO J \ /' ^ Ignorance 

was still less acquainted with the luni-solar of 532 (28 x of 
19) and could not have determined the Incarnationyears Dionysius, 
by proleptic application of a system unknown to him. The 
A.D. he verified by reference to a Consular Catalogue, 
such as the Fasti of the Chronography of 3Ó4, contain- 
ing an entry^ of the Nativity. So little, in fact, did he 



redeuntem semper in se circulum 
stabiles immotasque fixerunt. 

Cette decision n'a jamais existe ; 
c'est Denys qui I'a deduite, par une 
exégése habile, de la lettre de Protere 
d'Alexaiidrie au pape Saint Leon 
sur la question pascale {Liber Ponti- 
ficalis, ed. Duchesne, Paris, 1886, 
p. Ixiv.). 

^ Incarnation. — Nolumus circulis 
nostris memoriam impii et persecu- 
toris innectere,sed magis elegimus 
ab Incarnatione Dni, nri. lesu 
Christi anuorum tempora pra?notare 
(Pet. II. 498). 

'•^ Concurrents. — Concurrentium 
autem hebdomadum ratio, quae de 
solis cursu provenit, septeno anno- 



rum iugi circuitu terminatur. In 
quo per annos singulos unum 
numerare curabis ; in eo tantum- 
modo auno in quo bissextus fuerit, 
duos adiicies : quae causa etiam 
facit ut non per omnia circulus 
iste xcv. annorum concordari vide- 
atur {ib. p. 499,\ 

^ Entry. — Caesare et Paulo, 
Sat., [luna] xiii. Hoc [His] Cons. 
Dns. Ihs. Chrs. natus est, viii. kl. 
Ian., die Ven., luna xv. {Abhndlngn. 
der Eon. Sack. Gesell. der Wiss. I. 
618 ; Mon. Ger. His. : Scriptores 
Antiquiss. IX., Chronica Minora, 
Fasti consular es, p. 56. Two edi- 
tions of the Fasti of the Chrono- 
graphy of 354 by Mommsen.) 



Iviii 



INTRODUCTION. 



and of 
Leo. 



regard his so-called discovery, that lie did not avail of 
it for current use: the year before he wrote and the 
year in which he wrote he identified (not as 525 and 
526 of Incarnation, but) as of Indiction^ 3 and 4. 
Felix, In 616, eleven years before the expiry of the Diony- 

ignorance ^^^^ Table, an abbot Felix ^ added 95 years, to run from 
627 to 721. But he knew nothing of a great cycle of 
532. Writing on Paschal computation in 626, a monk 
Leo ^ showed a notable improvement ^ on the know- 
ledge of Dionysius, in assigning the solar cycle of 28 
as the obstacle to the Theophilan 100 years and the 
Cyrillan 95 forming perfect cycles ; yet was not led 
thereby to combine 28 and 19. The first mention of 
532 in connexion with the system occurs in a letter on 
Pasch and tonsure, addressed in 710 by Coelfrid, 
abbot of Jarrow, to Naiton, king of the Picts, given 
and most likely revised by Bede.^ 

Finally, Bede states ^ that himself composed a great 
cycle from A.D. 532 to 1063. His scholiast, Bronchorst 
(Noviomagus), carried it back to A.D. 1 and forward to 



Bede. 



^ Indiction — PrKsentis anni 
[A.D. 526] monstremus exemplum, 
Indictio quippe iv. est. . . . 
Transacto anno [A.D. 525], Indic- 
tione hi. (Pet. II. 500.) 

2 Felix. — The short preface and 
not much longer prologue are best 
given by Krusch {Der 84jahrige 
Ostercyclus, p. 207-8). 

•^ Leo. — The letter is given, for 
the first time, by Krusch, from a 
Cologne MS., written before 819 
{ilU sup. p. 298-302). 

^ Improvemeut. — Illi tamen 
cycli qui ab eisdem [Theophilo, 
scil. et Cyrillo] sunt editi iam sua 
tempora cucurrerunt, et revolu- 
tion is stabilem per omnia cursum 
non observant Et non immerito, 
quia lunaris cursus, suum ordines 
[sui ordinis] metas x. et viiii. con- 
summans annis, in semet reverti- 
tur ; Solaris vero, quia cursu lunari 
velocior [!] est, per xxviii. annos 



efficaci discursu gx'aditur, st sic in 
semet, xxviii. expletis annis, rever- 
titur. Ex quo fit ut, dum similem 
solis lunaeque cursum observant, 
circulorum revolutionis tempora 
discordant (Krusch, uhi sup., p. 
300). 

^ Bede. — Quibus [Dionysii cir- 
culis] termino appropinquantibus, 
tanta hodie calculatorum exuberat 
copia. ut etiam in nostris per 
Brittaniam eeclesiis plures sint 
(j[ui, mandatis memoriae verteribus 
illis Aegyptiorum argumentis, fa- 
cillime possint in quotlibet spatia 
temporum paschales protendere 
circulos, etiamsi ad d. usque et 
xxxii. voluerint annos ; quibus 
expletis, omnia quae ad solis et 
lunae, mensis et septimanae, con- 
sequentiam spectant eodem quo 
prius ordine recurrunt(//^.£. v. 21.) 

*" States. — Placuit eundem plena- 
rio ordine circulum praesenti opus- 



INTRODUCTION. 



iix 



1595, in 84 19-37'ear cycles. These 84, he bids it be 
known, can be arranged in a cycle of 532, with a triple 
series of years. In the Dubious and Spurious 
Didascalics appended^ to the Genuine Didascalics 
of Bede, are 86 19-year cycles from A.D. 1 to A.D. 
1638 (i.e. with two cycles, 1596 — 1633, added by another 
hand), and (presumably by Noviomagus) 3 Great Cycles, 
in parallel columns, from B.C. 1 to A.D. 1595, — 
all swarming with typographical errors throughout. 
Bronchorst rashly foretold^ that, after 1595, there would 
not be wanting studious persons to prolong the cycle. 
The prophecy was fulfilled before the time and in the Alexan- 
manner he least intended. In 1582, the continuation ^""® 
was drawn up on modified solar and lunar principles, modified. 
under the title of the Gregorian or New Style. 



With reference to the Paschal Mundane Eras and the Paschal 
so-called Lunar Cycles, Alexandrine and Byzantine, Mundane 
the following Table will serve for explanation. The Alex- Lunar 
andrine Decemnovennal Cycle (A) is the standard, the Cycles. 
Golden Nos. of B, C, D being accommodated thereto. 

(G.N., Golden No.; Ep., Epact; P.T., Paschal Term; 
P.M., Paschal (Term) Moon; L.P., Legal Pasch'; 
L.M., Legal (Pasch) Moon.) 



culo prseponere, sumpto exordio a 
dxxxii. Incarnationis anno, ubi 
primum Dionysius circulum coepit, 
et perducto opere usque ad mlxiii. 
eiusdem sacrosanctae Incarna- 
tionis annum (De temp. rat. Ixv. ). 
^ Appended. — Migne, P.L. XC. 
826-78. 



'^ Foretold. — Perfecimus autem 
ut essent ab initio Incarnationis 
Dominicae usque ad an. [1]600 
[1595], quo exacto non deerunt et 
alii studiosi qui eumdem ad suam 
quoque jetatem et longiorem pro- 
ducent (Z)e temp, rat., not. ad c. 
Ixv.). 



[Table 



Ix 



INTRODUCTION. 

M 



LUNAR CYCLES. 

c 




INTRODUCTION. 



Ixi 



B is the Rota^ at A.D. 344 in the Paschal Chronicle. 



Rota, 



The G.N. is the outer circle; Ep., the next; L.P., the i9-year, 
innermost. The last is likewise given in Syro-Mace- ?? 
donian and Egyptian month-days, enabling some few 
errors^ of transcription in the Roman notation to be cor- 
rected. The Ep. is also in a previous Paschal Chronicle (of 
Rota^, 5492—5510. The outer circuit has the A.M. ; 5492-5510) 
the inner, under each year, (a) solar epact, (6) lunar 
epact, (c) ferial of Sep. 1 (=a), (d) lunar day of c 
(which cannot be reconciled with b), (e) Bissextile at 
6th, 10th, 14th, and 18th years (the B. of the second 
year being omitted). The A.M. represents B.C. 1 — 
A.D. 18, in the Alexandrine Era; B.C. 17— xi.D. 2, in 
the Byzantine ; A.D. 11 — 29, according to a and c ! The 
solar data are consequently unreliable. 

Not so the luni-solar. (1) 5493 being A.D. 1, and G, ^. 
No. 2, this A.M. computation is called the Alexandrine, Alexan- 
because its Golden Nos. are the same as the A.D. ^^i"?^^' 

origin 01. 

Nos. of that system. It was employed by Anianus, as 
shown in the instance already quoted of 5816 = (532 
X 10) + 496 ; the last no. having moon 14 on March 
25, and Easter on March 29, in the Paschal Tome. In 
other words, A.M. 5816 and A.D. 324 are II. ED. The 
originator, Panodorus, wrote between 395 and 408, 
whilst Athanasius composed his first Festal Epistle for 
329. The Mundane calculation, it would thus appear, 
was based on the Paschal. 

(2) 5509 is Byzantine A.D. 1, G. No. 18, correspond- 
ing to the Alexandrine 5493, G. No. 2, of the Rota. ByzStine 
The two solar and lunar systems accordingly difter by Era, 
16 years; No. 19 = 3, 20 (sol.), 1 (lun.) = 4, and so on. °"g"^ °^- 



^ Hota.—C.ILB. , ly. 230. See 
p. XX vi., supra. 

'^ Errors. — They are (references 
to Golden Nos. of B.; corrections in 
brackets) : — 

III. Dystrus 24 (22) ; Pha- 
menoth 29 (26). 

V. 4 Id. (3 Kal.) Apr. : i.e. 
Ap. 10 (March 30). 



VI. 14 Kal. Mar. (Mai) ; 
Feb. 16 (Ap. 18). 
IX. 17 Kal. Mar. (Mai) ; 
Feb. 13 (Ap. 15). 
XI. Phamenoth 22 (28). 
XIV. 12 Kal. Mar. (Apr.) ; 
Feb. 19 (Mar. 21). 
XVII. 15 Kal. Mar. (Mai); 
Feb. 15 (Ap. 17). 
^Bota.— a H.B.,IY. 158. 



Ixii 



INTRODUCTION. 



c, 

Jtota of 
Fetrine 
Paschal 
Tract. 



Rules to 

compute 

P.T. and 

L.M. 



differ- 
ences 
between 
A and B 

A and C. 



If, as there is no reason to doubt, B dates back to 344!, 
this Mundane computation is older than the Alexan- 
drine. The central inscription shows how the 16-year 
interval was deviated from in the Rota B. 5852 is 
given as the terminal^ year. This is accurate ; the 
A.M., divided by 28 and 19, leaving 0. The year, it is 
erroneously added, is likewise an initial,^ and the 
Rota is drawn up accordingly. In other words, the 
year is made to end on the day on which it should 
commence. 

The correspondence with A is correct in C, the 
lunar Rota^ of the pseudonymous Petrine tract pre- 
fixed to the Paschal Chronicle. In the outer circuit, 
are {a) the Golden Nos. ; in the next, (b) the Roman 
months of the L. P. ; in the third, (c) the days of h ; 
in the innermost, (cZ) the epacts of Jan. 1. 

The P. M. is the Epact + the P. T. (less 1 in March) - 
30: e.g. L, 9 + 5 = 14; II., 20 + (25-l)-30 = 14. The 
L.M.Ms the Epact + the L. P. (plus 1 in April) -30: 
e.g. B XVIIL, 7 + 64-1 = 14; XIX., 18 + 26-30 = 14. 
Consequently, though not having a single epact in 
common, A and B had the same Paschal Terms, same 
Easters, and same Easter lunar days, with two 
exceptions : B XVIII. E gave (4) Easters on April 13, 
instead of the April 6 of A; B XIX. A, (4) Easters on 
April 2, instead of the March 26 of A. On the other 
hand, although C had the same epacts (save, owing to 
the Saltus, in XVII. , XVIII., XIX.) and the same 



^ Terminal. — 'iiKHwduariQ ovv 
Tfit: 'tvviaKaidtKatrijpidog toXq Xsx" 
Qsiai xpóvoig Kai íttí twv \tx9svT(ov 
vTrÚTwv. {C.H.B. IV. 230). 

-Initial. — IlaXiv 67ri to Trpwrov 
tTog avTTÍc, avkSpafis [rj IvvsuKaiSe- 
KaiTijpiQ] Tg Ka' tov Mapriov iA.rivog 
{ib.). 

-^ Rota.— C.H.B. lY. 13. Section 
IV, (omitted by the scribe from the 
Jtota) is placed over III. In line 3 
of the central Inscription, (cat tlalv 
i9' is rendered in the two editions 
of Du Cange (Paris ed. p. 1 5 ; C.H.B. 



p. 13) and in the reprint (p. 26) 
sunt autem XXIX ! 

^L.M. — Derived from the Paschal 
Chronicle. To the epact are to be 
added 7 antelunars {rrpoatXrfvoi : i.e. 
March 1-7 ; earliest new-moon 
being M. 8), 13 anteluminars {irpb 
TWV (puxTTÍpojv : M. 8-20 ; M. 21 
being first day of the Paschal year), 
and current day of March or April. 
From the sum 30 is to be deducted. 
{C.H.B. IV. p. 61, 160, 169, 172, 
173 (bis), 177, 813.) 



INTRODUCTION. 



Ixiii 



Paschal incidence as A, the L. P. rule caused the 
Easter lunar days, with the exceptions named, to be 
16—22. 

Considering the uncompromising attitude of the insertion 
Alexandrines, a system that extorted their official q£ q'-^^ ^^ 
recognition must needs have had influential support, motive of. 
Under the circumstances, it was ingenious to insert 
only the Golden Nos. of the Byzantine in the Alexand- 
rine cycle, as if the divergence extended no farther. 
But that the difference was not unknown in the West 
is proved by the first letter of Pope Leo to Marcian on 
the Easter of 455, in which he requests the emperor to 
cause his scruple to be removed by the Egyptians, or 
others, if such there were, having knowledge of the 
supputation. 

As regards the East, D is one of the proofs that the d, 
device did not secure uniformity. The G. No. is col. 3 ?^^^ 

1 n I 0777 Tilt - 

of the left-hand Table under the solar Rotd^ in Part II. tus of 
of the Computus of Maximus; the Ep., col. 4; the ^aximus, 
months of L. P. are col. 3 of the right-hand Table ; the 
days, col. 4. Maximus states'-^ the users employed the 
outer (F) circle of his 28-year Rota. This identifies 
the system as Byzantine. As the chapter devoted by 
him to the confutation is, to a large extent, textually de- 
fective, and the marks^ therein mentioned as denoting 
the grades of divergence are not found in the Rota circles 
referred to, no adequate result is attainable by tabular differences 
reduction. But the L. P. rule obtained. For XVI. is ^^^'^^!'' 



1 Rota.— Vet. III., Uranol. p. 183. 

^States. — Ata tovto de Kara 
fikv TO TrpuJTOv kvkXov airb y' Kai t', 
Kara rov d' dk 'arro irpoJTOV tú kt}' 
Tov ijXiov KareTayTjaay trrj, 'iva 
fú(TT]ixei(jJTov yivrjrai . . <j)g to 
Trap' iKUvoig -il/Tiipii^ofievov a' . . . 
■nao' rjixiv laTi y' Kai i . Kai to /3', i' 
Kai i' , K. T. X. (ih. 184.) 

Petavius renders Kara tov 5' 
in secundo, instead of secundum 



quartum; the circle in question 
being the fourth of the Rota on his 
preceding page (183). The equiva- 
lence can be verified in Table C : 1 
of F-cycle = 13 of G-cycle, 2 = 14, 
etc. Vice versa, 1 G = 17 F; 2 = 18, 
etc. 

" Marks. — They (most probably, 
points) were : 1, denoting m. 16-22, 
with E. before L.P., in leap-years ; 

2, denoting same in common years ; 

3, for m. 17-23 (cap. 11. p. 184). 



Ixiv INTRODUCTION. 

given as an example^ of the L. P. on April 17, moon 16 
{i.e., 28 +17 + 1 — 30). The year in question, we are 
told, had April 16 on Sunday; whence, it is stated, the 
Christian Pasch was fixed before the Jewish. Cele- 
brations accordingly took place on the L. P., when it 
fell on Sunday. Elsewhere, the Easter is said to be 
on the 23rd- of the moon. 

D thus presents two peculiar Paschal Terms; Easter 
on the Alexandrine Paschal Term ; and three series of 
Paschal lunar days, 15—21, 16—22, 17—23. Were it 
worth while, a Table embodying these principles could 
be readily compiled. 
A.D. 546, We have now an explanation of the entry in 
two East- Theophanes,^ which has hitherto baffled solution, rela- 
tive to the Easter of 546. The people of Constanti- 
nople were to celebrate on April 1; the emperor 
decided for April 8. The year was XV. G in A : Easter 
Term, Ap. 1, Easter, April 8; XII. G in D : Easter 
Term and Easter, April 1. 
B zantine ^ decadc before Maximus wrote. Western* advocacy, 
system misled apparently by the Lunar Cycle section of the 
Dionysian cycles, had declared that, except amongst 
a few on the extreme bounds of the earth, the de- 
cemnovennal system was universal. But, for all their 
isolation, some of those in the remotest isles of the 

1 Example. — The computation is runt, et nemo emebat aut edebat. 

made by rules connected with the Porro Pascha factum est ut im- 

Saltus of D in the eleventh year, perator jussit, et inventus est 

which it is unnecessary to set populus jejunans hebdoniada 

forth. superiiua {Ber. Italicar. Scrip- 

-23rd.— 'EKoJv t) diaaroXrj yiviTai tores, ed. Muratorius, Mediolani, 

Tutv iv oIq sUádi /3', Kai tv oIq iiKUdi 1723. I. 108E, 109A). 



known in 
the West. 



y' {uln sup. p. 184, col. 2, 11. 49-51). 
=* Theophanes.—C.H.B. VI. p. 
151. The passage is thus rendered 
in the Miscella: Anno imperii 
Justiniani decimo nono . . . ever- 
sio die sancto Paschae et coepit 
vulgus abstinere a carnibus mense 
Februarii die quarto. Imperator 
autem praecepit alia hebdomada 
carnem apponi, et omnes carnium 



Feb. 4 was the beginning of the 
Eastern Lent (i.e. the Western 
Sexagesima Sunday) for Easter on 
April 1. The disregard of Jus- 
tinian's decree not to commence 
until Feb. 11 had the result that 
the people had to fast, in addition, 
during the first week of April ; the 
Imperial Easter falling on the 8th. 

■* Western. — Letter of Honorius 



venditores occiderunt et apposue- to the Irish (Bede, H.E. II. 19). 



INTRODUCTION. ixV 

ocean came to learn of the existence of another. 
Just two centuries later, they went to the Eastern 
capital to acquire full^ and accurate comprehension of 
the Paschal ^method there followed. 

The earliest cycle of Western origin consisted of 84 Western 
years. The solar portion was made up of three cycles ^y^^^^ '• 
of 28. 0/84! 

The cyclic technique is : — • technique, 

Six Saltus complete the month and the cycle. 
In luni-solar equation:— equations, 

84 Julian years = 30,681 days. 
(354idaysx84) + 924 epacts = 30,681 days. 
In mathematical : — 

1039 synodical lunations = 30,682d., 6h., 47m., 
57s. ; exceeding the cyclic sum hy 30 hours. Hence, 
at the beginning of every cycle after the first, the error. 
Calendar new and full moons of 84 were one day 
and a quarter in advance of the true. 
The great advantage of the cycle lay in the fact that, in advan- 
addition to being tolerably accurate, the ferial and ^^8® ^^' 
Paschal recurrence, unlike that of cycles whereof 
the lunar portion was decemnovennal, was the same 
every 85th year : making the Cycle perpetual. 
To obviate a bimestral period of only 53 days, the method of 
Saltus, as in the Hippolytan and Cyprianic Cycles, was Saltus in. 
inserted at intervals. The most natural distribution 
would be every 14th year (84 ~ 6). This was adopted in 84 
the older cycle. A less congruous method would be 
every 12th year. This was the characteristic of the more 84 (12). 
recent cycle. The first Cycle may be called the 84; 
the second, the 84 (12). 

That the Cycle which formed the subject of the Irish ir.sh 
Paschal controversy brought to a close in 716 was of Cycle,— 
84 years, is proved from Columbanus,^ who mentions it 84, 

^ Full, etc. — "Evifca . . TtKuaq rl I meae,iuxtado[ctrinara]etcalculum 
Toi) TraerxaXtoi; (coi ^ aKpi^ovq koto- Ixxxiv. annorum et Anatolium. . . . 
Xrii/EidQ ( Vita Chrysost. Ussher, Pascha celebrare, quam iuxta Vic- 
Wks. iv. .356). j toriuni (Ep. ii., ad Patres Gallic- 

'^ Columbanus. — Sed confiteor . . i anae synocli de questione Pasehae 
quod plus credo traditioni patriae ' congregatae, P. L. LXXX. 266). 

/ 



Ixvi INTRODUCTION. 

expressly as that observed by bis countrymen ; Cum- 
mian\ who \vrote against it; and Bede, who states it 
was followed b}^ the Britons-, the Irish^, the community 
of lona^, those sent"' by the Irish to evangelize in Eng- 
land and their converts^ It is further identified by 
not 84 two characteristics, attested by independent evidence. 
The Britons and Irish, Bede writes", celebrated from the 
14th to the 20th of the moon, — which calculation is 
contained in a cycle of 84 years. The spurious 
Anatoli iis^ placed the Saltus of his 19-year C3'cle in the 
14th, instead of the 19th, year, — being the position with 
which he was most familiar. The 84 (12), as will be 
seen, had Easter from the 16th to the 22nd of the moon, 
and the Saltus in every 12th year. The 84 is thus 
shown to have been the Cycle used by the Irish, 
no Table Of the 84 (12), many Tables are preserved. Of the 
of known, g^.^ ^^ ^^^ other hand, so completely, outside the 
remotest parts of "Western Christendom, did the cycle 
fall into disuse and oblivion, no Table, to our present 
knowledge, has been handed down. Under the circum- 
stances, it may be deemed not inappropriate that a 
system so tenaciously adhered to in the Early Irish 
Church should be reconstructed^ from data set forth in 



^ Cummian. — Anatolium, quern 
vos extoUitis quidem \j'erte, qui 
(licit] ad veram Paschae rationem 
nunquam pervenire eosqui cyclum 
Ixxxiv. annorum observant (Ep. 



14, M. 25 ; E., Jf.28, m. 16 (Krusch, 
tibi sup., p. 290). The true lection, 
according to Krusch, " must have 
been" : ep. 19 ; m. 14, 71/. 26 ; E., 
M. 28, m. 16 rpp. 7, 9, 175). To 



ad Segienum et Beccanum, Ussher, ! this Augustalis he attributes the 

Veter. Ep. Hih. sylloge, xi. \Yks., I Latercus of the Munich Computus ; 

iv. 4401. dates it 213—312 (pp. 12, 13), and 

'^ Bnton'<.—K. E. II., 2, 4. reconstructs it (p. 10—17), with a 

■A Irish.— 'E. E. II., 4, 19 : III-, table (p. 17—19), from data given 

3, 17 ; v., 15. in the latter. 

4/o,irt.— H. E. III., 4; v., 22, But the Carthaginian does not 

'-> Sent. — H. E. III., 17, 25. > write at random : he quotes text- 

^ Converts. — H. E. III., 160 ; V., | ually (sicut ipse suo adloquio pro- 

19. j fitetur, p. 290), and appeals to 

"^Writer. — H. E. II., 2, 4. I ocular testimony (perfacile est 

^ AnatoUus. — See p. cxxv. infra. | ... oculis (juoque testibus 

^Reconstructed. — A Carthagi- | conprobare") to prove that 

nian Computus of 455 mentions an j Augustalis gave a Passion day, 

Augustalis as having composed a | quod omtiino nullatenus congruit 

Paschal Table of 84, the first year i veritati (p. 290). The data thus 

of which had : Jan. 1, c;>. 20 ; m. vouched for are said, nevertheless, 



I 



INTRODUCTION. 



Jxvii 



the work of an Irishman, — data all the more reliable from 
the fact that they receive ample confirmation from the 
most trustworthy independent sources. 

The Munich Latin Codexi, 14,456 (Em. E. 72), is a 
hihliotheca, or miscellany, of various contents and dates, 
hitherto best known as containing the so-called Greater 
Annals of St. Emnierani of Batishon, published in the 
Monumentar Germanics Historica. From folio 8a to 
folio 46a is occupied by a ComjoiUtis^ of St. Augustine, St- 
Jerome, St. Isidore, St. Dionysius, St. Cyril, Greece, and 
others. The writing space is 7J inches long by 4^ in 
width ; ruled in 24 lines, in the damp, and bounded on 
each side by a space defined by two lines a quarter of an 
inch apart, the outer line of the outside column being 
drawn on the punctures made by the ruling guides. 
The material is so fine (herein much resembling the 
Marianus Scotus MS. in the Vatican), that the long heavy 
up and down strokes not infrequently appear on the op- 
posite side of the folio, sometimes to such an extent, 
that, in the photographic reproduction, the reading is 
rendered obscure. 

The script is Caroline Minuscule^. It was the work of an 



recon- 
structed 
from 
Munich 

Computus 

Codex of 

described: 

structure, 

script, — 
prepara- 
tion for, 



character 
of. 



to have been those of the 17th 
year of the Table of the Carthagi- 
nian (pp. 17o, 290) ! A theory 
based on what the propounder at- 
tributes to the computist in ques- 
tion, " subjective view rather than 
certain matter of fact " (p. 8), can 
hardly claim serious notice. 

^ Codex. — Described in terms 
that convey no adequate idea of the 
nature of the contents in the Archiv 
der Gesell. far (iltere Deutsche Gsch- 
tsknde (Hanover, 1824, V. 51 5— 19). 
From this the brief account in 
the Moil. Ger. Hist, is taken. 

The Vatican Codex, 5755, already 
mentioned, (p. Ivi.) has Irish glosses 
on fol, 2a, b, c {Glossae Hihernicae, 
ed. Zimmer, Berlin, 1881, p. 259- 
61). The contents of 2c are given 
on fol. 46b of the Munich MS., 
which is thus shown to contain 
the Argument a Paschalia, begin- 
ning with § 14 of the Bist. Cyc. 



Dion, edition {P. L. LXVII. 505). 
To set forth the omissions, and 
corruptions of the V. text as dis- 
covered by collation with M. would 
leqiiire parallel columns. 

'^ Monumenta. — Vol. 1. (Hanover, 
1826), p. 92-3. As the greater 
Annals occupy not quite two 
pages and the minor (ib,, p. 93-4), 
still less space, Minores & Minimi 
would more accurately respectively 
designate them. 

•' Computus. — Compotus sci. 
Augustini, sci. Hieron., sci. Ysi- 
dori, sci. Dyonisii, sci. Quirilli, 
Greciae et ceterorum (fol. 8, 1. 1-3, 
written in capitals). 

■* xMinuscide. — For the peculi- 
arities of Caroline script, see Palae- 
ographical Societ3''s Facsimiles of 
Ancient JAS^". , Series L, pi. 123 
(from another MS. of St. Emmeram, 
Ratisbon) ; Ser. II., Part IV., pi. 
67 ; Part V. , pi. 90 ; and Fac- 

/2 ~ 



Ixviii 



INTRODUCTION. 



title mis 
leading ; 



expert penman, but of one whose illiteracy in Latin was 
on a par with that of the scribe who (in the same, but 
largerand coarser, hand) incorporated^ in the text of the 
Irish Collection of Canons part of an Irish homily that 
History of chanced to be lying in his exemplar. An Irish pilgrim, 
CoTnputm, possibly the author, carried the Computus with him and 
either donated the work to, or allowed it to be copied in, 
the monastery of St. Emmeram, of Regensburg (Batis- 
bon), whence it was brought to Munich. 

The work is a medley of computistic data, cast 
for the greater part in the mediaeval form of 
Interrogation and Response. The ambitious title is, 
to say the least, misleading ; the slight foundation 
being that detached sentences are attributed to the 
sources indicated. Augustiiie is the Irish author of 
the De inirahilihus Sacrae Scripturae ; Cyril, the 
pseudo-Cyril already mentioned; the Alexandrines 
are denoted by Greece. 

The first 24 sections loosely correspond with, and have 
pretty much the same value as, the Bookr on the divi- 
sions of Times in the Dubious and Spurious Didascalics 
in Bede. Of the bulk of the contents, the chiefs are : 
the year (seasons), sun, bissextile, moon and epacts, 
Easter, embolism, Saltus, and cycles. 

That the author was Irish, appears from internal evi- 
dence. " The days'* of the whole year," he lays down, 
'' are common to the epacts " {i.e., epacts can be reckoned 



contents, 



author 
Irish : 



similes of Biblical MSS. in the 
British Museum, 1900, Plates xiv., 
XV., xvi. 

* Incorporated. — Die /rische Ka- 
nonensammlung, ed. Wassersch- 
leben, 2 Auf. (Leipzig, 1885), p. 
70-1. 

- /iool'.— Migne, P. L. XC. 653- 
62. 

=' C/tte/.— Year, fol. 17a, 1. 7— 
18a, 1. 11 ; Sim, 18a, 1. 12-20b, 1. 
18; bissextile, 20b, 1. 19— 23a, 1. 
12 ; moon, 25a, 1. 17— 26a, 1. 21 
(from 25b, 1. 16 to 26a, 1. 3, is a 
chap, on the four parts of the uorld, 
inserted in connexion with tlie 
moon) ; epacts, 26a, 1. 22 — 30b, 1. 



16 ; Easter, 30b, 1. 17— 39b, 1. 18; 
42b, 1. 21— 44a, 1. 6 (which second 
part is misplaced) ; embolism, 39b, 
1. 18— 40a, 1. 18 ; Saltus, 40a, 1. 
18— 42b, 1. 21 ; cycles, 44a, 1. 6 
(title omitted)— 46a, 1. 19 (end of 
tract). 

•* The. days, etc. — Communes sunt 
totius anni dies aepactis, sed 
tamen Greci in xi. Kal. Apr. legi- 
time, Romani vero in Kal. Ian. 
epactas eiumierant. Unde Romani, 
nee minus Scotti, in Kal. Ian. 
Grecorum observationes sepactas 
rimantur. I line ab viii[i.] .singu- 
laii in Kal. Ian. itjpactas incipi- 
mus (fol. 26b, 1. 7-12). 



iNTfeOJDUCTIoN. IxiX 

from any day) ; " but the Greeks rightly count epacts 
from March 22. The Romans, however, numerate the 
epacts on Jan. 1. Wherefore, the Romans and not less 
the Irish compute " (a proleptic equivalent of) " the 
Greek observances on Jan. 1. Hence, we commence 
the epacts from the viii[i].th day " (of the moon) " on 
Jan. 1." That we meant the Irish, not the Romans, 
is proved by the following : — 

(1) Singularis, employed throughout with the nume- proofi of, 
ral adjectives to denote from the first to the ninth of the 
moon, inclusive, is a literal equivalent of the native 
uathad, oneness, singularity, used in the same way and 

with the same computistic meaning. 

(2) The Acts of the Council of Ccesarea, an Iri.\h 
fabrication, are cited^ and given as source- under the 
title TheopMlus ( which imposed upon Bede) ; whilst 
the opening is quoted anonymously,^ in a short 
recension. 

(3) The first* month, we are informed, begins, accord- 
ing to the Egyptians, on Faminoth = March 26, i.e. 7th 
of the Kalends of April ; according to the Macedonians, 
Distri = March 22 = 11th of the Kalends of April; accord- 
ing to the Romans, March 25, i.e., 8th of the Kalends of 
April. Such identity of such absurdity reveals at a 
glance the spurious Irish Anatolius as the source. 

(4) The Epistle of Cyril, another forgery of native 
origin (which likewise passed for genuine with Bede), is 
quoted, once with,^ once without,^ the name of the 
alleged writer. 



1 Cited.— Yol. 31a, 1. 18— 31b, 1. 
6. 

2 iiource.—¥o\. 44b. 1. 24. 
'■^Anonymously. — Fol. 42b, 1.21 

—43a, 1. 18 

^ Thejirsi, etc.— 
[Munich Com- [Pseudo-Anato- 



Apr. Secundum xxvi. die ; iuxta 

vero Macedonas, Macedones vero 

Distri mensis, id Dystri m e n s i s 

est, Martii xxii. xxii. die ; secun- 

die ; id est, xi. dum Romanes 

Kl. Apr. Secun- vero Martii men - 

dum autem Ro- sis xxv. die, id 



putus.] lius.] manos, Martii est, viii. Kl. Ap 

Secundum Est . . ini- ! mensis xxv. die, (Kv\\s,c\i,uhisup. 

Aegyptios, pri- tium primi men- ' id est, viii. Kl. p. 318; Migne, 

mus mensis Fa- sis . , . se- | Apr (fol. 31a, P. G.-L.X.2l\). 

minoth, id est, cundum Aegyp- 'i 1. 12-16). 

Martii xxvi. die, tiosquidemmen- ^ With. — Fol. 43a, 1. 22— 24. 

id est, vii. Kl. sis Faminoth i •' iníAouí.— Fol. 43b, 1. 5— 6. 



Ixx 



IKT110Í)UCTI0?Í. 



(5) Moreover, and if possible more conclusively, the 
Computus ends^ with the Mundane Reckoning of 12 
Victorian Great Paschal Cycles of 532 from the Creation, 
taken, in part textually, from the work, De mirabilibus 
Sacrae ScrijHurae, of the Irish Augustine. 

(6) To these are to be added graphic forms arising 
from native phonetic and passages containing a native 
textual word, which will be found in Appendix B. 

jate, ^s regards the date of composition, the author pro- 

A.D. 718, ceeds to prove that Easter is to he held (not on the 
week-day, but) on the Sunday after moon 14, by the 
instance of the imminent year-. The Alexandrine Pas- 
chal criteria of 719, 720 and 721 follow. The compila- 
tion, accordingly, was executed in 718. Elsewhere, 
however, are given two A^ictorian calculations, made 29 



^ Ends.— 
[Munich Com- 
putus.] 
CICLUS XL 

Undecimus,in 
temporibus nos- 
tris turrens[cur- 
rens], Hiberueu- 
sium doctoreni 
Anchiano [doc- 
tore Manchiano] 
moriente, pera- 
gitur. 



DECICLOXII. 

Duodecimus, 
sua t e m p o r a 
nunc ageus, a 
nol)is qualem 
finem habuerit, 
ignoratur. 
(Fol. 46a, 1. 14- 
19.; 



[Irish Augus- 
tine.] 
Undecimus, a 
eonsulatu Pa- 
ternietTorquati 
ad nostra usque 
tempora decur- 
rens, extremo 
anno moriente 
M ta 11 i c h a e o 
[Manchiano] in- 
ter ceteros sa- 
pientes, peragi- 
tur. 

Et duodecimus, 
nunc tertium 
annum agens,ad 
futurorum scien- 
tiam se praes- 
tans, a nobis 
qualem finem sit 
habiturus, ig- 
noratur. 
(Aug. opp. , ed. 
Hened., Paris. 
1680, III. p. 
.306.) 



Manirhaeo has given rise to a 
most extraordinary error, which 
shows the danger of dealing with 



historical data without adequate 
information. According to Krusch 
{Neues Arrhiv, V. 158-9), the author 
of the Be mirabilibus, who was 
hostile to the Irish [!] and em- 
ployed the Galilean Paschal Use, 
noted the death, in the last year 
of the eleventh Cycle, of the " Irish 
Manichean, that is, no other than 
bishop Aidan of Holy Island, who, 
in fact, died in 651. He was the 
most prominent representative of 
the old Irish tradition, and thus 
the adherents of the Roman-Fran- 
kish system could have rejoiced at 
his death, had not his successor, 
Finan, followed entirely in the 
way of the deceased." [!] But the 
final year was 652 ; the Manichean, 
Manchene, abbot of Mondrehid, 
near Borris in Ossoiy, Queen's 
Co. ! The other sages who died in 
the same year are named in the 
present Annals. 

- year.— Scita xiiii. luna, ebdo 
madis diem qua xiiii. luna stat sol- 
licitai[-te] quoiras, cui insequenti 
dominico, in quocumque die men- 
sis et lun.'e, nisi xxi. excedat, pas- 
cha facias : quod inminentis annj 
exemplo monstravinius[-abimusi 
(fol. 32 b, 1. 9-13). 



INTRODUCTION. Ixxi 

years before. The second is : The Saltus^ in the Book 
[Cycle] of Victorius from the Creation are 2^0 \}2 8 2] to 
the Consuls Verus and Bradua. This is the Victorian 
Passion year 130 = A. D. 157; which, in the intended 
recurrent Great Cycle of 532, is = A.D. 689. 

The main object of the work was to recommend and intent. 
explain the Alexandrine 19-year cycle, accepted finally 
in lona and Ireland two years previously. In illustra- 
tion of the subject, the solar and lunar characteristics 
of the following cycles are given: — 84 (12), (Hippoly- 
tan) 112, 84, Victorian of 532, Greek of 95. To show 
his knowledge, the author took the last, by which he 
meant the 5 cycles' of Dionysius, to form a solar cycle. 
The so-called proofs, too long to be quoted here, are 
based on confusion of the Ferials and Concurrents, with 
the result that, according to him, every leap-year in 
the 95 years is wrong, and A.D. 628 is the same in solar 
incidence as 532 ! 

The 84 known to the author was contained in a Cycle of 
Latercvbs, or List, of 100 years. The initial year has 84: 



^ Saltws. — Saltiis in libro Victorii 
a principle mundi numerantur 
cclxxx [ii.], sub Bero et Bardua 
[Vero et Bradua], CC (fol. 41b, 1. 
11-12). 

That is, 282 x 19 = 5358, the 
A.M. of A.D. 157. 

- Cycles. — Cichis Grecorum,xcv. 
anni, quinque vicibus convertitur 
in ciclo Victorii. Sed sunt alii anni 
superflui in eo probemus, id est, 
iiii . feria in fronte kali [kalenda- 
rum {i.e. annoi^um)] Dyonisii super 
viiii. Kl. Apr., et haec iiii. feria 
post bissextum (fol. 45a, 1. 16-19). 

In fronte, the scribe wrote f I, 
saw the mistake and made the 
lower end of I part of r, without 
deleting the upper. The refer- 
ence is to the first year of the 
Dionysian cycles, a.d. 532 (DC), 
which had bissextile Concurrent 4 ; 
that is, as the computist rightly 
took it, Wednesday, Marcli 24 ; 
this Wednesday being after the in- 
sertion of the intercalary day. 



I Krusch took the Peirieeus for a 
man. *' The designation of Diony- 

I siusExiguusas 'fronte kali dyonisii' 
points to the fact that the author 
of the (Munich) Computus knew 
the Chronographij of 35I(.P A note 
explains that Furius Dionysius 
Filocalus was the calligrapher who 
illustrated the Chronography 
[Der 84jahrige Ostercydus, p. 13). 
Whilst dubious about the conjec- 
ture respecting Filocalus, Mom- 
msen apparently has no misgiving 
respecting the existence of the 
hypothetical Table, 213—312, of 
Augustalis : Ut dubium est quod 
conicit Kruschius in corruptela 
ilia Filocali nomen abscondi, recte 
idem videtur demonstravisse 
laterculum paschalem centum an- 
norum, ab a. 213 ad a. 312, memo- 
tatum cum in computo illo 
[Monacensi] a. 689 [recic718], turn 
in antiquiore Carthageniensi anni 
455 {etc. M. G. H., Auct. Antiquiss. 
IX. Chrou. Minora, p. 34). 



^^^il INTRODrCTlOX. 

first 19 first to be determined from the data supplied. Victorius, 
epactBof. according to the CumpiUiu^, commences^ with the 
second year of the (Alexandrine) Hendecad, that 
being his Resurrection year, pursuant to the opening 
of his Table: Jan. J, Thursday, moon 19. (No. 1, 
col. V. in annexed Table.) The List (col. L. in Table) 
agrees with Victorius for the first revolution (of 19), 
after the Resurrection, (and) from moon 8 to 19 (Xos. 
19 and 1, cols. V. and L.) Each- has moon 14 on 
March 26: Easter on March 28, moon 16 {i.e. from 
epact 19]. They coincide"^ to the year of epact 12 (No. 
14 in Table) : here the Saltus of the List separates 

them,— from moon 12 to 24; then from moon 5 to 16 
(Nos. 14, 15, 16, 17, col. L.), where (owing to insertion 

of the Victorian Saltus, Nos. 16, 17, col. V.) they 

again become identical. 

No. 12 3 4 

V(ictorius), 19 .30 11 22 

L(atercus), 19 .30 11 22 

A(lexandrine), 18 29 10 21 

No. 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 

V. 17 28 9 20 1 12 23 4S. 16 27 8 

L. 17 28 9 20 1 12.S. 24 5 IG 27 8 

A, U; 27S. 9 20 1 12 23 4 1.3 2G 7 



Initial 



6 


7 


8 


14 


2. J 


G 


14 


25 


6 


13 


24 


5 



The Ferial of col. L. No. 1, would have readily 

A.D., identified the A.D. Its omission limits the agreement, 

such as it is, to the epacts. The year in question has 

therefore to be discovered otherwise. Victorian (col. 

V.) No. 1 is A.D. 28, DC. In the 84 years (312—395) 

'^Commences. — Nobis sciendum Í xiiii. luna[m] in vii. Kl. Apr. faci- 
est unde Victorius incipit : id est, I unt et pascha in v. Kl., luna xvi 



ab initio endecadis, secundum [- 
do] endecadis annum[anno]. Cum 
eo annus resurrectionis est. Sicenim 
invenies in initio cicli eius : Kl. Ian. 
V. feria, luna xviiii. 

Sic Latercus cum Victorio comi- 
tatur, prima vice post resurrecti- 
onem, ab viii. luna in xxviiii [xviiii.] 
(fol. 29a, 1. 16—21). 

- Each. — Victorius et Latercus 



(fol. 29 b, 1. 1—2). 

'"'Coincide. — Sciendum est nobis 
quod Victurius et Latercus conveni- 
[un]t : id est, usque ad annum in 
quo luna xii. fit in Kal. Ian. In hoc 
enim anno saltus Laterciseparateos, 
a xii. luna in KL Ian. in xxiiii. . . 
Inde a v. luna in xvi,, ubi cum 
Victorio conveniunt[-vonit] {ib. 1. 
8—131. 



INTRODUCTION. 



Ixxiii 



of a 100-year List^ of Easters (312—411) given in the 
Chronogra phy of 354, 392 is tlie only one of the three 
DC years'- that has Easter on March 28^. The Victorian 
Easter is the same, but on moon 19, — which excludes the 
year. This proves that DC were not the Dominical Let- 
ters of the hrstyear of 84. 

Of the nine-^ C years, two,^ 370 and 381, have the requi- [?^^^^^^^^^y^ 
site Easter in the Chronography List. It remains to epitaph ; 
decide which is intended. A Catacomb Inscription*^ 
of 397 has Wed, Feh. 25, moon 12- This requires 
epact 16 = No 17. of the L. cokimn. Now, 397 D being 
No. 17, 381 C (with every corresponding 85th year 
backward and forward) is No 1. 381-^84 leaves 45 ; Cyclic 
the difference between remainder and divisor being 39. ^^{^^ ^^ 
Hence, to find the Cyclic No. of the 84, to the given find by 
A.D. add 40, and divide by 84 ; what remains is the Jf^J^ 
Cyclic No. ; if remains, the No. is 84. The Nos. will 
be found by inspection in Table N. 

With regard to the luni-solar structure, the Saltus^; Saltus, 
we learn, is prepared in xii[i.] years, and occurs in the ni^mber 
4th year of the (Alexandrine) Ogdoad (cols. A, L, ^ of. 
14, 15) in a common (i.e., not embolismal) year, in 
November, thus : — 1st, from moon 12 to 24, on 
Jan. 1 ; 2nd, from m. 17 to 29 ; 3rd, from m. 22 
to .4; 4th, from m. 27 to 9 ; 5th, from m. 2 to 14. 

Respecting the omission of the 6th, from m. 7 to 19, Sixth Sal- 
the words of the Computus are to be considered ' 



1 List. — Mommsen, Abhndlvgn., 
etc., p. 624-6 ; M.G.H. SS. Antiqiss. 
IX. {Chron. Min.), p. 62-64. 

-'Z) Cyears.—Sm, 364, 392. 

^ March 28. — B. Arcadio Aug. II. 
et Ruliiio [A.D. 392], v. Kl. Apr. 
(Mommsen, uhi su}!., p. 626 ; p. 64). 

* Nine. — 314-25-31-42-53-59-70- 
81-87. 

^ Tv)o. — Valentiniano III. et 
Valente III. [A.D. 370], v. Kl. 
Apr. (Mommsen, p. 625 ; p. 63). 

Syagrio et Eucerio [A.D. 381], 
vi. [v.] Kl. Apr. (i6., p. 625-6 ; p. 
63). 

6 Inscription. — FL CAESARIO 



ET NONIO ATTICO | VV CO 
CONSS V. KAL. MARTIASID[IE] 
MERCVRI L[VNA] XII RE- 
CESSIT I DE HAC LVCE PVELLA 
NOMIINE ANASTASIA {I.C. p. 
193). 

' Saltus. — Saltus Laterci per xii- 
[i]. annos paratur, in iiii. anno 
ogdoadis sit [fit], in communi 
[anno], in Novembrio mense, sic 
fit. A xii. luna in xxiiii., in Kl. Ian., 
primus. Secundus saltus, a xvii. in 
xxviiii. Tertius, a xv.[xxii] in iiii. 
Quartus, a xxvii. in viiii. Quintus, 
a iii. in xiii[i]., in Kl. Ian (fol. 42b, 
1. 7-12). 



IXXIV 



INTRODUCTION. 



Bcribal 
omission 
of. 



" Others^ compose a cycle of 100 years : in which 
cycle the moon revolves 5 times and there are 5 super- 
fluous years ; therein the sun revolves thrice, and 
there are 16 superfluous years. Thence it is incon- 
gruous according to sun and moon. In this cycle, 
the Saltus takes place in the 14th year. In which 
number [of 100 years], the sun exceeds the moon 
by five days." In addition to the fact that it 
required but slight computistic knowledge to discover 
that the " cycle " here described had seven Saltus» one 
conclusion seems unavoidable. Nobody who made the 
accurate twofold comparison of the 100 years with the 
Dionysian 95 could have failed to perceive the transition 
7 — 19, instead of 7 — 18, in the very first of the yeai's 
(85th, initial of 2nd cycle) which he rightly named super- 
jiiious. Whence it was the continental scribe, we must 
infer, that passed the words over. These data, exempli- 
fied, in the matter of the first Saltus in col. L. of the 
preceding Table, enable the epactal arrangement to be 
reconstructed with certainty. 





The epacts will be found in Table 0. 
is the conspectus of the Saltus. 


The following 










CYCLE OF 84. 




Saltus, 
Table of. 


Cvclic 
"^14- 
28- 
42- 
56- 
70- 
84- 


: Nos, 

-15 

-29 

-43 

-57 

-71 

- 1 


Saltu 

1 
2 

3 

4 
5 
6 


s, Epacts. 
12—24 
17—29 

'J 2 4 

27— 9 
2—14 
7—19 


Golden Nos. 

XIV.—XV. 

IX.— XX. 

iv._xxv. 

XVII.— XI. 
XXIII.— VI, 
XXVIII.~T. 


Paschal 


In the matter of the Paschal lunar day 


S-, the Computus 



1 Others, etc. — Alii ciclum anno- 
rum c. conponunt : in quo ciclo luna 
quinquies couvertit, et quinquies 
superflui aniii sunt ; in eo sol con- 
vertit ter, et xvi. dies superflu 
sunt. Dehinc iuxta solem et lunam 
incongruus est. In quo ciclo, saltus 
xiiii.o anno fit. In quo numero, 
8ol lunam quinque diebus superat 
(fol. 44b, 1. 8-14). 



- Luiiar days. — Septem aetates 
paschae quas prediximus, hae 
sunt: secundum Grecos, a xv. luna 
usque in xxi ; Initii vero [aetas] a 
vi.[iii.] singulari in viiii. extendi - 
tur. Secundum autem Victorium, 
aetas pasch[a]e a xv[i]. luna in 
xxii. ; luitii a iiii. singulari in 
xanni [x.manij. Iuxta vero La- 
tercum, a xiiii. luna in xx.; et 



1 



iNfUODlTCTION. 



Ixxv 



leaves nothing to be desired ; the incidence of the Ini- i^nar 
tium, or first Sunday of Lent, being likewise supplied, days, 
The two series are given, according to the Greeks (Alex- 
andrines), Yictorius and Latercus. (The order shows 
the estimation in which the systems were respectively 
held by the Compiler.) 





Greeks. 


Victorius. 


Latercus. 


Lunar days of 








;ginning of Lent, 


3—9 


4—10 


2—8 


Lunar days of 








Easter, ... 


15—21 


16—22 


14—20 



The Easter Calendar days remain to be determined, paschal 
The Athanasian Chronicle states that the Easter of 349 Calendar 
was on March 25, moon 19. This agrees with the Easter fo^j^d b - 
of the List in the Chronograjohy^ of 554, and with the Athana- 
solar and lunar reckoning of the 84. The reason why the ^l^^^" , 
feast was not held on April 23 (the Alexandrine date) (Petrine 
was because the Romans refused,- saying that, on tradition), 
account of the tradition received from the Apostle^ Peter, 
they could not celebrate later than Pharmuthi 26 (April 
21), nor earlier than Phamenoth 30 (March 26). The 
Phamenoth number should be 29 (March 25), as proved 
by the Chronography List, which has Easter on March 
25 at 316, 322, 395 and 406. 

This notable deference arose from the fact that the 
Petrine tradition was sanctioned in the Council of Sardica, 
held, we learn from the Chronicle'^, in 343. In the Letter 



Initii a vi.[ii.] luna in viii. singu- 
larem (fol. 33b, 1. 7-14). 

^ Chronogi'aphi/.—Liimenio et 
Catulino [A.D. 349], vi[i]. Kl. 
Apr (Mommsen, p. 625; p. 63). 

■■^ i?e/i<.s6f/.— Phamenoth 30, [ = ] 
7 Kl. Apr., [luna Paschae] 17, 
Deorum [_sciL Concurrente] 7, In- 
dictione 7. Sed [ita celebratum est] 
cum renuissent Romani, dicentes 
se, ob traditionem a Petro apos- 
tolo acceptam, haud progredi 
ultra diem 26 Pharmuthi [Ap. 21], 
neque citra 30 Phamenoth [26 
Mar.], lunae 21 . . {heic [scribit 
editor] lacuna hrevis in codice, qui 



po.stea prosequitur) 7 Kl, Ap,, Coss. 
Limeuio et Catulino . . . [pascha 
celebratum est] {N. P. B. VI. 
{Chron. Athan.), p. 9). 

" But " [Easter was on this day, 
not Ap. 23] " because the Romans 
refused, for they said they had a 
tradition from the Apostle Peter 
not to pass the twenty-sixth day 
of Pharmuthi, nor the thirtieth of 
Phamenoth, on the twenty-first 
day of the moon * * * vii. Kal. 
April '' (Cureton : The Festal Let- 
ters of Athanasius^ London, 1848, 
p.lvi.). 

^ Chronicle. — Consulibus Pla- 



ÍXXVÍ IN-TRODÚCTIOS*. 

respecting tlie Easter of 346, Atlianasius, after directing 
<fe Festal the Alexandrine priests and deacons to piiblisli, accord- 
(Petrine ^^^ ^^ ancicnt custom, that the feast will be on March 30 
tradition), (the Chronography^ and 84 date), proceeds.- "Let no 
one doubt concerning the day, or contend, saying Easter 
ought to he March 23 [the "^ Alexandrine day], for the 
question was discussed in the Holy Synod, and all deci- 
ded that the festival was to be held on March 30." 
Uncan- ^^ ^^^^^ greater significance is a third instance from 

onioal the same source. In 333, the computed Easter of the 
hoAv^'^obvi- ^^^*^ systems was April 22. Yet, no doubt, in compli- 
ated. ance with the Pe trine tradition, the feast was held on (the 
day given in the ChrovograjiJnf) A^Dril 15 (moon 14,^ 
in the Alexandrine ; moon 13, in the 84, cycle). Whence 
we find that cycles did not always furnish canonical 
Easter days, and that, in such circumstances, deviation 
was adopted, regardless of the age of the moon. The 
Calendar Paschal days of 84 were consequently March 
25— April 21. 

N 
CYCLE OF 84. 
CYCLIC NUMBERS. 
The 84 Cyclic Nos. are arranged in heavier type, in 
Cyclic .|.}jj.gg sections of 28. The No. of an A.D. less than 100 

■Nos., 

is the next on the right : A.D. 1 and 85 are 41 ; 29 is 
69 ; 57 is 13. The No. of a century is the next below: 



cidoet Romulo [A.D. 343] . . . 
habita fait s\Tiodus Sardicae 
(.v. P. B. VI. {Chron. Athau.), p. 
7). 

^ Chronofjraphy. — Post Amantio 
et Albino [A.b. 346], iii. Kl. 
Apri (Mommsen, p. 625 ; p. 63). 

'^ Proceeds. — Nemo de die am- 
bigat, iieque contendat, dicendo 
pascha fieri debere die xxvii. 
mensis Phamenoth [23 Mar.]. 
Etenim in sancta synodo quaestio 
ventilata fuit, cunctique definie- 
runt festum esse agendum iii. Kl. 
Apr., videlicet die iiii. mensis 
Pharmuthi . . . Nemo igitur 
pertinaciter agat, sed bona cnm 
voluntate. Idem hoc ad Romanos 



quoque scriptum fuit (.V. P. By 
VI. 133). 

'■' Chronoijrapliif. — Dalmatio et 
Zenofilo [A.D. 333], xvii. Kl. Mai 
(Mommsen, p. 624; p. 62). 

•* Moon 14. — The Athanasian 
Chronicle {N. P. B., VI., p. 3) and 
the Headinrj of the Letter {ih. p. 
53) have moon 15. But this is a 
palpable fraud, wliich proves be- 
yond doubt tliat these additions 
were made when the Alexandrines 
tolerated no deviation from their 
cycle. The Golden No. is XL 
whicli, Table W sliows, has new 
moon on April 2 ; moon 14, on 
April 15. 



CYCLE OF 84.— CYCLIC NUMBERS. 




64 80 12 28 



A.D. 
less 
than 
100. 








A.D. 

Centur 


es. 






' 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 7 


__ 


29 


69 


1 


17 


33 


49 


65 


Tfl^ 


^ 


30 


70 


2 


18 


34 


50 


66 


82 14 


30 


31 


71 


3 


19 


35 


51 


67 


83 15 


31 


32 


72 


4 


20 


36 


52 


68 


84 16 


32 


33 


73 


5 


21 


37 


53 


69 


1 17 


33 


34 


74 


6 


22 


38 


54 


70 


2 18 


34 


35 


75 


7 


23 


39 


55 


71 


3 19 


35 


36 


76 


8 


24 


40 


56 


72 


4 20 


36 


37 


77 


9 


25 


41 


57 


73 


5 21 


37 


38 


78 


10 


26 


42 


58 


74 


6 22 


38 


39 


79 


11 


27 


43 


59 


75 


7 23 


39 


40 


80 


12 


28 


44 


60 


76 


8 24 


40 


41 


81 


13 


29 


45 


61 


77 


9 25 


41 


42 


82 


14 


30 


46 


62 


78 


10 26 


42 


43 


83 


15 


31 


47 


63 


79 


11 27 


43 


44 


84 


16 


32 


48 


64 


80 


12 28 


44 


45 


1 


17 


33 


49 


65 


81 


13 29 


45 


46 


2 


18 


34 


50 


66 


82 


14 30 


46 


47 


3 


19 


35 


51 


67 


83 


15 31 


47 


'• 48 


i 


20 


36 


52 


68 


84 


16 32 


48 


49 


5 


21 


37 


53 


69 


1 


17 33 


49 


^ 50 


6 


22 


38 


54 


70 


2 


18 34 


50 


.■il 


7 


23 


39 


55 


71 


3 


19 35 


51 


52 


8 


24 


40 


56 


72 


4 


20 36 


52 


53 


9 


25 


41 


57 


73 


5 


21 37 


53 


54 


10 


26 


42 


58 


74 


6 


22 38 


54 


56 


11 


27 


43 


59 


75 


7 


23 39 


55 


56 


12 


28 


44 


60 


76 


8 


24 40 


56 



57 1 13 

58 j 14 

59 15 

60 16 



61 j 17 33 49 

62 I 18 34 50 

63 ! 19 35 51 



61 77 

62 78 

63 79 

64 80 

65 81 

66 82 

67 83 

68 84 

69 1 

70 2 

71 3 

72 4 

73 5 

74 6 



29 45 61 77 9 

30 46 62 78 10 

31 47 63 79 11 

32 48 64 80 12 

33 49 65 81 13 

34 50 66 82 14 

35 51 67 83 15 



38 54 70 2 18 

39 55 71 3 19 



84 40 56 72 4 20 



64 


20 


36 


65 


21 


37 


66 


22 


38 


67 


23 


39 


68 


24 


40 


69 


25 


41 


70 


26 


42 


71 


27 


43 


72 


28 


44 



9 25 

10 26 

11 27 

12 28 

13 29 

14 30 

15 31 

16 32 

17 33 

18 34 

19 35 

20 36 

21 37 



47 



48 64 

49 65 

50 66 

51 67 



22 


38 


54 


70 


23 


39 


56 


71 


24 


40 


56 


72 


25 


41 


57 


73 


26 


42 


58 


74 


27 


43 


59 


75 


28 


44 


60 


76 


29 


45 


61 


77 


30 


46 


62 


78 


31 


47 


63 


79 


32 


48 


64 


80 


33 


49 


65 


81 


34 


50 


66 


82 


35 


51 


67 


83 


36 


52 


68 


84 



PASCHAL CYCLE OF 8 4. 



A 


' B 








C 








D 






E 


I. 1 II. 1 in. 1 IV. 1 V. 1 VI. 

I. 1 19 1 1 1 C fMiS 1 M28 


VII. 

16 


—17" 


-ar 


III. 


IV. 1 V. 1 VI. 1 VII. 


I. 


íí^ 




—Til 




1 IV. 1 V. 1 VI. 1 


VII. 


I. 1 II. 1 III. 




IV. 


V. 1 VI. 1 VII. 


111. IV. 1 V 1 VI. 1 VII. 


— 


— 


20 


A G 1 — 1 A 1 i 20 


- 


— 


39 






1 E 1 - IM30I 


IS 




















1 


, 


,1. 1 30 1 2 1 B IM311A17 


18 


... 


... 


21 


F 1 ... 1 A14 1 15 





40 


DU| ... |A18| 


19 
















III. 1 11 1 3 1 A |M21 1 A 9 


20 




- 


22 


■ E 1 _ |A 6| 17 


- 


- 


41 


B 1 - |A 31 


14 




IV. 1 22 1 4 1 G F 1 A 8 1 A21 


■ U 


... 


... |23 


D 1 MIO 1 M29 1 20 


... 


... 


42 


A |M10|M26i 






V. 1 3 1 5 1 E |M29|A13 


16 


- 


— 


24 


C B 1 — 1 A17 1 20 








1 


1 




VI. 1 U 1 6 1 D 1M18|A 5 


19 






25 


A ... |A 2| 16 




... 






... 1 ... 





1 71 


G 


|A 1 


15 




VII. 1 25 1 7 1 C i A 5 1 A 18 


14 


— 


— 


26 


G M 7 1 M25 


19 


— 


— 


— 1 — 




— 


- 




F E 


A 5|A20 


16 




VIII. 1 6 1 8 1 B A 1 M26 1 A 9 


15 






27 


F ... A 14 






... 


' ... i ... 


... 1 ... 




... 


|73 


D 


|A12 


18 




-IX. 1 17 i 9 1 G |M15 1 A 1 


18 


— 


— 


28 


ED - 


M29 


15 


— 


- 


- 1 - 


- 1 - 


— 


— 


1 74 


c 


IM28 


14 




X. i 28 1 10 1 F |A 2|A21 


20 


... 






... 1 ... 


... 






... 


1 ... 1 ... 






... 


1 75 


B 


|A17 


16 




XI ! 9 1 11 1 E |M23|A 6 


15 


— 








— 


- 


— 




i S7 1 C 1 - 


All 


20 


— 


— 


176 


AG 


[A 8 


17 




XII. 1 20 1 12 |DC|M12|M28 


17 


... 


— 




... 1 ... 




... 


.. 




1 58 1 B 1 ... 


M27 


16 


-~- 


-z- 


177 




|M31 


20 




XIII. 1 1 1 13 ! B 1 M31 


A17 


18 


- 






- - 


— 


- 


— 


1 59 1 A 1 - 


A 16 


17 


|78 


E 


ÍA13 


14 




XIV. 1 12 1 14 1 A 1 M20 


A 2 


14 








... 


... 


... 


... 




,^1 . 

- 1 


1 




1 60 


GF| ... 


A 7 


19 
19 




... 




1 79 


D 


|A 5 


17 




XV. , i 24 1 15 1 G 1 M 8 


M25 


18 


— 


— 


134 


D 


A 6 


A19 


14 


53 




A" |M 8|M26 
















XVI. 1 5 1 16 |F E|M27 |A13 


18 


... 


... 1 135 


C. 




All 


16 




... 1 




54 


1 G 1 |A15 


20 




SVII. 1 16 1 17 1 D |M16|M29 


14 


— 




136 


BA| 


A 2 


18 


— 






1 


55 


1 F 1 M31 


16 




XVIII. 1 27 1 18 1 C 1 A 3 1 A 18 


16 




.1. 


137 


G 1 


A 22 


20 




... 




1 


56 


|E D| A19 


17 




XIX. 1 8 1 19 1 B |M24|A10 


18 


— 


- 


|38 


F 1 


A 7 


15 








1 




1 1 


1 




I. Golden Numbere. 
II. Epacte. 
in. Cyclic Numbers. 
IV. Dominical JjetieTR. 
V. New Moons. 
VI. Easters. 
Vn. Easter Lunar Days, 

N.B.-Items omitted in §§ B, C, D, E a 
^ ; e.g.. Cyclic No. 20 has Golden No. I. 
V. ; 34 has Golden No. XV., Epact 24, a 


re the 
Epact 
sin§A 


xs. 


29 


29 1 C 1 A 1 [ A 18 1 18 




... 




48 




1 A G 1 ... 1 A15 


15 


... 1 ... 1 1 67 


E 


... |A20 


20 




XXI. 


1 lu 


130 IB |M22|A10| 20 


— 






49 




1 F 1 - |A 7 


17 


- 1 - 1 1 68 


DC 


- |A 4 


ii 




XXII. 


n 


31 1 A {Mil {M26 1 16 








50 




1 E 1 ... |M30 


20 


... 1 ... 1 1 69 




1 n 


... |M27 


'■' 




XXIII. 


'i 


1 32 1 G F 1 M30 1 A 14 1 16 


— 


— 




51 




1 D 1 - |A12 


14 




-1 l™ 


A 


- 1^16 


18 




XXIV. 


1 13 


1 33 1 E 1 M19 1 A 6 1 19 








52 




iC B| ... |A 3 






1 




1 








arae as in 
19, new K 
, cols. I., 


there 
oon on 
II. 


March 13, a«in§ A, cokL.II., 


XXV. 


4 


43 






1 G..|M28|A15 


19 


— 


- 1 1 62 


D 




16 




81 


A 1 - 


A16 


20 


XXVI. 


1 16 


1 44 






|F É|M17|M30 


14 


... 1 ... 1 1 63 




... |A 4 


19 




82 


G 1 ... 




16 


XXVII. 


1 26 I 45 






1 D 1 A 4 1 A19 


16 


- 1 - 1 1 64 


|B A 


— 1 A23 1 20 




83 


'/ i ~ 


|A21 


18 


XXVIII. 


1 7 1 46 






1 C |M25|A11 


18 


1 1 65 


1 ^ 


1 ... J A 8 1 15__ 




84 


|ED| ... 




19 i 


XXIX. 


1 18 1 47 






1 B 1M14IM27 


14 


- - 1 1 66 


1 I'' 


- |M31 1 18 






1 1 


















XXX. 23 1 61 1 


E 


A7 1 A20| 14 


80 1 C B 1 M S 


|M27 


M9_ 



INTR0DT7CTI0N. Ixxvii 

A.D. 100 is 56 ; 200, 72. The No. of any other A.D. is Rules to 
where a line from the 100 meets a line from the A.D. Xable^ 
less than 100 : 101 and 185 are 57 ; 129 is 1 ; 157, 29 ; 
884, 84. As there is no mentiou^ of the use of the 84 
later than the middle of the ninth'century, the Table 
ends with A.D. 899. 



PASCHAL CYCLE OF 84. 

The Cycle is arranged according to the 30 Golden 
Numbers (the days of a full lunar month), some of which, 
owing to the incidence of the Saltus, recur before others 
are employed. (The same takes place in the 84 (12).) 
In Cycles of 84, accordingly, Golden Nos. denote the Golden 
consecutive positions of the epacts, or luni-solar years, ^^^y 

on r ' J ) meaning 

in the sequence oi nrst occurrence, J^ or example, of in 
XX. denotes that 19 luni-solar years were used before Cycles of 
epact 29 found a place. These 19 were distributed 
amongst 28 cyclic years. The Golden Nos. being 2 in 
excess of the Solar Cycle, 6 of them (those passed over 
in the Saltus) occur but twice in the 84. 

To find the epact of any A.D., multiply the Cyclic No. i:pact of 
of the A.D.-l by 11 : to the sum, add the epact of the p,^;^*' 
first Cyclic No. + 1 to 5, if, and according as, the Cyclic find, 
No. is over 14 ; divide by 30 : remainder is the epact ; 
if remains, the epact is 30. E. g., A.D. 716 is No. 84, 
(84-1) X 11 = 913. (913 + 19 4- 5) -^ 30 leaves 7, which is 
the epact. In connexion herewith, the Table furnishes 
undesigned coiToboration of the accuracy of the 19-year 
cycle : 1 Saltus giving to every 20th year the same 
epact ; in other words, making a decemnovennal recur- 
rence: 1, 20, 39; 29, 48, 67;^ 46, 65, 84, etc., as in the 
Table (K) of Alexandrine Golden Numbers. 

To find the Easter of a given A.D., all that is neces- Easter, 
sary is to find the Cyclic No, of the year in Table N and liuies to 
in col. III. of Table O. The Easter day is opposite the f^,^i^^i 

Table. 

' Mention. — The visit of those | place during the patriarchate of 
from the islands of the Ocean to Methodius, 842-G. 
Constantinople [supra, p. Ixv.) took \ 



Ixxviii 



INTRODUCTION. 



Petrine 
tradition, 

result 

of,— 
Easter on 

moon 
14—20. 



Uncan- 
onical 
Easters, 
how ob- 
viated. 



Liini -solar 
criteria, 



Cyclic No., in col. YI. For example, Tiqernach^ states 
that St. Columba died on Pentecost Eve» June 9, 596. 
This identifies tlie year according to tlie Alexandrine 
system, whicli Tigernacli applied proleptically : Pente- 
cost, June 10= Easter, April 22. On the other hand, 
the Saint had declared- he did not wish to sadden the 
brethren more by departing within the Paschd festal 
period. Now, at length, we are enabled to test whether 
he kept his word. 596 has cyclic No. 48, which has 
Easter on April 15, with Pentecost on June 3. The 
death thus took place well after the termination of the 
Paschal Days. 

Finally, what is of great importance, the 84 Cycle 
shows how the Petrine tradition of Easter from March 
25 to April 21 necessitated the lunar days 14 — 20, and 
March and April lunations of the same epact. For 
instance, Cyclic No. 4 has epact 22, new moon on March 
10 ; moon 15, Sunday, March 24, — a calendar day too 
early : moon 22, Sunday, March 31, — a lunar day too 
late. No option remained but to pass to the next 
lunation : new moon, April 8. Of this, the 14th, Sun- 
day, April 21, had to be taken ; otherwise, the feast 
would fall on moon 22, April 28 — 1 lunar day and 7 
solar days too late. 

Only in two years did the computation fail to give 
canonical Easters. Nos. 37 and 64 had Easter on April 
22, 23, respectively. In these years, we learn from St. 
Athanasius and the Chronography List, in the case of 
A.D. 333 already cited'% the previous Sundays were 
selected. 

In confirmation of the luni-solar calculation of the 84 
from historical monuments, the following are to be 



^ Tigernach.—K. 'ún. [i.] Quies 
Coluimcille in nocte Dominica [e] 
Pentecostes, v. Ed. [Id.] luin. 
(O'Conor, R. H. SS. II. 159.) 

- Declared. — In Paschali solemni- 
tate nuper Aprili peracta mense, 
desiderio desideravi ad Christum 
Dominum cmigrare, sed, ne vobis 



laetitiae festivitas in tristitiani 
verteretur, diem meae de mundo 
emigrationis paulo diutins prote- 
lari malui (Adamnani Vita Colum- 
hae, iii. 23). 

'^ Cited. — P. Ixxvi., supra. Ci. 
note ^ ib. 



INTRODUCTION. 



Ixxix 



added to the instances given^ above of (1) the Easter of additional 
34P,from the Athanasian Chronide,Siná(i2) the Inscription H'^^^ll^^ 
of 397, from the Catacombs- of, 

(3) The Chronogra'phy of 354 has Consular Fasti 
from B.C. 509 to A.I). 354. Each year has attached 
the Roman-named week-day of Jan. 1 and the epactof the 
84 (12). At A.D. 1, the text gives'^ the Nativity on Dec. 
25, moon 15. The epact of the 84 (12) is 13; tlie requisite 
epact is 11, which is that of No. 41 (A.D. 1) of the 84. 

(4) An undated Catacomb epitaph'^ has Thursday^ 
May 10, moon 15, This indicates Dominical Letter 
G (or AG), epact 4, — a combination not found in the 84 
(12). But it occurs in the 84, Cyclic No. 43, and deter- 
mines the A.D. to be 255 or (far more probably) 339. 

(5) Two instances from the Paschal Centennial List 
in the ChronograpJiy of 35 ^ will suffice. For 317, the 
List has April 14.^ This is the 84 date, moon 15 ; the 
84 (12) has April 21, m. 22. For 330, April 19^ is set 
down in the same. The 84 is in agreement, with moon 
14. The 84 (12) has March 22, m. 16. 

(6) As the Patrician Table was, in all probability, 
drawn up in Gaul, the account of a lunar eclipse of 
560, in the Chronicle of Marius, bishop of Avenches, is 
of interest in this connexion, as showing that neither 
the 84(12) nor the Victorian led to immediate or general 
supersession of the 84. 

" After <^ Consulship of Basilius,^Year XIX., 
Indiction YIII [A.D. 560]. 
This year, in a serene sky, amidst splendid stars, 
moon 16 was so obscured, that it could scarcely be seen." 



^ Given. — Pp. Ixxv. ; lxxiii.,5M^ra. 

2 Gives. — P. Ivii., note •', supra. 

■^ Epitaph.— VI IDVS MAIAS I 
D[IE] lOVIS L[VNA] VX DÉ- 
CES I SIT ERENE ANNOR | - 
VM PLVS MINVS VIII (/. C, 
p. 273). For VIII., Krusch very 
appositely suggests VIIL. (43 ; cf. 
VX., not XV., in 1. 2), as the back of 
the stone has DVLCISSIMAI | 
lANVARIUS I MARITVS \ FE- 
CIT {Der 84Jahr. O.-cyclm, p. 89). 



^ April 14. — Gallicano et Basso, 
iiii. Kl. Apr (AbJmdlngn , etc., 624), 

"April 19. — Gallicano et Symaco, 
[x]iii. Kl. Mai (ih.). 

^ After, etc. — P. C. Basilii Anno 
XIX. Indictione VIII [A.D. 560]. 

Hoc anno, serenitate coeli, inter 
Stellas splendidas, obscurata est 
luna xvi., nt vix conspici posset. — 
Marii, Aventicensis seu Lausan- 
nensis episcopi, Chronicon {Recueil 



Ixxx 



IXTRODUCTIOX. 



Of the two lunar eclipses^ of that year (May 25, Nov. 
19), Indiction 8 proves the first was intended. Moon 
16 on May 25 is = new moon on May 10, April 10, March 
12 = epact20. This is the epact of 560 in the 84 ; in 
the 84 (12), the epact is 21 ; in the Victorian, 19. 

To reduce the 84 to a Paschal Table, the arranirement 
in Table P will be found useful. It is to be employed 
in connexion with Table Q by the following rule. 



To find The Cyclic No. of the A.D. being found by Table N, 

Easter by and the Corresponding Dominical Letter and Golden No. 
by Table P, the Easter will be found in the square of 
Table Q, where lines from the two last meet. E.g., 397, 



Tables. 



des Ilistorient des Gatdes, etc., par 
Dom Bouquet, Paris, 1739, t. II. p. 
17B; r.L. LXXII. 798). 

^ Eclipses, — V Art de verifier les 
dates, etc., Paris, 1818, I. 305. 
Krusch , who states that the No vem - 
ber eclipse is intended (the Vic- 
torian epact giving m. 16 on the 
19th of that month), has a ready 
way of dealing with the awkward 
Indiction 8. It coincides, he con- 
cedes, with the greatest part of the 
year 560 ; but, accidental!}', all the 
events recorded under the year fell 
in the time after Sep. 1, and, conse- 
quently, in Indiction 9 ; a circum- 
stance which the author took no 
account of [!]. 

'*Die vorangestellte 8 Indic- 
tion deckt sich mit dem grossten 
Theile des J. 560 ; zufalligerweise 
fallen aber alle unter diesem 
Jahre erzahlten Ereignisse in die 
Zeit nach dem 1 Sep. und folglich 
in die 9 Ind., welchem Umstande 
der Verfasser keine Rechnung 
getragen hat" {Neues Archiv, 127). 

But the only events recorded 
under the year (the revolt, capture 



and burning, with his wife and 
children, of Chramnus by Clo- 
thaire, his father) are preceded, 
not followed, by the account of the 
eclipse ! The event accordingly 
happened within Indiction 8, — 
identification quite suflBcient, ir- 
respective of the month-day. 

*.^* It remains to observe that 
the Vaison Inscription of A.D. 470, 
Oct. 26, moon 17 (Le Blant, In- 
scriptions Chrctiennes de la Gaule, 
t. II, Paris, 1865, no. 496, pp; 
231-3 ; De Rossi, I.C. Prol. § 8 . 
Krusch, Seues Archiv, 123), can- 
not be assigned exclusively to the 
Victorian cycle. The requisite 
epact is 14, which likewise belongs 
to 470 in the 84, — the cycle most 
probably employed. 

The original of the part in 
question is : Sub Die XIV. Kl. 
Novembris Die Lunae Luna XVII. 
The emendation, XIV. VII.] is 
due to De Rossi (p. xciii.) His in- 
ferences, however, are based on 
assuming here and elsewhere (p. 
Ixxxvi.) what is demonstrably un- 
tenable, — that the cycle observed 
in CJaul before the V^ictorian was 



CYCLE OF 84. 
Dominical Letters, Cyclic Nos., Golden Nos. 



D.L, 


C.No, 


G.N. 


C. N. 


G. N. 


1 
C. N. G. N. 


C 


1 


I. 


29 


XX. 


57 


XL 


B 


2 


II. 


30 


XXI. 


58 


XII. 


A 


3 


III. 


31 


XXII. 


59 


XIII. 


GF 


4 


IV. 


32 


XXIIL 


60 


XIY. 


E 


5 


Y. 


33 


XXIY. 


61 


XXX. 


D 


6 


YL 


34 


XY. 


62 


XXY. 


C 


7 


YIL 


35 


XYI. 


63 


XXYL 


BA 


8 


Yin. 


36 


XYII. 


64 


XXYII. 


G 


9 


IX. 


37 


XYIIL 


65 


XXYIII. 


F 


10 


X. 


38 


XIX. 


66 


XXIX. 


E 


11 


XL 


39 


I. 


67 


XX. 


DC 


12 


XIL 


40 


11. 


68 


XXI. 


B 


13 


XIII. 


41 


III. 


69 


XXII. 


A 


14 


XIY. 


42 


lY. 


70 


XXIIL 


G 


15 


XY. 


43 


XXY. 


71 


YL 1 


FE 


16 


XYI. 


44 


XXYL 


72 


YIL 


D 


17 


XYII. 


45 XXYII. 


73 


YIII. 


C 


18 


XYIIL 


46 XXYIII. 


74 


IX. 


B 


19 


XIX. 


47 XXIX. 


75 


X. 


AG 


20 


I. 


48 


XX. 


76 


XL 


F 


21 


II. 


49 


XXL 


77 


XII. 


E 


22 


III. 


50 


XXII. 


78 


XIII. 


D 


23 


lY. 


51 XXIII. 


79 


XIY. 


CB 


24 


Y. 


52 XXIY. 


80 


XXX. 


A 


25 


VI. 


53 


XY. 


81 


XXY. 


G 


26 


VIL 


54 


XYI. 


82 


XXYL 


F 


27 


YIII. 


55 


XYII. 


83 


XXYIL 


ED 

1 


28 


IX. 


56 XYIIL 


84 


XXYIII. 



CYCLE 
PASCHAL 



OF 84. 
TABLE. 



G. K. Ep.| A 


B 


c 


D 


E 


^1 


G 


I. 


19 




M 28 
16 




M30 
18 




Al 

20 


II. 


30 




A 17 
18 


A 18 

19 






A 14 
15 




HI. 


11 


A 9 
20 


A3 
U 






A6 

17 






IV, 


22 


M26 
17 






M 29 
20 




A 21 
14 




V. 


3 




A 17 
20 






A 13 
16 






VL 


U 


A 2 
16 






A5 
19 






A 1 
15 


VII. 


25 






A 18 
14 




A 20 
16 




M25 
19 


VIIL 


6 


A9 
15 






A 12 

18 




A 14 
20 




IX. 


17 






M 28 
14 


M 29 
15 






A 1 
18 


X. 


28 




A 17 
16 








A 21 

20 


XL 


9 






All 
20 




A6 
15 




A8 
17 


XII. 


20 




M27 
16 


M 28 
17 






M31 

20 




XIII 


1 


A 16 

17 


A 17 
18 






A 13 
14 






XIV. 


12 


A 2 
14 






A5 

17 




A 7 
19 




XV. 


24 


M26 
19 




A 19 
I 14 






M25 
18 



G. N. 


Ep. 1 A 


B 


C 


D 


E 


F 


G 


XVI. 


5 




.. 11 
16 




A 13 

18 


" 


A 15 
20 


XVII. 
XVIIl. 


16 18 






M29 
14 


M31 

16 




27 






A 18 
16 


A 19 
17 






A 22 
20 


XIX. 


8 




A 10 

18 








A7 
15 




XX. 
XXI. 


29 






A 18 
18 




A 20 1 
20 


A 15 
15 


10 




A 10 
20 


A4 1 
14 




A 7 

17 




XXII. 


21 


M 26 
16 


M27 
17 






M30 
20 






XXIII. 


2 
13 


A 16 

18 






A 12 
14 




A 14 
16 




XXIV. 




A3 
16 






A6 
19 






XXV. 


4 


A 16 
20 






A 12 
16 






A 15 

19 


XXVI. 


15 






A 4 
19 




M30 

14 




A 1 
16 


XXVII. 


26 


A 23 
20 






A 19 
16 




A 21 
18 




XXVIII 


7 






All 

18 


A 12 
19 






A 8 
15 


XXIX. 


18 




M 27 
14 








M31 
18 




XXX. 


23 




M27 
19 






A 20 
14 







INTRODUCTION, 



Ixxxi 



the year in which St. Ambrose died, on the morning of Obit of St. 
Holy Saturday!, has Cyclic No. 17. This No. has D I'^^^^^^l 
XVII. in Table P, which give Easter on March 29 in 
Table Q. 

The death consequently took place on March 28, not March 28. 
April 4, as erroneously assigned by later^ writers, who, 
like Tio^ernaclr^ in the matter of the Columban obit, 
computed by the Alexandrine cycle (Easter, April 5). 
That the 84 was observed at the time has been shown 
above* by a Catacomb Inscription of the very year ; 
whilst its astronomical accuracy is fully attested by the 
lunar eclipses'' of Feb. 28 and Aug. 24, which require 
epact 16. 



the Supputation, or 84 (12), not i 
the 84. 

Ea [lectio quae dat lunam xvii. 
in vii. Kal. Nov.] mihi potius erit 
indicio Victoriana ratiocinia anno 
470 in Galliis esse usurpata et 
Romanam Stipputationem anti- 
quatam. Sane nihil veri similius, 
quam G alios sedis quoque apos- 
tolicae auctoritate obsequutos 
Victorii Aquitaui, concivis sui, 
opus uon minore plausu excepisse, 
quam Itali excepere, et Romanam 
mature Suppntationem abrograsse 
[loc. cit.) 

1 Holy Saturday. — Atque inde ad 
ecclesiam maiorem, antelucana ho- 
ra qua defunctus est, corpus ipsius 
portatum est ; ibique eadem fuit 
nocte, qua vigilavimus in Pascha : 
quum plurimi infantes baptizati, 
cum a fonte venirent, viderunt, 
ita ut aliqui sedentem in cathecira 
in tribunal! dieerent. . . . Sed, 
lucescente die Dominico, etc. — 
Paulinus, Vita Ambrosii, xlviii 
{P.L. XIV. 43). 

Later. — Ven. Beda primus hoc 



die IV. Aprilis Ambrosii solenni- 
tatem celebrat {Mart. Usuardi, ed. 
Sollerio, Antverp., 1714— bound 
with t. VI. of the June A A. SS., 
Antwerp, 1715 — p. 191). 

To show how unsettled the date 
of the month was, the Leinster re- 
cension of the Hieronyman Mar- 
tyrology {Bk. Lnstr., 358a) and the 
Calendar of Aengus give the obit 
at April 1 ! 

On the contention of Henschen 
{A A. SS. April, t. /., Antverp., 1675, 
}). xxxviii.-xli.), that the year was 
398 and the day April 17 (Eas., Ap. 
18), it will suffice to quote Soller : 
Contra Henschenium stat major re- 
centiorum numerus, quos inter 
tono decretorio Pagius [Crit. Hist- 
Chroii. etc., Antverp., 1727, IP, 
16] ad an. cccxcvii. a numero 19, et 
modestior Tillemontius { Mcnioircs, 
etc., 1693-1712], tomo 10, nota 56, 
a pag. 761 {/oc. cit.). 

■' Tifjernach. — P. Ixxviii, supra. 

■* Above. — P. Ixxiii. 

^ Eclipse.^. — UArf de vérif. Ics 
dates, etc., 1. 294. 



Ixx: 



INTRODUCTION. 



Cycle of As regards the Cycle of 84 (12), the initial year\ 

fnitiaT ' Paschasinus of Lilybaeum, in his letter on the Easter 

year, of 444, states, fell in the consulship of Antonius and 

Syagrius (A.D. 382). 382^84 leaves 46, the difference 

between remainder and divisor beincr 38. Accordingl}^ 

to find the Cyclic IN'o., divide the given A.D. + 39 b}^ 84 : 

what remains is the lS"o. ; if remains the No. is 84. 

The N"nmhers will he found by inspection in Table R 

lunar With reference to the lunar struct-are, it is unneces- 

structurej ^^^^ ^^ ^j^^ ^ £^|i ^^^i^. ^ r^^^^^ ^^s^ ^^ Dominical Letters, 

Cyclic Nos., and Golden Nos.,and a Paschal Table (T) will 
suffice. The epacts and Saltus are those given in the 
Consular Fasti of the Chronography of So//.. The former 
will be found in the proper column in the Paschal 
Table T. The latter are :— 



CYCLE OF 84a2)~SALTUS. 



Saltus, 
Table of, 



Paschal 
Calendar 
and lunar 
days. 



uncan - 
onical 
dates, 
cause of, 



CvcHc Nos. 
12—13 

24 25 

36—37 
48—49 
60—61 
72—73 



Saltus. 
1 
2 

3 
4 
5 
6 



Epacts. Golden Nos. 

2—14 XIL— XIIL 

15—27 Y,- XX. 

28—10 XVIL— X. 

11—23 XXI Y.— IIL 

24— 6 XXVTIL— XV. 

7—19 A^L— XXII. 



The earliest Paschal new-moon was March 5^ (ep. 27) ; 
the latest, April 2 (ep. 28). The Easter Calendar days 
were March 22 — April 21. The Paschal lunar days were 
the Hippolytan and Cyprianic, 16 — 22. 

Like the 84, the cycle did not always orive canonical 
dates : VI. C was extra comiputiini^ ; the respective 
alternatives to the Tabular being March 28, m. 23 and 



^ Initial year. — Nam cum Ro- 
mana supputatio, quae cyclo con 
cluditur, cuius ipse de quo agitur 
erit sexagesinius tertius, qui coe- 
pit consulatu Antonii et S^^agrii 
(KruBch, uhi. .'ivp, p. 248). 

'^ March. 5. — Cur ergo hodie abs 
tertio Nonaruni Martiarum usque 
in quartum Nonarum Aprilium 
diem, luna prima a nobis quaeritur 



. . . confirmatur (Hilarianus, A.D. 
397, Expos, de die mensis et Paschae. 
Bihliothf'ca Patrum, ed. Galland,, 
Venetiis, 1772, VIII. 745 B). 

^ Computvm. — Sane [nullum per- 
moveat] annus[-ni] laterculi ab 
initio sexti paschael'-cham] extra 
computum haberi, etc (Patio Pas- 
chae, Cod. Vat. Reg. Christ, fol. 79., 
/. a Iviii). 



i 



A.D. 

less than 
100. 




A.D. 

Centuries. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 








55 


71 


3 


19 


35 


51 


67 


83 


85 


1 


40 


56 


72 


4 


20 


36 


52 


68 


84 


86 


2 


41 


57 


73 


5 


21 


37 


53 


69 


1 


87 


3 


42 


58 


74 


6 


22 


38 


54 


70 


2 


88 


4 


43 


59 


75 


7 


23 


39 


55 


71 


3 


89 


5 


44 


80 


76 


8 


24 


40 


56 


72 


4 


90 


6 


45 


61 


77 


9 


25 


41 


57 


73 


5 


91 


7 


46 


62 


78 


10 


26 


42 


58 


74 


6 


92 


8 


47 


63 


79 


11 


27 


43 


59 


75 


7 


93 


9 


48 


64 


80 


12 


28 


44 


60 


76 


8 


94 


10 


49 


65 


81 


13 


29 


45 


61 


77 


9 


95 


11 


50 


66 


82 


14 


30 


46 


62 


78 


10 


96 


12 


51 


67 


83 


15 


31 


47 


63 


79 


11 


97 


13 


52 


68 


84 


16 


32 


48 


64 


80 


12 


98 


U 


53 


69 


1 


17 


33 


49 


65 


81 


13 


|99 


15 


54 


70 


2 


18 


34 


50 


66 


82 


14 




16 


55 


71 


3 


19 


35 


51 


67 


83 


15 




17 


56 


72 


4 


20 


36 


52 


68 


84 


16 




18 


57 


73 


5 


21 


37 


53 


69 


1 


17 




19 


58 


74 


6 


22 


38 


54 


70 


2 


18 




20 


59 


75 


7 


23 


39 


55 


71 


3 


19 




21 


60 


76 


8 


24 


40 


56 


72 


4 


20 




22 


61 


77 


9 


25 


41 


57 


73 


5 


21 




23 


62 


78 


10 


26 


42 


58 


74 


6 


22 




24 


63 


79 


11 


27 


43 


59 


75 


7 


23 




25 


64 


80 


12 


28 


44 


60 


76 


8 


24 




26 


65 


81 


13 


29 


45 


61 


77 


9 


25 




27 


66 


82 


14 


30 


46 


62 


78 


10 


26 




28 


67 


83 


15 


31 


47 


63 


79 


11 


27 



CYCLE OF 84 (12). 


CYCLIC NUMBERS. 


A.D. 

less 
than 
100. 




A.D. 

Centuries. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 6 


7 


8 


29 


68 


84 


16 


32 


48 


64 80 


12 


28 


30 


69 


1 


17 


33 


49 


65 81 


13 


29 


31 


70 


2 


18 


34 


50 


66 82 


14 


30 


32 


71 


3 


19 


35 


51 


67 83 


15 


31 


33 


72 


4 


20 


36 


52 


68 84 


16 


32 


34 


73 


5 


21 


37 


53 


69 1 


17 


33 


35 


74 


6 


22 


38 


54 


70 2 


18 


34 


36 


75 


7 


23 


39 


55 


71 3 


19 


35 


37 


76 


8 


24 


40 


56 


72 4 


20 


36 


38 


77 


9 


25 


41 


57 


73 5 


21 


37 


39 


78 


10 


26 


42 


58 


74 6 


22 


38 


40 


79 


11 


27 


43 


59 


75 7 


23 


39 


41 


80 


12 


28 


44 


60 


76 8 


24 


40 


42 


81 


13 


29 


45 


61 


77 9 


25 


41 


43 


82 


14 


30 


46 


62 


78 10 


26 


42 


44 


83 


15 


31 


47 


63 


79 11 


27 


43 


45 


84 


16 


32 


48 


64 


80 12 


28 


44 [ 


46 


1 


17 


33 


49 


65 


81 13 


29 


45 


47 


2 


18 


34 


50 


66 


82 14 


30 


46 


48 


3 


19 


35 


51 


67 


83 15 


31 


47 


49 


4 


20 


36 


52 


68 


84 16 


32 


48 


50 


5 


21 


37 


53 


69 


1 17 


33 


49 


51 


6 


22 


38 


54 


70 


2 18 


34 


50 


52 


7 


23 


39 


55 


71 


3 19 


35 


51 


53 


8 


24 


40 


56 


72 


4 20 


36 


52 ! 


54 


9 


25 


41 


57 


73 


5 21 


37 


53 1 


55 


10 


26 


42 


58 


74 


6 22 


38 


54 


56 


11 


27 


43 


59 


75 


7 23 


39 


55 



A.D. 

less 
than 
100. 



57 
58 
59 
60 

jGl 
I G2 
j 63 

t ^^ 
C5 

: 66 

I ^'" 

I G8 

i 69 

70 

i" 

I 72 
i 73 
' 74 





A.D. 

Centuries. 




1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


' 


' 


12 


28 


44 


60 


76 


8 


24 


40 


56 


13 


29 


45 


61 


77 


9 


25 


41 


57 


14 


30 


46 


62 


78 


10 


26 


42 


58 


15 


31 


47 


63 


79 


11 


27 


43 


59 


16 


32 


48 


64 


80 


12 


28 


44 


60 


17 


33 


49 


65 


81 


13 


29 


45 


61 


18 


34 


50 


66 


82 


14 


30 


46 


62 


19 


35 


51 


67 


83 


15 


31 


47 


63 


20 


36 


52 


68 


84 


16 


32 


48 


64 


21 


37 


53 


69 


1 


17 


33 


49 


65 


22 


38 


54 


70 


2 


18 


34 


50 


66 


23 


39 


55 


71 


3 


19 


35 


51 


67 


24 


40 


56 


72 


4 


20 


36 


52 


68 


25 


41 


57 


73 


5 


21 


37 


53 


69 


26 


42 


58 


74 


6 


22 


38 


54 


70 


27 


43 


59 


75 


7 


23 


39 


55 


71 


28 


44 


60 


76 


8 


24 


40 


56 


72 


29 


45 


61 


77 


9 


25 


41 


57 


73 


30 


46 


62 


78 


10 


26 


42 


58 


74 


31 


47 


63 


79 


11 


27 


43 


59 


75 


32 


48 


64 


80 


12 


28 


44 


60 


76 


33 


49 


65 


81 


13 


29 


45 


61 


77 


34 


50 


66 


82 


14 


30 


46 


62 


78 


35 


51 


67 


83 


15 


31 


47 


63 


79 


36 


52 


68 


84 


16 


32 


48 


64 


80 


37 


53 


69 


1 


17 


33 


49 


65 


81 


38 


54 


70 


2 


18 


34 


50 


66 


82 


39 


55 


71 


3 


19 


35 


51 


67 


83 



s 



CYCLE OF S4 (12). 
Dominical Letters ; Cyclic Nos. ; Golden Nos. 



D. L, 


:C. N. 


G.N. 


C.N. 


G. N. 


C. N. 


! G. N. 


B 


1 


1 


29 


24 


57 


"~ii~! 


A 


2 


2 


.SO 


25 


58 


12 


GF 


; 3 


3 


31 


26 


59 


27 


E 


: 4 


4 


32 


13 


60 


28 ; 


D 


i 5 


5 


33 


14 


61 


15 ' 


C 


6 


6 


34 


15 


62 


16 


BA 


1 7 


7 


35 


16 


63 


17 


G 


8 


8 


36 


17 


64 


18 


F 


9 


9 


37 


10 


65 


19 


E 


10 


10 


38 


11 


(jG 


1 


DC 


11 


11 


39 


12 


67 


2 


B 


12 


12 


40 


27 


68 


3 


A 


13 


13 


41 


28 


69 


4 


i ^ 


14 


14 


42 


29 


70 


5 


FE 


15 


15 


43 


30 


71 


6 


D 


16 


16 


44 


20 


72 


7 


C 


17 


17 


45 


21 


73 


22 


B 


18 


18 


46 


22 


74 


23 


AG 


19 


19 


47 


23 


75 


24 


F 


20 


1 


48 


24 


76 


25 


E 


21 


2 


49 


3 


77 


26 


D 


■22 1 


3 


50 


4 


78 


13 


1 CB 


:>8 j 


4 


51 


5 


79 


14 


1 

' A 


24 ' 


5 


52 


6 


80 


15 


G 


25 


20 


53 


7 


81 


16 


F 


26 


21 


54 


8 


82 


17 1 


ED 


27 


22 


55 


9 


83 


18 : 


C 


28 


23 


^.6 1 


10 


84 


19 



CYCLE OF 
PASCHAL 



8-t (12). 
T A B L E. 



|G. N. 


1 Ep. ; A 


B 1 C 


D E 


F 


G 


I- 




A 17 


A 20 


A 21 




! ^ 


18 


21 


22 




II. 


- V 


A 4 


A 6 

I 18 




III. 


23 


M27 1 
19 


M29 
21 


M30 
22 


M24. 
16 




IV. 


A A 16 
20 


A 17 


A 12 

10 


A 13 

17 






1 
V. 


!■-, ' ^^-' 


A3 


A .J 




A 1 


^■' 17 


18 


20 I 


16 


VI. 


20 ^^f 


M 21 

16 
A 18 

15 


M 23 1 

18 ; 


1 


VII 


_ A 9 




A 12 |A15 




11, 




19 22 


VIll, 


18 




M31 


A 1 











18 


19 


IX. 


29 


A 19 JA21 
19 ( 21 











AO Ha 7 ' 


X. 


10 


A 11 






21 


10 : 17 












XI 


''I 


M27 M28 


M30 






17 18 


20 


XII. 


.i A16 


A 17 1 A 18 








" ' IS 


19 1 20 


A 5 






XIIL 


14' A 2 




A 6 






1 ^^ 




19 ' 20 


j 










1 




XIV. 


0.-, 


M27 


M22 




M25 








21 




16 ' 




19 


XV. 




A 16 




A 11 


A 121 A 13 










_ 22 




17 


18 


19 







G.N. 


Ep. 


A 


B 


C D E 1 F 


G 1 


XVIL 


17 



28 


A2 
19 




A 4 1 A .5 1 
21 ; 22 

A 18 A 21 

17 20 


Al 

18 j 


M25 

22 

1 


XVIIL 


»1 

1 


A 10 
17 


A12 i 

21 , 

M28 ! ! M31 

17 i ! 20 


A8 
17 

Al 
21 


1 XIX. 


.0 






XX. 


27 






,M22. 1 
! 18 , 


M 25 
21 


XXI. 


8 






All A 14 
19 22 




XXIL 


19 




A3 


M 28 M 29 
16 17 




XXIII. 


30 




A 17 

IS 


A 18 
19 


A 15 

IG 


[xxiv. 


11 




A 10 
21 


A 7 

18 


A 8 
19 


XXV. 


22 


M26 
17 






M31 


XXVL 


3 








: A 13 ' A 14 
16 j 17 


XXVII. 


13 




A3 
16 




: ' A7 i 

1 20 ; 


XXVIII. 


24 


M26 
19 




i I M 23 1 

' 1 16 


Í 
..20 


XXIX. 


5 






1 i 


XXX. 


16 






A6 

22 





INTRODUCTION. Ixxxill 

April 25, m. 22. Why March 21 was chosen is ex- 
plained^ in a notice appended to a Table of the 84 (12) 
in an Ambrosian Codex. (IX. D has M. 22, m. 20 and 
A. 19, ni. 19, in the same MS. ; but the first date is a 
computistic error.) In XVII. A, the days explain them- 
selves ; in XVII. G, March 25 was naturally preferred 
to April 22. Of the duplicates, the selection, ^ we learn selection 
from the same authoritj^ was reserved to the Pope. As p^ f ' 
the years were the sixth and sixty-third, the prerogative 
was but seldom exercised. 

The Cycle of Victorius^ of Aquitaine was an attempt Victorian 
to reconcile the Eastern and Western systems. A pfoWue 
dedicatory epistle to Hilarus, archdeacon of Rome 
(and Pope in 461), whose letter of request precedes^ is 
followed by an explanatory Prologue, which proves 
that in cyclic technique the writer was somewhat to 
seek. Paschal divergence chiefly arose from different Paschal 
lunar computations and rules for defining the initial giTilfner 
month. To illustrate the first, the variety of Saltus 



'^Explained. — Nullum sane per- 
moveat eo quod quintus annus de 
ciclo designatuin diem paschae 
habeat, hoc est, xii. Kl. Apl., die 
dominica, luna xvi. Hoc semel in 
annis Ixxxiiii. faciendum est, hac 
ratione, eo quod violentia lunae 
vel lex paschae prohibet, ne die v. 
Kl. Apl.aliquis presumtive estimet 
se pascham facere, qua diae [sic] 
erit luna xxii. et super semisse. 
Maxime, cum lege sit cautuni, ne 
mpdum lunae sta[tu]tum aliquis 
excedat et in gravem oifensionem 
incurrat. Sed pocius est, ut die 
xii. Kl. Apl. ceiebretur pascha, 
ubi levis reprehensio est quam 
criminis nota, sicut et in veteri 
laterculo continetur (Krusch, Der 
84j(ihrige Ostercyclus, p. 240). 

To ex^\di\n fifth year of the fore- 
going, the Heading states the 84 
(12) began (dates being in consular 
notation) A.D. 298, ended 382; 
began 388 and 467. Table R shows 
the last three should be 381, 382, 
466. TheAmbrosiancomputistis ac- 



cordingly one cyclic no. in arrear; 
his 1 should be 2, and so on. 

The old Hat that had Easter on 
March 21 was either the Hippoly- 
tan, Cyprianic, or Anatolian. 

" Selection. — ^Et hocnecessarioop- 
ortuit intermitti, esse quosdam an- 
nos in qui[bus] duplices paschae 
in unum annum veniunt, et, quia 
una observanda est, erit in arbitrio 
sum mi sacerdotis conferre cum 
presbiteris qui die[s] elegi debeat, 
dummodo omnes unianimes ipsum 
diem paschae in unum conveni- 
entes celebremus (Kruscii, ubi sup., 
p. 240). 

*^* For the Zeitz Paschal Table, 
a modification of the 84 (12), see 
Mommsen : Ahhiidlngn. der Kun, 
Akad. der Wissen. zu Berlin, aus 
dem J. 1862, p. 539-66 ; id. M. G. 
H. SS Antiqss. IX. 503-10 (a 
second and less satisfactory edi- 
tion by the same editor) ; Krusch, 
ubi sup., p. 116-29. 

^ Victorius. — For calculator scrip- 
turarum^o\. I., p. 16, note l,of the 



Ixxxiv 



INTRODUCTION. 



insertion in the 84, 84 (12), (Cyrillan) 95, and (Hippo- 
lytan or Cyprianic) 112 is mentioned. In the last- 
named, the lunar increments are added, he states^, 
after every 16 years ! As regards the second, the 
Latin — 84 (12) — Paschal data (new moon, Mar. 5 — 
Ap. 3; Term, Mar. 18— Ap. 15 ; lunar days, 16—22), 
and the Alexandrine (as set forth by Theophiliis) are 



Design : 
original, 



actual, 



His original design was to digest- the years from 
Creation by the Bissextiles and by the truer^ 19-year 
system of the Egyptians, whereby the 1st and 20th 
years are identical. But, as this immense work was one 
for greater leisure, he supplied a breviate^ of 430 past 
and 102 future years, after which the whole series 



present edition, read calculator 
scrnpulosus (exact computist). 

^ States. — Porro ii qui post cxii. 
annos in id cyclum, unde orsus 
fuerat, reverti confirmant, ea ipsa 
incrementa lunaria quae superius 
memoravi post annos xvi. subneoti 
debere constituunt (3I.G.II., SS. 
Antiqss.lX.Q'id; Pet., De doc. temp. 
II. 594. The Bucherian text being 
less accurate than the Petavian, 
which, in tiirn, is inferior to that 
of the M. (,'. II. , it will suffice to 
mention the references : Letter of 
Hilarus, p. 1 ; of V^ictoiius, p. 2 ; 
Prologue, p. 2-9. Text and punc- 
tuation of the editions have not 
been always adhered to in the 
present quotations.). 

-Dicjest. — Omnes a mundi origine 
usque ad Constantinum et Rufum, 
praesentes Coss., vdclviii. referun- 
tur anni : (piibus, ob veritatem 
oertius indagandum, bissextos 
etiam copulavi. quo manifestius 
appareret utrum sibi vel bissexto- 
rinii ratio vel dierum . . . continu- 
ata disputatione concineret . . . 
Restabat inquiri si lunae dinunie- 
ratio . . . transact is praesenti- 
busque temporibus consonaret . . . 
iuxta Aegyptiam disciplinam, 
qua evidentissime deprehensum 
est quod, xix. annorum porrecta 
curriculis, in semet semper iisdem 



vestigiis se revolvens, annum quem 
vigesimum inchoat, hunc eadem 
metiatur et primum (p. 682 ; p. 
505). 

2 Truer. — Ii vero qui annorum v. 
et xc, cycli observantiam compre- 
hendunt, post x. et ix. annos, 
Aegyptiorum more, continuato 
ordine, quod est verius, hoc aug- 
mentum limare subiiciunt (p. 679; 
p. 504). 

'* Breviate. — Necessarium erat, 
propter Paschalis observantiae 
rationem, dies et lunares annos a 
mundi ipsius describi principio . . . 
Sed, quia immensum opus maioris 
otii est. . . breviariura eius interim 
explicavi (quod tamen ex ipsius 
plenitudinis ordinatione descen- 
dat) : ex tempore Dominicae Pas- 
sionis, diebus Kal. Ian. et nomini- 
bus Coss . , . diligenti adnotatione 
collectis, per cccc. et xxx. annos, 
cum lunis atqiie temporibus, ao 
deinceps sine Coss. per annos c. et 
ii. futuros [ad A.]). 559], ut 
dxxxii. annis onniis summa con- 
si stat, patefacere properavi. 
Quae summa itacunctarum quibus 
excepta est seriem regularum sua 
revolutione complectitur, ut 
eodeni tramite et in id unde est 
orta revocetur, et ad finem pristi- 
num denuo circumacta perveniat 
(p. 683-4 ; p. 505). 



ENTRODUCTION. lxxx\' 

shows no 



would recommence. This, it is hardly necessary to ^^^^^^l^'^ig^ 
observe, reveals no acquaintance with 4x7; other- of Solar "^ 
wise, the 28 would not have failed to be contrasted Cycle. 
with the 19. Whence it follows that his great Cycle of 
532 was not derived from an Eastern source. The author, 
namely, worked by (juadriennial period, and found the 
solar and lunar data recurring after the 133rd. The 
Victorian Period was accordingly 133 x 4. To call it 
Great Paschal in the sense that it was consciously 
based on the formula 28 x 19, or 19 x 4 x 7, is a com- 
plete misnomer. 

The initial A.D., as already stated, is 28, his Passion a. P., 
Year (A.P.) ; the final A.D. is 559 = A.P. 532. Hence, to ^J'^l^^' 
equate the Victorian A.P. with the A.D., 27 has to be ^j)^ 
added to the A.P. As the Cycle was issued in A.D. 
457, the prospective part was practically the familiar initial 
100-year Table. The Prologue gives a Mundane ^■^^^ 
period of 5201 {i.e., 5202 = A.D. 1) as the solar basis. 
From one year and its criteria^ there given the tech- 
nique can be readily made out. A.M. 5658. Con- 
stantine and Rufits, Consuls [A.D. 457], Jan. 1, 
Tuesday, moon (epact), '20 ; March 25, Monday 
moon IJf. First, in solar calculation, 5658^28 leaves 2. 
This No. 2 = Tuesday agrees with A.D. 457, F. The pre- 
ceding A.M., 5657, is accordingly = A.D. 456. Whence 
the first Victorian solar year is bissextile, AG. 5657^4 
leaves 1 and is leap-year, — additional proof against an 
Eastern origin. The Alexandrine, Byzantine, and 
Pseudo - Incarnation Eras made the divisor go even. 
On the other hand, in the Hieronymo-Eusebiau Era- 
adopted by Victorius, which was chronographic, not 
Paschal, remainder 1 denoted the bissextile years. 

In luni-solar computation, 5658-^19 leaves 15. Golden Oolden 
No. XV. has consequently epact 20. To find that of ^o^' 



'^Criteria. — Kal. Ian. iii. feria, 1 'Adopted. — Receusitis . . Eusebii 

1. XX., et viii. Kal. Apr. ii. feria, ChronicisPrologoqueacperindehis 

xiv. i., Constantino et Rufo Coss. quae a . . Hieronymo iisdeni Chro- 

ip. 682 : p. 505). j nicis sunt adiecta (p. 681 ; p. 505.) 



Ixxxvi 



INTRODUCTION. 



I., (14x11)^30 leaves 4: the difference between which 
and 20, i.e., 16, is the required epact. Next, to find 
the epact of XIX., (18x11) -30 leaves 18 : (18 + 16, the 
epact of I.) ^ 30 leaves 4. The difference between 4 and 

Saltus, 16, i.e., 12, is made np of epact 11 and the Saltns. The 
moon's leap thus occurs, as was to be expected, in the 
final year. But the decemnovennal year first employed 
(at A.D. 28) corresponded to A.M. 5229, which latter, 
when divided by 19, gives (remainder) Golden No. IV., 
epact 19. This led Petavius^, Bucherius' and all subse- 
quent computists, who apparently neglected the data 
of the Prologue, to take this 4th to be the 1st year and 
to place the Saltus in the 16th, instead of the 19th. 
But a matter of the kind could not escape the vigilance 
of such a master of the science as Ideler^, by whom it 
was rectified. 

The Cycle consists of the cyclic years, numbered 
consecutively, with B. before the first and every fifth ; 
Consuls (in part erroneously) to 457 (later hands 
supplied them to the end) ; week-day incidence (de- 
noted, except Saturday and Sunday, by ferial) of Jan. 1; 
epact of same ; Easters, and Easter lunar days. 

Editions. It was edited and illustrated with a wealth of eru- 



error re- 
specting 
place of 



^ Petavius.—De doc. temp., 1. 
VI. 0. xvii., t. I. p. 333. 

2 Bucherius. — JJc doc. temj^., p. 
149-50. This supposed position of 
the Victorian Saltus (respecting 
the cause of which a conjecture is 
given, of a kind with most of 
the author's Paschal theories, p. 
150) was the foundation of the 
Bucherian Golden Nos. Of the 56 
pages devoted to the cjcle, every 
2 are occupied by 19 years : the 
left page containing the editor's 
additions, as detailed above ; the 
right, the text, with Indictions 
rectified and added for the recur- 
rent period (p. 14-69). 

Bede merely mentions that Vic- 
torius deemed fit to make the 
insertion in the 4th year towards 
the end of the Ogdoad ; i.e., in 



the 6th of the Alexandrine cycle 
(De temp. rat. xlii.). To this bald 
statement Petavius devotes a 
whole colunui of futile disquisi- 
tion {I. 333). 

•^ Ideler.—Handbvch, 11. 281. On 
the same page he uuconsciously 
furnishes conclusive proof of the 
accuracy of the 84, in the time 
of St. Patrick. The Victorian 
epact, 20, of 457 agreed , he states, 
with the mean new moon, 456, 
Dec. 13, 7. 35 a.m., Roman time. 
The 84-year cycle, on the con- 
trary, ill its corresponding 76th 
year,[Golden No. XXV] had epact 
22 ; i.e., new moon 2 days too early. 
This c^cle, however, was the 84 
(12) ; the (77th) year of the 84, on 
the other hand, had epact 20 
(Golden No. XII.). 



INTRODUCTION. 



Ixxxvii 



dition by Bucherius\ He prefixed to each year eight i , 
items: Eusebian A.M. ; A.D. ; the so-called solar Cycle Bucherius, 
(beginning with GF) and Dominical Letter or Letters ; 
Alexandrine lunar cycle; Varronian A.U.C; correct Con- 
suls; years of Roman Emperors; and lunar cycle. He also 
corrected and completed the Indictions which had 
been added, perhaps at various dates, to the Cycle. 
But the tome is so scarce, that only two- copies are 
known to be in Ireland. 

Another edition is given^ in the Scriptores Anti- Momm- 
quissimi, the supplementary series of the Monu- ^®" 
menta Germaniae Historica, by Mommsen. Save 
in the abundance of MS. material, this does not 
gain by contrast with the work of the Jesuit. Oedipus 
explicet, in fact, is the motto for the 532 crabbed lines 
of text,* alternating with 532 still more crabbed lines 
of variants^, — all the former and most of the latter ex- 
tending across two quarto pages. Neither editor has 
tabulated the Cycle. The deficiency is supplied in 
the following. 

(For convenience of reference to works in which the 
De Doctrina Teinporuin is followed, the Bucherian 
Golden Nos. are given in the last column on the right, 
in the Paschal Table.) 



^ Bucherius. — In the work al- 
ready mentioned. In an undated 
letter (probably, of 1635), acknow- 
ledging receipt, Petavius wrote 
that his first enticement to read 
the work was the same title him- 
self used before (inscriptio eadem 
quanosusi antea fuimus), — a covert 
rebuke, not undeserved (III. 314). 

- Two. — One, in the National 
Library ; the other, in the Library 
of Trinit}^ College. 

'^ Given.— Tom. IX. 667-735. The 
cycle occupies 50 pages (686-735). 



^ Text. — Ego cum a paschalium 
Charybdi quantum potui mihi 
caverem, latercuhuu neque sup- 
plere temptavi neque emendare, 
sed curam egi, ut tradita cum fide 
repraesentarem (Mommsen, ed 
cit. p. 676). 

^ Variants, — In 51 places, these 
preserve the correct notation of 
the Easter lunar days, given er- 
roneously in the received text. 
Rectification cau be readily made 
by Table V. 



Ixxxviii 



INTRODUCTION. 







VICTORIAN GOLDEN NUMBERS. 






Years Less than One Hundred. 




1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 






20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 






39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 






58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 






77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 






96 97 98 99 


CEN. 


15 16 17 18 19 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 


1 


19 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 


9 


5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 1 2 3 4 5 


3 


10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 


4 


15 16 17 18 19 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 


5 


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 1 


6 


6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 1 2 3 4 5 6 


7 


11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 


8 


16 17 18 19 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 


9 


2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 1 2 


10 


7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 


11 


12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 


12 


17 18 19 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 


13 


3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 1 2 3 


14 


8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 


15 


13 14 15 16 17 18 19 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 



Kaster, 
Rules to 
tind by 
Tables. 



VICTORIAN PASCHAL TA13LE. 

The Easter is in the square where a line from the 
Dominical Letter (found by Table C) meets a line from 
the Golden No. (found by Table U). The Easter dates 
are March 22 — April 24; lunar days, 16 — 22. 



INTRODUCTION. 



Ixxxix 



VICTORIAN PASCHAL TABLE. 



G. N. 


Ep. 


A 


B 


C 


D 


E 


F 


G 




I. 


16 


A2 

18 


A3 

19 


A4 
20 


A5 

21 


A6 

22 


M31 

16 


Al 

17 


XVII. 


II. 


27 


A 23 

21 


A 24 
22 


A18 
16 


A19 
17 


A 20 
18 


A21 

19 


A 22 
20 


XVIII. 


III. 


8 


A9 
17 


A 10 

18 


All 

19 


A 12 

20 


A13 
21 


A14 
22 


A8 
16 


XIX. 


IV. 


19 


A2 

21 


A3 

22 


M28 
16 


M29 
17 


M30 

18 


M31 

19 


Al 

20 


I. 


V. 


30 


A 16 
16 


A 17 
17 


A18 
18 


A19 
19 


A 20 
20 


A21 
21 


A 22 
22 


II. 


VI. 


11 


A9 
20 


A 10 
21 


All 
22 


A5 

16 


A6 

17 


A7 

18 


A8 
19 


III. 


vn. 


22 


M26 

17 


M27 
18 


M28 
19 


M29 

20 


M30 
21 


M31 

22 


M25 

16 


IV. 


VEIL 


3 


A 16 
19 


A17 
20 


A 18 
21 


A19 
22 


A13 
16 


AU 

17 


A 15 
18 


V. 


IX. 


14 


A2 
16 


A3 
17 


A4 

18 


A5 

19 


A6 

20 


A7 

21 


A8 
22 


VI. 


X. 


25 


M26 

20 


M27 
21 


M28 
22 


M22 
16 


M23 

17 


M24 
18 


M25 

19 


VII. 


XL 


6 


A 16 
22 


A 10 
16 


All 
17 


A12 
18 


A 13 
19 


A 14 
20 


A15 
21 


VIII. 


XIL 


17 


A2 

19 


A3 

20 


A4 
21 


A5 

22 


M30 
16 


M31 
17 


Al 
18 


IX. 


XIII. 


28 


A 23 
22 


A 17 
16 


A 18 
17 


A19 
18 


A 20 

19 


A21 
20 


A 22 
21 


X. 


XIV. 


9 


A9 

18 


A 10 
19 


All 
20 


A12 
21 


A 13 

22 


A7 
16 


A8 
17 


XI. 


XV. 


20 


A2 
22 


M27 
16 


M28 
17 


M29 

18 


M30 

19 


M31 

20 


Al 

21 


XII. 


XVI. 


1 


A16 
17 


A 17 
18 


A 18 
19 


A 19 
20 


A 20 
21 


A21 

22 


A 15 
16 


XIII. 


XVIL 


12 


A9 
21 


A 10 

22 


A4 
16 


A5 

17 


A6 

18 


A7 1 
19 


A8 i 
20 


XIV. 


XVIIL 


23 


M26 

18 


M27 

19 


M28 
20 


M29 

21 


M30 

22 


M24 

16 


M25 
17 


XV. 


XIX. 


4 


A16 
20 


A 17 
21 


A 18 

22 


A 12 
16 


A 13 

17 


A 14 1 
18 


A 15 1 
19 


XVI. 



xc 



INTRODUCTION. 



The following are the differences between the Yicto- 
rian and Alexandrine Cycles. 



Ep, 

27 

28 

9 
20 

1 
12 
23 

4 



DIVERGENCE BETWEEN VICTORIAN AND 
ALEXANDRINE CYCLES. 



Victorian Cycle. 

G.N. D.L. Eas. Eas. m. 



II. 

Xlil. 

XIV. 

XV. 

XVI. 
XVII. 
XVIII. 

XIX. 



A 18 
A 17 
A 13 
A 2 
A 21 
A 10 
M30 
A 18 



16 
16 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 



Alexandrine Cycle. 
Ep. G.N. D.L. Eas. Eas. m. 

26 VIIL C A 25 21 

27 XIX. B A 24 21 
9 1. E A 6 15 

20 II A M 26 15 

1 III. F A 14 15 

12 IV. B A 3 15 

23 V. EM 23 15 

4 VI. C A 11 15 



Occurs. 
4 times. 



Differ- 
ences 
between 
Victorian 



These were all marked in the Cycle. On the two first, 
the Prologue is silent ; but from II. B it states^ that 
only two Easters are possible : March 20 (new moon, 
and Alex- March 5), according to the Latins; never celebrated 
Easters (owing to falling before the Equinox), although 
explained, canonical in lunar computation ; April 24, according 
to the Egyptians : which was sometimes observed (an 
allusion to the Easter of 455, which gave occasion to 
the compilation of the Victorian Cycle). 
Easter With regard to the remaining differences, the Pro- 
day, logue professes^ to give them for the information of 



1 States. — Cum vero contigerit 
luna xxvii. Sabbato, vel maxima 
die Kal. Jan., provenire absque 
bissexto, noverit sanctitas tua 
Pascha nisi aut xiii. Kal. Apr secun- 
dum Latinos quod numquam cele- 
bratum, etiam si luna conveniat, 
penitus invenitur ; aut viii. Kal. 
Maii, secundum Aegyptios, quod 
aliquoties observatum est, rcperiri 
non posse {Af. G. II. Ss. Antqss. 
IX. 684 ; Pet. II. 505). 

Having quoted this, Bede pro- 
ceeds to confute his " saintly 
brother, Victorius " in a series of 
questions and supposed answers, 
and, to obviate the charge, on the 



part of the admirers of Victorius, 
that he rashly attacked him, con- 
cludes the chapter with two ex- 
tracts from a book of Victor, 
bishop of Capua, relative to the 
Victorian Easter of 550 {De temp, 
rat. li.). 

2 Professes.— Ubi in hoc eodem 
cyclo dies Paschae gemina desig- 
natione positus invenitur — i.e. ubi 
[iuxta Aegyptios] luna xv. et dies 
Dominica, et [iuxta Victorium], 
post vii. dies, [luna] xxii. conscribi- 
tur — non meo iudicio aliquid de- 
finitum, sed pro ecclesiarum pace 
apostolici pontificis electioni ser- 
vatum, quatenus nee ego quod 



MARCH. 



PASCHAL 
SOLAR AND 



W 



MONTHS : 
LUNI-SOLAK. 



APRIL. 



I. II. IIL IV. V. VI. E LL H C A PA Al. 



(12) 



3 V. 

4 iv. 

5 iii. 

6 ii. 

7 Non. 

8 viii. 

9 vii. 

10 vi. 

11 V. 

12 iv. 

13 iii. 
U ii. 

15 Id. 

16 xvii. 

17 xvi. 

18 XV. 
19 
20 
21 
22 



XIV. 

xiii. 



1- g 

i. A 

i. b 

i. c 

V. d 

V. e 

■i. f 

li. g 

i. A 

i. b 



5 60 

G 61 

7 62 

8 63 

9 64 

10 65 

11 66 

12 67 

13 68 

14 69 



81 



28 83 

29 84 

30 85 

pill. 

1 86 

2 87 

3 88 

4 89 

5 90 



1 A 

30 

29 

28 I! 

27 

26 

25 C 

24 

23 

22 D 

21 

20 

19 E 

18 

17 

16 ¥ 

15 

14 

13 G 

12 

11 

10 H 



5 

4 K 

3 



11 9 
17 

19 

8 6 
14 
16 

5 3 

13 11 
2 19 

10 8 
16 
18 

7 5 

15 13 

4 2 

12 10 
1 18 

8 7 
15 



14 12 

3 1 

9 



3 16 

5 
11 

13 
19 2 
8 

10 
16 

5 18 
7 
13 
2 15 
4 
10 

18 1 
7 12 
9 
15 

4 17 

12 6 

1 14 

3 

9 

11 



14 
3 16 



13 


1 


2 


23 


20 


9 


10 


17 


18 


20 


27 


6 


7 


14 


15 


28 


30 


3 


4 


25 


22 


11 


12 


19 


1 


22 


29 


8 


9 


16 


17 


30 


26 


5 


6 


13 


24 


27 


14 


2 


3 


24 


21 


10 


11 


18 


19 


21 


28 


7 


8 


15 


16 


29 


25 


4 


5 


26 


23 


12 



L II. 


III. 


IV. 


V. 


VI. 


LL 


H 


C 


A 


P-A 


Al. 


V 


84 


84 
(12) 


1 Kl. 


vii. 


f 


s 


6 


91 








11 


17 




5 


20 


9 I 


2 iv. 


i. 


A 


a 


7 


92 






6 






11 


13 


10 


17 


3 iii. 


ii. 


b 


n 


8 


93 


B 


6 




19 


6 




2 


18 


20 


4 ii. 


iii. 


c 


s 


9 


94 








8 


14 


19 




27 


6 


5 Non. 


iv. 


d 


e 


10 


95 








16 




8 


10 


7 


14 


6 viii. 


V. 


e 


1 


11 


96 


C 


3 


3 


5 


3 


16 




15 


28 


7 vii. 


vi. 


f 


u 


12 


97 












5 


18 


30 


3 


8 vi. 


vii. 


S 


s 


13 


98 








13 


11 




7 


4 


25 


9 . v. 


i. 


A 


a 


14 


99 


D 




8 


2 


19 


13 




22 


11 


10 iv. 


ii. 


b 


n 


15 


100 




8 








2 


15 


12 


19 


11 iii. 


iii. 


c 


S 


16 


101 








10 


8 




4 


1 


22 


12 ii. 


iv. 


d 


e 


17 


102 


E 








16 


10 




29 


8 


13 Id. 


V. 


e 


1 


18 


103 






5 


18 








9 


16 


14 xviii. 


vi. 


f 


u 


19 


104 


F 


5 




7 


5 


18 


1 


17 


30 


1 5 xvii. 


vii. 


K 


s 


20 


105 












7 


12 


26 


5 


16 xvi. 


i. 


A 


a 


21 


106 








15 


13 




9 


6 


13 


17 XV. 


ii. 


b 


n 


22 


107 


Cr 




2 


4 


2 


15 




24 


27 


18 xiv. 


iii. 


c 


s 


23 


108 




2 








4 


17 


14 


2 


19 xiii. 


iv. 


d 




24 


109 








12 


10 






3 


24 


20 xii. 


V. 


e 


1 


25 


110 


H 






1 


18 


12 


6 


21 


10 


21 xi. 


vi. 


f 


11 


26 


111 




7 


7 






1 


14 


11 


18 


22 x. 


vii. 


S 


s 


27 


112 








8 


7 




3 


19 


21 


23 ix. 


i. 


A 


a 


28 


113 


I 








15 


9 




28 


7 


24 viii. 


ii. 


b 


n 


29 


114 






4 


17 






11 


8 


15 


25 vii. 


iii. 


c 


g 


30 


115 




4 




6 


4 


17 




16 


29 





A, SOLAR DATA. 






B, LUNI-SOLAR DATA 


1. 


Days of month. 




K, 


Epact. 


II. 


Koman reckoning. 




LL, 


Lunar Letters. 


lU. 


Ferial Numbers. 




H, 


Hippolytan. ^ ^ 


iV. 


D.L., left, alphabetical 
verbal. 


right, 


c, 

A, 


Cyprianic. ^ 
Anatolian. ^ 


V. 


Days of Egyptian months 
noth and Pharmuthi. 


Phame- 


PA 

Al., 


Pseudo-Anatolian. ' S 
Alexandrine. -3 


VI. 


Days of year. 




V, 


Victorian. J "J 



INTRODUCTION. XCl 

the PontifF, to whom it appertains to select the day. selection 
Other Easters (which are immaterial to the present of. exclu- 
purpose), it adds^, are placed on the margin, not as PapaL 
having authority, but as indicating variety of opinion. 

It remains to be observed, in connexion with the Pseudo- 
orio^in of the Mundane B/eckoninffs given in these Victorian 

^ T- . . Mundane 

Annals, that a pseudo- Victorian Mundane Period of Period. 
5200 (i.e., A.M. 5201 = A.D. 1), based on interpolated- 
passages of the Prologue, is employed in the Irish work 
Be mirabilibus Sacrae ScrijAurae. From that source it- 
was taken by Tigernach. 

Finally, the Table of Paschal Months shows the 
agreement and difference between the Golden Num- 
bers of the Paschal systems described^. 

In A, the perplexing contiguity of II. and III. A. 
explains how the latter came to be superseded by one 
or other of the IV. columns. As regards V., the Syro- 
Macedonian months corresponded, day for day, Dystrus 
with March ; Xanthicus with April. 

In B, the Epact is the moon's age (not on the day ^ 
opposite which it stands, but) on March 1 of each 
luni-solar year (represented by a Golden No.). In 
the Lunar Letters, the one-day interval between E =.29 days; 
and F in April makes the ten letters represent the 
29 days of the holloiv month. The rule of alternate 
full and hollow lunations is apparently violated in ^ason~of' 
11. of 84 and XXIII. of 84 (12). But the moon 30 
in question on March 1 is what the Greeks called old 
and new,^ and Western computists, thirtieth and iirst.^ 

ad meum peitinebat officium prae- I tolian, .^ee in the Irish Paschal cwn- 

terirem, et in eius coxistitueretur li troversy, Table X,. p. cxxvi., w/?'a 

arbitrio qui universali eoclesiae ^ Old and 7iew.—'Kvj], or 'Evij, 

praésideret quaenam potissimum ical via. The authorities are given 

dies in tali conditione soleranitati | in 8tephanus' Thesaurus, s. v. 'Ev- 

precipuae deputetur (locc. citt.). \ vcc(Lond, ed., 1821-2, III, 3735 7). 

^ Adds. — Caeteris, quae a latere ! ° Thirtieth and first. — Nam,con- 

similiter adiecta sunt, non firma- { pleto cursu tricenalio, uno mense 

tur auctoritas ; sed varia significa- I tricensima canitur et aliomense tri- 



tur opinio [locc. citt.). 

- Interpolated. — See Todd Lec- 
fure Series, III. 365 sq. 



Described. — For the Pseudo- Ana- p. 242). 



censima quae et prima /^De Cursu 
ltin[a]e, Cologne MS. 83"-, fol. 56, 
Krusch, Der 84Jdhr. Ostercyclns, 



XCll 



INTRODUCTION. 



III. 

Mundane 
Reckon- 
ings: 
Tigernach. 



(1) 
Mundane 
Periods ; 



(a) pseudo- 
Victorian. 

(b) Bedau 



It is derived from the Rule for finding the moon's 
age: (89 + 30 = ) 119-1-59 leaves 1 ; showing the moon 
is liollow. The reckoning appears distorted in the 
spurious Tractate of St. Athanasius hereinafter 
described, and therefrom in the fabricated Avatoliiis, 
Avhich has the ninth Easter on xipril 14th, moon 15 
(not 14). 

III. — The Mundane Reckonings used in the Annals 
had their origin in a Fragment^ of Tigernach, — three 
vellum folios, of the thirteenth or fourteenth century, 
bound up with the MS. A, and containing 490 years 
(A.D. 81 — 570), for almost three-fourths blank, with 
intermittent ferial and Alexandrine epactal notation. 
Of the chronological data, the following directly relate 
to the present subject. 

(l.)2 Wednesday, moon 2 [^7], {A.M.'] Septaagint, 5290 
[5295], Hebrew, 4046, A.D. 95. The rectification of 
the Septuagint number is supplied by the Annals of 
Ulster, in which 5201 is the difference between the 
Septuagint A.M. and the Hebrew A.D. This is the 
pseudo-Yictorian Mundane Period, 5200, of the Irish 
Augustine. The difference between 404G and 95, 3951, 
is the Mundane Period of Bede. But, on the other 
hand, although A.D. 95 is intended, the week-day 
of Jan. 1 and the genuine Victorian A.M. denote 
A.D. 94. Finally, whilst the cyclic computation of 
the Fragment proves that A.D. 95 is meant, the 
epact is of 89. (This prolepsis of 5 years continues 
throughout.) 

(2.)3 Thursday, moon 9 [4], [>S'e_p., 5^53] Heh. 1^20^. 



^ Fragment. — See Todd Lecture 
Series, III. 354 sq. Reference 
in the following notes is by fol. 
(1, 2, 3), page (a, b), and col. (1, 
etc. ; 6 to the page). Of the five 
missing 3'ears supplied in the T. 
L. S. III., the fourth is ; — iiii. 
clxvii. Kl. En. i. /., /. XX. The 
Editor, who imprudently relied 
upon O'Curry's transcript, found 
afterwards that the original has 



the entry, which is identical with 
the restoration (fol. lb, 3). 

- 1. — iiiixlvi. Kl. En. iiii. f., 
1. ii. Ab initio mundi vccxc, 
secundum Ixx. Interpretes ; se- 
cundum Ebreos, iiiixlvi. Ab 
Incarnatione xcv (fol. la, 2). 

•^ í^. — iiiicciiii. Kl. En. V. f., 1. ix. 
Hie est annus primus noni cicli 
magni paschalis, qui habet iiii. 
Concurrentes bissextiles et tertius 



INTEODUCTION. XCUl 

This is the first year of the 9th great Paschal cycle, and 
it has 4 bissextile Concurrents and is the 3rd year of 
Indiction. The Concurrents are of B.C. 1 and A.D. 
252 ; the (proleptic) Indiction of 252 is 15 ; the epact is 
of 247. Such is the genesis of Tigernach's pseudo- 
Bedan A.M. : founded apparently on the fact that years ^^^ ^^^^^^^ 
which are 9 solar cycles apart have the same ferial inci- Bedan. 
dence, and differ only by 5 in the lunar. How a grave 
annalist could base an Era on the laughable paradox that 
A.D. 1 began on A.D. 252, remains to be explained by 
those who applaud Tigernach as the mostreliable^of the 
equatedwithA.D 252, A.M. 4256, (z.e., eight great Paschal 
native chroniclers. Nor is this all. A.M. 4204 being 
cycles) corresponds with A.D. 303, which gives a Paschal 
Mundane Period of 4255. Admirers of Tigernach will 
find it somewhat difficult to suggest a plausible explana- 
tion of this notable discovery. 

(3)2 Saturday, moon 20 [W], [r^ioi] 4205. This is (3) 
the year of the Incarnation of Christ, according to Diony- pseudo- 
sins : for, according to hir)i, He ivas horn in the 2nd ^^"g^^^" 
year of tlte great Paschal cycle. Aiid it has 5 Con- 
currents. The solar criteria denote A.D. 1 and A.D. 
253; the epact is of A.D. 248. 

(4.)3 Sunday, moon 7 [.^], [:H61] 4212, This is the (4) 
year of the Incarnation, according to Bede, and it has 7 pseudo- 
hissextile Concurrents. A.D. 8 and 260, in solar ; A.D. ^ j)^ 
255, in lunar, reckoning. 

est annus Indictionis (fol. 2a, \ that he merely put the Irish pas- 
2, 3.) sage in question into Latin. For 

1 Reliable. — " Tigernach, the ! the proof that this was his original 
most trustworthy and illused j and for the reliability of Tigernach, 
of Irish chroniclers" {Tripartite, \ see T. L. S. III. 251-2; 361. 
Rolls' ed., Introd. p. cxxvii.). j "•^j». — iiiiccv. Kl. En. vii. f ., 1. xx, 
"He is," a note {ih.) has it, " so Hie est annus Incarnationis Christi 
far as I know, the only Irish secundum Dionisium, quia, secun- 



chronicler honest enough to 
confess that some of his materials 
were uncertain. ' Omnia monu- 
menta Scotorum usque Cimbaeth 
incerta erant.' There is a similar 
passage in Irish in the Book of 
Ballymote." 

Tigernach's honesty, however, 
did not extend to the confession 



dum eum, secundo anno cicli 
magni paschalis natus est. Qui 
annus liabet v. Concurrentes et 
xiiii.am [lunam viii. Kl. Apr.] 
(fol. 2 a, 3. One line and a half 
abraded or left blank. Scribe did 
not know Latin.). 

2. — iiiiccxii. Kl. En. i. f., 1. vii. 
Hie est annus Incarnationis Christi 



XCIV 



INTRODUCTION. 



Arbitrary 
alteration 
in Annals 
of Ulster. 



IV. 
A.D. 

dating ; 



first 
native in- 
stances of 
alternate 
with de- 
cemnoven- 
nal nota- 
tion. 

817, A.D. 



Thereafter, in six^ places, the so-called Dionysian A.D. 
is given after the Hebrew. The fourth^ entry is: [Sep. 
5620, Heh.] 4B71 ; A.D., Hebrew, 4^0, Dionysian, 167. 
Accordingly, the first reckoning in the Annals of Ulster 
ought to be: 5632, 4383, 432, 179; that is to say, 12 were 
to be added to each number of the Tigernach series. 
But, instead, A.D. 432, the true year, is named Diony- 
sian^, and253 [i.e., A.D. 252 + B.C. 1) are added to each 
of the other three sums, making: A.M., Sepfuagint, 5885, 
Hebrew, 4636 ; A.D., Hebreiv, 685, Dionysian, 432. (A 
Bedan A.D., which is added, should be 425, according to 
Tigernach.) In this way, the whole of the notation, 
as shown in the Index, is carried out. The arbitrary 
variation is of a piece with the two chronistic inventions 
of Tigernach. The reckoning, however, serves one good 
purpose relative to the rectification of the Ulster chro- 
nology. 

ly. — That A.D. dating was known in Ireland towards 
the middle of the seventh century, appears from the 
mention of the Dionysian Cycle in the Paschal Epistle 
of Cummian. For non-Paschal purposes, however, it 
was held in no better estimation by the Irish than by 
Dionysius, as shown by the fact that no instance of its 
annalistic use occurs for nearly two centuries later, and 
even then it alternates with decemnovennal notation. 
On folio 15a of the Irish Carlsruhe Codex of Bede 
(one of the sources of the Grammatica Celtica), con- 
taining the Alexandrine cycles from 532 to 1063, a 
Latin entry* is written on the margin. 

[A.D.'] DC CC XV II. Aed, Ung of Ireland, dies. 
(His obit is given in the Annals of Ulster at 819.) 

On the other hand, in the Calendar, at Aug. 28, on 



Becundum Bedam, qui habet vii. 
Concurrentes bissextiles (fol. 2a, 

4). 

1 8ix.—Fo\, 2 a, 6 ; 3 a, 2 ; 3 a, 3 ; 
3 a, 5 ; 3 b, 1 ; 3 b, 5. 

2 Foi/rM. —iiiicccl xxi. . . Anni 
Domini, secundum Ebreos,ccccxx.; 
secundum Dionisium vero, clxvii 
(fol. 3 a, 5), 



^ Dionysian. — In the translation 
rVol. I. p. 5), the clause, hut, 
according to Dio?iysins, there are 
433 years, is omitted. 

^ Entry. — Aed, rex Hibemiie, 
moritur. (Gram. Celt, praef., p. 
xxxii. ; ed. Ebel., xxiii.; M.G.H., 
III. 136; Glo8!^(K Hih., Proleg., 
xxvi.) 



INTRODUCTION. XCT 

folio 17a of the same MS., another obit (in Irish^, except 
the final words, x. anno) is entered. 

Death of Murchad, son of Maelduin [king of Kine- 826, 
lowen], in Clonmacnoise, from [ = on] the bed of [St.] ^^^^^ 
Ciaran, in the tenth year. 

Tenth, of course, presupposes a first identified year. 
The two obits have consequently to be taken together. 
The 817 of the first was an initial decemnovennal year, 
and tenth year was an allusive way of designating 826. 
To show how misleading the indication is, it has been 
conjectured^ that, as Murchad was deposed in 820, tenth 
meant 831. To which (not to mention that 820 would 
assign the death to 829, and that the present Annals 
state Murchad was set aside in 823) the fatal objection 
is that the deposition is not to be found in Codex. 

The earliest recorded occurrence of its independent 
employment is found in the Liher de mensura orhis 
t err ae, which, the author, Dicuil, states was finished A.D. 
825. 

Post^ octingentos viginti quinque peractos 825, A.D. 

Summi annos Domini . . . 

But the older system was not yet superseded. In the 
Leyden Irish Codex of Priscian, a certain Dubthach min- 
utely specified the day whereon he wrote* a hexameter 
and pentameter by the following Paschal data : Srd of the 838, 
Ides [11th] of Aj)ril ; 3rd year of decemnovennal cycle; ^y^^^^ 
3rd day before Easter [which thus fell on April 14]. So ^^^* 
precise, and yet so vague ! Having regard to the prob- 
able date of the MS., the criteria denote either A.D. 753, 



^ Irish. — b.Áf muincliArVio, 
m[Aic] triAiLe-oúin, hi CluAin- 
tTI[A]cti-noif, Á inroA ChiA)iÁin, x. 
Anno {G.C.; Glos. Hib., locc. cltt.). 

'^ Conjectured. — Having quoted 
the entry of Murchad's deposition 
from Mageogliegan's Annals, 820, 
Zimmer concludes : efiicitur Mori- 
catum. . decimo anno secessus . . . 
831 . . mortem obiisse [Glos. Hib. 
p. xxviii. ) 

^Post, etc.— Ed. Parthey, Ber- 
lin, 1870, p. 85. 



■* Wrote. — Dubthach hos versus 
transcripsit tempore parvo : 

Indulge, lector, quae male scripta 
vides. 

tertio Idus Apriles tribus digitis ; 
tertio anno decenno-tribusinstru- 
[vennalisj cicli . . . mentis ; 
tertiodiean[te]pas- penna, mem- 
cha ... brano; 

tertia decima lu- . . . atramento ; 
na incipiente 

tertia hora post Trinitate 
meridiem auxiliatrice, 

{Gloss, Hib. p. X ii.) 



xcvi 



INTEODUCnON. 



A.D., 

«annalistic 
use of. 

Some years 



838, or 933. Which was intended, it were idle to con- 
jecture from the foregoing. Fortunately, the requisite 
data are supplied by the present Annals, and appropri- 
ately in Latin.^ 

A.D. 869. Duhtach, son of Maeltuile, most erudite of 
the Latinists of all Europe, slejJt in Christ. 

His notable cryptic specification he had penned in 
838. Would that similar were extant of the time when 
the Cycle of 84 was in use ! 

Whence it may be concluded that A.D. numeration 
began to be employed in native Annals in the first 
quarter of the ninth century. 
The futility of the A.D. method to determine the true 
^^"Tfi ^A y^^^^ ^^ itself cannot be more clearly demonstrated than 
by present ^7 ^-hc present Annals. From 431 to 1014, every year is 
Annals, ^nij numbered, yet it is a commonplace that this part 
suggested IS antedated by one year. The prolepsis was discovered 
expiana- by Ussher, who, as we have seen, frequently quotes the 
annalistic Annals and thus explains^ it at the first year cited: " 858 
error of by from Christ's Nativity (or 859 from his Incarnation, after 
the computation of the Church of England)." Again: 
" So in the same Annals [of Ulster], at the year of our 
Lord, 920 (or 921 after the common account)." 

With the intuition which found out that Tigernach 
knew the Dominical Letters, O'Conor^ made the "re- 
markable" discovery that these Annals *" are uniform in 
antedating the Christian area by one year only dow». to 
1263 " ! " The reader is to bear in mind,'' O'Donovan* 
writes, •' that the Annals of Ulster are antedated by 
one year up to 1014." 

Dealing with the year of St. Columba's death (which he 
erroneously concluded to be 597, instead, as has been 
shown, of 596), Reeves^ says of the Saint's obit in the 
Annals of Ulster. " Their signature is vii., which gi 



Ussher, 



O'Conor, 



O'Dono 
van. 



Reeves, 



'Cá 



1 Latin. — Dubtach, mac Mael- 
tuile, doctissimus Latinonimtotius 
Europa), in Cristo quievit (Vol. I. 

380). 

- explains. — Original of Corbes, 



etc., Works, xi. 432. The two 
quotations are on the same page. 

'•^O'Conor. — Stowe Cat., p. 175. 

"^ 0' Donovan. —Ann. J V. MM. 
Introd., p. xlviii. 

•'' Beeves. — Adamnan, p. 312- 



INTRODUCTION. XCVll 

B as the Sunday-letter and indicates 595, the very year 
in their margin, for where they say 594, they mean 
595." And, at foot, he assigns no explanation of the 
discrepancy, except that " this curious perversity pre- 
vails all through these Annals till 1015 [1014], where 
they right themselves." Apparently copying Ussher, 
Todd^ states that the Annals '' date from the era of the Todd, 
Incarnation, not from the Nativity, so that their years 
are all one less than the A.D., or the era of the Birth 
of our Lord." 

Passing over the fact that, as we have seen 2, the erroneous 
Chronography of 354 makes the year of the Nativity 
A.D. 1, not B.C. 1, Ussher's solution is negatived by the 
ferial and lunar criteria, which prove that the opening 
years are accurate. The Annals themselves supply the true 
means of rectification in the (a) ferial, and (h) lunar in Annals: 
notation, and (c) Mundane Reckonings. 

(a) Tables C and A show that the ferial notation is correct (« ) 
down to 481, which is marked v. The notation recom- incidence 
mences at 486, with v. The two sequences are : — 

Ulster True 

ferial sequence. ferial sequence, 

V. 481 D V. 481 D 

vi. 482 C vi. 482 C 

m.2483 B vii. 483 B 

i. 484 AG i. 484 AG Bis. 

m.-.485 F iii. 485 F 

V.S486 D iv. 486 E 

V. 487 D 

Between v. and v., the true sequence requires five 
years. The Ulster has but four, and consequently 
omits one year 

(6) Tables K and L show that 481 rightly has epact (&) 



^ Todd.— War of the Gaedhilwith the Gaxll, p. xxxii., n. 2. See also 
p. xlvi., n. \,%b. 

'^ Seev, — P. Ivii., note 2, supra. 

h 



ÍXTRODUCTION. 



lunar xv. The notation recommences at 486, witli epact xxi, 
incidence Xhe two sequences are : — 



(c) 
Mundane 
Reckon- 
ing. 



Source 
of error : 
number- 
ing blank 
year 486 
as 487. 



Ulster 
epactal sequence. 

XV. 481 

xxvi. 482 

vii. 483 

xviii. 484 

xxix. 485 

xxi. 486 

ii. 487 



True 

epactal sequence 

XV. 481 

xxvi. 482 

vii. 483 

xviii. 484 

xxix. 485 

x. 486 

xxi. 487 

ii. 488 



Between xv. and xxi., the true sequence requires five 
epacts. The Ulster has but four, which is owing to 
omission of one year. 

(c) A.M. 4685 (from the pseudo-Bedan Mundane 
Period of 4204) is equated with A.D. 481. The same 
notation recommences at 487, with 4692. The two 
sequences are : — 

Ulster 
Mundane sequence. 
A.M. A.D. 



4685 
4686 
4687 
4688 
4689 
4690 
4692 



481 

482 
483 
484 
485 
486 
487 



r 


Irue 


undan< 


e sequence 


A.M. 


A.D. 


4685 


481 


4686 


482 


4687 


483 


4688 


484 


4689 


485 


4690 


486 


4691 


487 


4692 


488 



Between 4685 and 4692, the true sequence requires 
six years. The Ulster has but five, arising from omis- 
sion of one year. 

As the solar and lunar criteria' from 486, inclusive, 
prove that the A.D. intended is a year later, the error 
arose between 481 and the textual 486. Since the 
textual 486 is the true A.D. 487, the original 486, it 
follows, was blank, with the result that, as in the 
Annals of Innisfallen and the Tigernach Fragment, the 
signature, Kal, or Kl, was omitted, whether from 
ignorance or oversight, in transcription. Next came the 



INTRODUCTION. XCIX 

Á.D. numerator, who, knowing notliing of the ferial 
and epact, merely counted tlie existing Kal., and placed 

486, tlie number of the missing year, after the Kal. of 

487, and continued the error to 1013. In consequence, 
the chronology to 485, inclusive, is correct ; 486 is want- 
ing; thenceforward, to 1013, the dates are one year in 
advance. 

The misdating in B from 1191 to 1196, it has been Later, 
shown in the Notes, arose from ignorance of chronistic inisd^ing 
criteria on the part of the summarist. The same is to source of ; 
be said, as regards A, of the more serious error, con- in a, 
tinued through more than a century(1265-1378) and ac- 
cumulating by accretions of from two to five years. The 
latter arose from the notarial pedantry of beginning the source of 
year later than January, thereby including portions of 
two Julian years in one A.D. But, as the ferial and 
epact were always changed on Jan. 1, this should not 
have misled any fairly informed annalist or copyist. In 
the present case, the text preserved these data to an 
extent quite sufficient to have obviated the deviation 
in question. 

The aid afforded by the rectified Annals towards corrective 
correcting work that passes for accurate may be appo- value of 
sitely illustrated by some of the historical references ""^ ^' 
in the Tripartite Life of St. Patrick, as verified in the 
Introduction to the Rolls' edition. 

Ciaran (monk) of Castlekieran, Meath, is stated^ to instances 
have died A.D. 770. This is the year in the Four^^'- 
Masters, which O'Donovan allowed to pass uncorrected. 770 for 
But to show how reliable they are, at their 768 they 775, 
transcribe the items given in the Annals of Ulster at 
773, with the notable exception of the lunar eclipse of 
Dec. 2 ! The death took place in 775. 

Echaid,2 son of Bresal, " flourished about A.D. 800 (2) 

800 for 



1 Stated. — Jntrod.^ p. Ixiii. In 
the Index, the identification of 
the textual Belach-duin with 
Castlekieran is attributed to 
Reeves. But he merely copied 
O'Donovan {Ann. IV. MM. I. 512). 



^Eíhaid. — lb. Bresal, the father 
was king of Iveagh and died in 
685. It was perhaps his un- 
named son into whom one of the 
sons of Cerball (slain 693) plunged 
a sword, whilst he was lying down, 

h2 



INTRODUCTION. 



733, 



(3) 
816 for 
812, 



(4) 
853 for 
855, 



(5) 
897 for 
902. 



V. 

Paschal 
Table, 
nucleus of 
chronicle 



Easter 
data, why 
omitted : 



(Reeve's Ecd. Antiqq., 245)." This petty chief of Iveagh 
was slain no less than seven-and-sixty years before 
in 733. 

Noda,^ abbot of Armagh, " died, according to the 
Four Masters (ed. O'Donovan), A.D. 811, recte 816." 
But, notwithstanding this rectification, the true year 
was 812. 

Connecan, son of Colman and grandson of Niall the 
Showery, " was killed in Ulster A.D. 853." So the Four 
Masters state ; but in this case O'Donovan makes a 
correction.- The raid on which he, with many others, 
fell was made by Aedh, son of Niall, king of Ireland, 
into Ulidia in 855. 

Cenngegan, king of Cashel, " was slain A.D. 897." 
Here, for the third time, the Four Masters are followed, 
although O'Donovan wrote^ that their 897 corresponds 
with 901 [ = 902] of the Annals of Ulster. Finnguine, 
nick-named Goose-head (Cenn-gegain), was deposed 
in favour of the well-known Cormac, son of Cuilennan, 
in 901, and slain by his associates in 902. 

V. — In its marginal and interlinear spaces, the Pas- 
chal Table invited such laconic items as the obits, 
battles, initial regnal years, eclipses, etc., given in the 
beginning of the present Annals. In process of time, 
as additions came to be made from other native cycles 
and foreign sources, more room would be required, 
rendering an independent volume necessary. Such was 
the origin of the Boohs referred to or cited in several 
places. The years being sufficiently identified in the 
series by the respective ferial and epact, to retain purely 
Paschal data would be superfluous for merely historical 



at Oristown, in Meath (Tripartite^ 
Part II.). 

^ Noda. — Ih. The releasing of 
the churches from servitude at- 
tributed to him in the Tripartite 
(Part II.), no doubt, took place 
when Noda went to Connaught 
with the Laio and Shrine of Pat- 
rick, in 811. 

^Correction. — Having noted that 
an entry given in the / V. MM. at 



their 853 is not in the Annals of 
Ulster, he continues ; " The others 
[including the slaying of Conne- 
can] given in the Four Masters 
under 853 are to be found in the 
former under 854" (I. 487-8). 
O'Donovan, we have seen, had 
bidden the reader to bear in mind 
to add one year to the Ulster 
dates down to 1014. 
3 nrrote.—Ann. IV. MM. I. 556. 



INTRODUCTION. CI 

purposes. Tlie exceptional character of tlie Lenten and 
Easter dates of 919, 1014 and 1109 accounts for their 
insertion. 

The unforeseen uncertainty wrought by this omission uncer- 
was rendered well nigh irreparable by tne proleptic sub- caused 
stitution of the new epacts for the old, when the Paschal thereby, 
system was changed. Three typical instances occur "J-"'. ^^^^^ 
in these Annals. In 618, a battle was fought on Easter 
Sunday ; in 636, Carthach fled from Eahen (to Lismore), Easters of 
at Easter-tide ; in 674, a rain-bow shaped cloud appeared 
Good Friday night. So well known, or so easy to be 
discovered, were the Paschal dates, that doubtless it 
seemed time and parchment wasted to record them. 
A change of system and therewith the loss of the clue 
seem not to have occurred to those who made the 
entries. At length, we are in a position to supply 
them. In 618, Easter was April 16, according to the 
84, Victorian and Alexandrine Cycles ; in 636, the Irish 
Easter fell on April 21 (V. and A., March 30) ; in 674, 
on March 26 (V. and A., April 12). 

On the other hand, to take but a few instances, with Alexan- 
respect to the obit of Egbert on Easter, 728 ; the burning ^^^^^.^ 
of Clonard on Easter eve, 789 ; frost and snow from Jan. omitted. 
6 to Easter, 1008; and the massacre of O'Boylan, with 
38 others, on the Eve of Low Sunday, 1119, no ambiguity 
can arise from the omission of the Calendar Paschal 
days. The respective Alexandrine incidence was April 
24, April 18 (Easter, April 19), March 28, and April 5 
(Easter, March 30). 

To this last composite recension belong all the extant Ulster 
native chronicles, includinof the Annals of Ulster. Of ^^^^^^ 

• 1 A 1 Í» • n composite 

these, the most ancient are the Annals of Innisfallen, recension. 
the early portion whereof is based in part on the 
Victorian Cycle, and which do for Munster what 
the present compilation does for Ulster. 

That the Paschal Cycle formed the foundation, appears Language 
furthermore from the interspersed Latin versions, ^^^^f^ . 
These were manifestly made to accord with the langu- chronicle.^ 
age of the Easter Table, and may reasonably be regarded 



^^^ INTRODUCTION. 

as tolerably contemporaneous with tlie events. Who, at 
a later period, say the close of the tenth century, would 
have been at pains to turn some items into Latin, leav- 
ing the remainder in Irish; and, more important still, 
unlike the run of after-time workers, possessed the dis- 
crimination here shown in the use of obsolete and 
current terms? Three entries, for example, are given of 
brawls that took place in Armagh, on Whitsunday, in 
781, 819, and 893, respectively. Is it probable that a 
latmist, at the time indicated, selected the first, to the 
capricious exclusion of the second and third, for trans- 
lation ? The improbability is appreciably increased by 
the loan-word for Whitsunday, a vocable so rare as to 
be found in only two other documents connected with 
Ireland, the (interpolated) PenitentiaP of Columbanus 
and the Canon of the Mass in the Stowe MissaP : in the 
latter of which, moreover, the rubric, instead of the 
textual Quinquagesima, has Pentecost proving how, as 
early as the middle of the eighth century, the Latin 
equivalent was becoming otherwise antiquated- Again, 
prince jps, abhas, ahh and coarh are employed indifiierently 
down to 948, where the first occurs for the last time. 
The want of uniformity and the disappearance of the 
most idiomatic of the terms are quite incompatible with a 
subsequent comprehensive Latin version. 
Latin The Latin renderings, it may be asserted with some 

^^í>í^?^'f confidence, were the work of the monastic Lectors and 
' of literati, such as Dnbthach, who, perhaps on that ac- 
count, were distinguished by the title of Latinists. 



^ Penitential. — Quern versicu- ' Cliiisti, in qua Spiritus Sanctus 

Isum [Ps. Ixix. 2] postquam ter in , super apostolos discendit[des-] 

oratione tacite decantaverint, \ (fol. 24b: Trans. R.I. A. XXVII. 

aiqualiter a flexione orationis sur- j 211). In the fragment of the 

gant, exceptis diebus Doniinicis, I Irish St. Gall Missal, one of the 

et a die prinio sancti Paschie j Communion anthems is headed 

usque ad Quinquagesimam diem i In Penti[costt] (ib. 237). 

{Reyvla coenolrialis, Migne, P. L. \ In Cormac's Glossary, the ety- 

LXXX. 221). i mon is correct : Cingciges, id est, 

-Stowe Missal. — The rubric is Í quinqiiageis, id est, quincagisimus 



Penfecosfen : the text : et diem 
sacratis[s]imam celebrantes Quin- 
quagensimae Domini nostri Ihesu 



dies a pasca, i. 1. laa o chaise (i.e. 
50 days from Easter. Lebar 
Brec, Lith. ed., p. 26oa, 1. 12-13). 



I 



INTRODUCTION. 



cm 



But the clearest evidence that the records were Entries 
coeval with the events is supplied by the solar and with 
luni-solar entries digested under Criteria and Eclipses events : 
in the Index. These memoranda were manifestly 
made soon after the facts occurred and, what redounds 
to the credit of the Annals, regardless of the variance 
thereby revealed with Paschal reckoning. 

A.D. 592, for instance, a solar eclipse is said to have f^^^' «^, 

. • 1/1 luni-solar 

occurred m the morning. This (the only one of that proofs of. 
year) took place on March 19^, at 9 a.m. The true 
epact was consequently 13. According to the 84, it 
was 15 ; new moon on March 17 (not 19). Again, in 
664, a solar eclipse is recorded, May 1,^ about 3 p.m. 
The true epact was 29. In the 84, it was 2 ; new moon 
on March 30. In the Ecclesiastical History'^ and the 
Chronicle, Bede has May 3, about 4 p.m. The ex- 
planation given by Ussher* is that, having heard the 
eclipse happened in the beginning of May and knowing 
it could occur only at new moon, Bede concluded the 
day was the 3rd, which has XIX., the Alexandrine 
Golden Number of 664, in the Calendar. Be that as 
it may, the contrast is distinctly favourable to the 
native Annalists. 

The entry of 878 may be quoted in full. "An 



1 March 19 — L'Art de verifier les 
dates, etc., Paris, 1818, I. 307. 

'^May l.—Ib. I. 312. The astro- 
nomical calculation is made by 
Petavivis (De doc. temp., Suppl. of 
eclipses to bk. VIII. c. xiii. no. 
46, t. I. 543-4). 



•^ History. 

Eodem anno 
dominicaelncar- 
nationis sexcen- 
tesimo sexa- 
gesimo quarto, 
facta erat eclip- 
sis solis, die ter- 
tertio mensis 
Maii, hora cir- 
citer X. diei. 
(H.E. III. 27.) 



Chronicle. 
Sequenti anno 
[Ind. 7,A.D.664] 
facta est eclipsi^ 
solis, quam nos- 
tra aetas memi- 
nit, quasi x. hora 
diei,v.Non. Mai. 
(Op. Hist. Mill. 
Lond. 1841, p. 
197 ; Migne, P. 
L. XC. 567B.) 



^Ussher. — Brit. Bed. .4ntiq.Wka 
vi. 516. The explanation is con- 
firmed by the theory propounded 
in c. xliii. De temp. rat.,8iná easily 
disposed of by Petavius (De doc. 
temp. V. xiv. I. 236). It will not 
be out of place to note that the 
year of Golden No. XIX., men- 
tioned in the same chapter as hav- 
ing, according to ocular testimony, 
new moon on April 2, two days 
before the Calendar date, was 
702, A lunar eclipse took place 
April 16, at 10.30 p.m. (DArt, etc. 
314.) The Alexandrine Easter 
(Ap. 23) was consequently held 
on the 22nd of the moon ! 
The Irish (Ap. 16) was astronomi- 
cally correct. 



CIV 



INTRODUCTION. 



Native 
entries, an- 
tiquity of. 



Native 
chronic- 
lers, char- 
acter of. 



Annals, 
compila- 
tion; 



sometimes 
incorrect. 



eclipse^ of the moon on Oct. 15, the 14th of the moon 
about the third vigil [4.30 a.m.] of Wednesday, and an 
eclipse of the sun on Oct. 29, the 28th of the moon, 
about the seventh hour of the day [1 p.m.], Wednesday ; 
fifteen solar days intervening." A statement of such 
minute and accurate detail proceeded from no other 
than an eye-witness. If additional proof is required, 
we have MS. B, which gives the 4th-, instead of the 
14th, of the moon ! The luni-solar dates are derived 
from the Alexandrine epact, 23 ; the true epact was 25. 

The antiquity of the entries in Irish is well attested 
by the Old-Irish declensional and conjugational forms, 
and, far more conclusively, by the words and construc- 
tions, the meaning of which is still, and seems destined 
to continue, purely conjectural. One thing is abun- 
dantly established thereby, — the early native Christian 
chroniclers had wide command of the prose and metric 
of the mother tongue. 

For the rest, it needs but a cursory examination to 
reveal the fact that the Annals were a compilation. 
Transcripts, namely, w^ere obtained^ of the records of 
various establishments. From these the items of each 
year were somewhat crudely and not always correctly 
digested. At 792, for example, Maelruain of Tallaght, 
Aedhan of Rahen, and another Aedhan, bishops and 
soldiers of Christ, are said to have slept in peace. But, 
in the first place, Maelruain was demonstrably not a 
bishop. To cite but one proof, of the twelve named in 
the Book of Leinster*^ as his folk of unity [i.e., who lived 
under him), the eleventh is Eochaid, bishop of Tallaght. 
This was the Echaidh, bishop, anchorite and abbot (next 



^Eclipse, etc. — Eclipsis lunae Idi- 
dibus Octobris, xiiii. lunae, quassi 
iii. vigiliae iiii. feriae ; solisque 
diflectus iiii. Kl. Novembris, 
lunae xxviii., quassi vii. hora diei, 
iiii. feriae : solis xv. diebus inter- 
venientibus (A.D. 878). 

2 ^iJi^ — The rest of the entry is 
omitted ! Data of the kind had 
palpably no significance for 
O'Casidy. It is hardly necessary 



to add that the items are passed 
over by the Fou7- Afasters. 

'^ Obtained. — For the custom and 
manner of announcing the death 
of abbot or monk to other monas- 
teries, see Donati, De' Dittici degli 
Antichi, Lucca, 1753, p. 71 sq. 

'^ Book of Leinster. — Lith. ed., 
p. 270, 11. 12, 11 {Tallaght is 
placed on 1. 11, to fill blank space 
at the end) of 15 lines under cols. 



INTRODUCTION. 



CV 



but one in succession to Maelruain, founder) of Tallaght, 
whose obit is given at 812. The absence of tbe designa- 
tion in tbe list of names, taken with the notice of 
Eohaidh, shows that Maelruain was (not a bishop-, but) 
a presbyter-abbot, having in his monastery Eohaidh 
for episcopal function. 

Secondly, in the Annals of the Four Masters, which 
have the three obits^ distinct, bishop and soldier of 
Christ are confined to the second Aedhan. Add that 
the name of the Aedhan of Eahen is in the genitive in 
the Annals of Ulster, and we shall have discovered the 
source of the error. In reducing Quies Maelruain, Quies 
Aedhain and Dormitatio Aedhain, episcopi et militis 
Christi, to one sentence, the summarist made the eulo- 
gistic terms plural and applied them to all three ! 

"With reference to other native sources, the available Foreign 
information is given at the years indicated under Books sources. 
in the Index. The foreign, Bede, Isidore and Marcel- 
linus, were probably cited at first hand. To these is to 
be added the Liher Pontificalis, or Lives of the Popes, 
commonly, but erroneously, attributed to Anastasius the 
Librarian. The extent to which it has been drawn 
upon will be found at Popes, in the Index. The serious 
annalistic errors, there can be little doubt, arose from 
inability to equate the respective consular signatures of 
the origmal with the solar and luni-solar data of the native 
Chronicle. The additional variants (tabulated in Ap- 
pendix C) in the regnal months and days furnish fresh 
and striking illustration of the inherent liability of 
alphabetical numeration to corrupt transcription. 

The initial item of the Annals, that Palladius was Patrician 
sent to Ireland by Pope Celestine, is the well known advent 
statement in the Chronicle of Prosper ; but that it was ®"^^^^® 
taken from the source is incompatible with the mention date of. 
of the Consuls, Aetius and Valerius, instead of Bassus 
and Antiochus of the original. As, furthermore, 



2, 3, giving the names of the 
twelve. At the end of the next 
column, they are versified in two 
Debide quatrains attributed to 



Cormac, son of Cuilennan, king- 
bishop of Cashel and compiler of 

the Glossary. 

1 Obits. -At their year 787 ! 



cvi 



INTRODUCTION. 



date of 
foiind by 
Patrician 
Paschal 
Table. 



Aetius and Valerius are found in no foreign chronicle 
in connexion with either Palladius or Patrick, the 
question arises whence they were derived by the 
native annalists. 

Among the Cycles named by Cumniian, in his Paschal 
Epistle, ^remier place^ is assigned to that which Patrick 
brought and composed. The first assertion (the second 
is plainly an inference) may be taken as giving the ac- 
cepted tradition respecting the Patrician Cycle, or Table. 
Direct evidence is, however, superfluous. At the time and 
long previously, it was the rule^ for the Pope to announce 
at midsummer to the Western churches the date of the 
coming Easter; whilst by a Conciliar Decree^, enacted 



^ Premier place. — Primum ilium 
quern sanctus Patricius, papa 
noster, tulit et facit [fecit] {Vet. 
Epist. Hih. Sylloge, XI. Ussher, 
Wks. iv. 440). 

^ Rule. — Primo loco, de observa- 
tione Paschae dominici, ut uno 
die et uno tempore per omnem 
orbem a nobis observetur, et, iuxta 
consuetudinem, litteras ad omnes 
tu dirigas, — Cone. Arelat. A.D. 
314, Can. I. (Acta Concilior., ed. 
Harduino. Paris., 1714, I. 263.) 

Diocesan publication was made 
on the Epiphany, as we learn from 
the Fourth Council of Orleans and 
the Fourth of Toledo. Quae festi- 
vitas annis singulis ab episcopo 
Epiphaniorum die in ecclesia 
populis denuncietur. — Cone. Aure- 
lian. IV. A.D. 541, Can. IV. {J eta 
Concil. II. 1436.) Solet in His- 
paniis de solemnitate Paschali 
varietas exsistere praedicationis : 
di versa enim observantia later- 
culorum Paschalis festivitatis in- 
terdum errorem parturit. Proinde 
placuit, ut ante tres menses Epiph- 
aniorum metropolitani sacerdotes 
litteris invicem se inquirant : ut 
communi scientia edocti diem 
resurrectionis Christi et compro- 
vincialibus suis insinuent, et uno 
tempore celeJDrandum annimtient. 
—Cone. Tolet. IV. A.D. 633, 
Can. V. (Acta Concil. III. 580.) 



^ Decree — Placuit ut quicumque 
clericus propter necessitatem suara 
alicubi ad comitatum ire voluerit, 
Formatum ab episcopo accipiat. 
Quod si sine Formata voluerit 
pergere, a communione remo veatur. 
Quod si alicubi ei repentinaneces- 
sitas orta fuerit ad comitatum 
pergendi, alleget apud episeopum 
loci eius ipsam necessitatem, et de 
hoc scripta eiusdem episcopi de- 
ferat. Formatae autem quae a 
primatibus vel a quibuscumque 
episcopis clericis propriis dantur, 
habeant diem Paschae. Quod si 
adhuc eiusdem anni Paschae dies 
incerta est, ille praecedens adiun- 
gatur, quomodo solet Post Consula- 
tuni in publicis gestis adscribi. — 
Cone. Milev. A.D. 416, Can. XX. 
I {Acta Concil. I. 1220.) 

The Milevi enactment was an 
: extension of the 12th of the Coun- 
I cil of Carthage of A.D. 407, where- 
of the part in question is : Placuit, 
ut quicunque ad comitatTim ire 
voluerit, in Formata, qua ad urbis 
Romae ecclesia m mittitur, intime- 
tur : ut inde etiam ad comitatum 
Formatam accipiat. Quod si acci- 
piens ad Romam tantummodo 
Formatam, et tacens necessitatem, 
quae [qua] ad comitatum illi per- 
gendum est, voluerit etiam ad com- 
itatum pergere, a communione 
removeatur. Quod si ibi, Romae, 



INTRODUCTION. 



evil 



sixteen years before, the commendatory letters furnished 
to clerics journeying were to specify the next Easter 
day, or, if such was still uncertain (namely, not noti- 
fied as above), the recorded date of the feast last past.^ 
How much more essential, that a bishop, proceed- 
ing to evangelize an island between which and the conti- 
nent annual communication would necessarily be pre- 
carious, should be provided with a prospective Paschal 
Table, whether of 84, or 100, years ? 

Accordingly, when Fiac, in turn, was consecrated poiaire- 
bishop and sent to convert his native Leinster by ^^f^^^^ 
Patrick, along with the hell and service-set (chalice and 
paten) and crozier, the case^ presented to him by the con- 
secrator contained a tablet. This polaire was the native 



ei repentina neceasitas orta fuerit 
ad comitatum pergendi, alleget 
apud episcopum iirbis Romae ip- 
samnecessitatem, et de hoc scripta 
eiusdem Romani episcopi perferat. 
Formatae [etc., as above]. — Cone. 
Carthag. Honorio VII. [VL] et 
Theodosio II. {Cod. Can. Eccles. 
CYI.P.L. LXVII. 216.) 

^ Last past. — This would thus be 
the Pascha Annotinum,oT anniver- 
sary Easter ; for which see Du 
Cange, Glossarium, s.v. 

'^ Case. — Dubbert Patrice cumtach 
do Fiacc, idon, clocc ocus men- 
stir ocus bachall ocus poolire 
[Bookof Armagh, io\. 18b). 'Formen- 
stir, see Trs. B.I. A. XXIX. 185. 

According to the Hesperica Fa- 
mina (an Old-Irish skit on the 
native affectation of Greek), the 
tab ida was waxed and quadrangular 
(P. L. XC. 1195-6). Cf. the Dacian 
triptych (a Caidiodepuero empto), 
which is 4i by 4é^ inches, and has 
14 lines of writing on the third 
page (C. I. L. III. Dacica In- 
strumenta, No. VII., p. 942). 

By a natural error, in cereis 
(i.e. the Paschal taper) of de temp. 
rat. xlvii. is glossed in tablets (hi 
claraib) in the Carlsruhe Codex of 
Bede {Gloss. Hib. 249). The years 
described by St. Columba on a 
casket cover were perhaps incised 
in the wood. In huius [pineae] 



capsae operculo numerum xxiii. 
annorum describo ( Vita Col. ii, 5. 
In the corresponding place of 
the Tripartite Life (MS. Rawlin- 
son B, fol. 22d), the plural {polairi) 
is found. This arose from con- 
founding the Paschal Table with 
the tablets mentioned in a passage 
in the Book of Armagh (fol. 9a), 
which states that, on one occasion, 
seeing Patrick's eight or nine 
companions, with tablets in their 
hands written in the Mosaical 
style (on both sides, Exod. xxxii. 
15), the pagans called out to have 
them slain, saying they had 
swords in their han'ls to slay 
people, which seemed of wood, but 
in their opinion were of iron, for 
shedding blood. 

These tablets were doubtless 
similar to the diptychs, of which a 
specimen figured in Gori's Thesau- 
rus Diptychorum is 15^ inches long, 
by 5^ wide, with writing space of 14 
inches by 4^, containing 28 lines 
of (Greek) script (Florence, 1759, 
vol. I., p. 263, Tab. X. I. b. cf. 
Donati,De' Dittici, etc. p. 136). The 
handle suggested in the text 
would be some 3 inches long (that 
of an ancient crepitaculnm ec- 
clesiasficum in Gori, III. Tab. X., 
is 3J). The resemblance to the 
short broad swords of the Irish 
would thus readily present itself. 



CVlll 



INTRODUCTION. 



Polairi 
(pltiral) = 
material 
tablets. 



Patrician 
Cycle, 
initial year 
of denoted 
by Con- 
suls. 



equivalent of inigillave, in the sense of Paschal Table, 
which the original, 'pinax, bore in the title (engraved, 
as quoted^, on the chair) of one of the Hippolytan works; 
in the Easter Treatise- of Cyprian ; and, more appositely 
still, in the Irish spurious Athanasian Paschal Tractate'^. 
If it be a<sked why the Greek was not directly drawn 
from, the reason is to be found in the risk of confusion"* 
with derivatives from the Latin pinna (point, summit) 
and penna (pen). Moreover, the pedantic use of Greek 
words was confined to the Latin compositions of Irish 
writers : knowledge of the language was naturally too 
restricted to allow Hellenic vocables or loan-words to be 
introduced into the native vernacular. Inclusion with 
articles not necessarily of daily employment distinguishes 
this tablet from the tablets which, the falling of his 
graph (graphium), or stylus^, from Patrick's mantle 
shows, were carried on the person, in readiness for im- 
mediate use, — to receive, for instance, the alphabets^, or 
eleTnents (of Christian doctrine), which the Apostle, we 
learn from the Triptartite Life and the Book of Ar- 
magh, wrote for distinguished converts. 

Like every other Western Cycle, the Patrician had 
the initial year marked in the current method, by the 
Consuls. Who these were, we learn from a synchronis- 
tic Tract^ in the Book of Ballymote, which gives the 



^Quoted. — Siipra, p. xxxiii. 

^Treatise. — De Paschae Computus, 
Migne, P. L. IV. 946, 950, 951. 
952, 963 ; Corpus SS. Lat. Eccl. 
III. Pars II. Cypriani Opera, 
Viennae, 1871, pp. 251, 254, 255 
(bis), 268. 

'^Tractate. — Itaquehanc summam 
et banc conclusionem in penace 
constituto a maioribusinvenimus: 
Paschaneque ante xi. K.Ap., neque 
post xi. K. JIai., posse celehrari. — 
Ambrosian (Bobio) MS., H. 150, 
fol. 134b (Krusch, Der S4jdhr. 
Ostercyclus, p. 335). 

^ Confusion. — lihinoceros (nose- 
horned) is glossed nose-pointed 
(srónbennach) in the St. Gall & 



Leyden copies of Priscian (Gram. 
Celt., ed. 2, p. 23 ; Glossac Bib., p. 
226). 

^Stylus. — Darochair a grai f a brut 
Patraic. His stylus fell from the 
mantle of Patrick ( Ttnp). Life, Part 
II. MS. Rawl. B. 512, fol. lib). 

^Alphabets ; Elements. — In the 
Tripartite & Book of Armagh, the 
terms are convertible : aipgitir, 
Rawl. B, VÁdi = elimenta, Ar. 13b. 
The other references are : ahgito- 
riion, Ar. 13c = aipgitir, R. 13d; 
abgitorium, Ar. 15b ; alphahttum, 
R. 16a, Ar. 15a ; elementa, R. 14d, 
15a ; elimenta, Ar. 10c. 

"^ Tract. — Is i sinbliadain doradad 
Paladins a Papa Celestino do pro- 



INTRODUCTION. CIX 

year of the coming of Palladius as A.P. 401, A.M. 5632; 
the year of the Patrician arrival as A.P. 402, A.M. 5633. 
Consuls, Aetius and Valerius. (The A.M. shows that the 
A.P. years should be 404, 405, respectively. The errors 
were scribal.) With the Victorian Cycle under his hand 
(Consular Fasti were unknown to the Irish), why did 
the synchronist not name the Consuls of the Palladian, 
as well as of the Patrician, year ? Manifestly, because 
his object was (not to supply Bassus and Antiochus, 
but) to identify two years (one designated by consul- 
ship) by the Victorian A.P. and A.M. Now, the only 
document containing the Consuls Aetius and Valerius 
and connected with Patrick known in Ireland when 
this Tract was composed^, towards the close of the sixth 
century, was the Patrician Paschal Table. It began, 
accordingly, with the year in which they were 
Consuls. Whence the Ballymote chronologer drew the 
right, indeed the inevitable, conclusion that Patrick Patrician 
arrived in Ireland in the initial year of his Paschal ^<^™* 
Table. Such is the sole authentic source of the date mental' 
of the Patrician advent. The consulship in question ^'^^^^ of- 
belonged to A.D. 432'^ and is consequently antedated by 
one year in the present Annals. 

In connexion with the custom already mentioned, of Easters, 
notifvine the date of the coming Easter to the Western discussion 
churches, Pope Leo the Great (440—461) had to deal two; " 

gecht soscela do Scotaib. Is i sin 
in t-aenmadh bliadain ar cethri 
cetaib o crochadh Crist. Mad o 
thosach domain, imorro, is da bliad- 
ain [trichat], ar se cetaib, ar coicmi- 
li. Is é lín bliadan ar sin dodheach- 
aidh Padraic gu progept dochum 
n-Erenn. Etius et Valerianus, da 
chonsul isin bliadain sin . . . 
Ind ara bliadain ar ceithri cetaibh 
andsin o crochadh Crist. In treas 
bliadain trichat imorro, ar se cet- 
aibh, ar coic mili o thosach do- 
main connigi sin. That is the year 
Palladius was sent by Pope Celes- 
tine to preach the Gospel to the 
Scots, i.e., the 401st [404th] 



since Christ was crucified. If, 
however, from the beginning of 
the world, [it] is the 56[3]2nd. 
The year after that, Patrick went 
to preach the Gospel to Ireland. 
Etius and Valerianus [were] the 
two Consuls of that year. . . 402nd 
[405th] after the Crucifixion of 
Christ ; 5633rd from beginning of 
the world, to that (Bk. of Bally- 
mote, lith. ed., p. 10a; Todd Led. 
tíer. III. 284, 28fi). 

1 Composed.— Td. Let. Ser. HI. 
245, 369. 

'^ 432. — Almeloveen : Fast. Rom. 
Cons. lib. duo, Amstelaed., 1740, 
p. 170. 



ex 



INTRODUCTION. 



A.D. 444 



(b) 
A.D. 455 ; 
Letter of 
Pope Leo 
to Pas- 
chasinus; 



Marcian 



with two Easters regarding which the East and West 
differed. The first was that of 444. The year was 
one of the two for which the computation failed to 
assign a canonical (Roman) Easter. The festival was 
April 23. This was likewise the Alexandrine date; 
but being, as we have seen, later than the Petrine term, 
April 21, Leo requested Cyril of Alexandria to agree 
in adopting March 26, the corresponding Sunday of the 
previous lunation. In disregard of the Athanasian pre- 
cedent, Cyril refused.^ Whereupon, the Pope consulted 
Paschasinus, bishop of Lilybaeum in Sicily, but with the 
same result. To avert disunion, April 23 was acquiesced 
in by the West. It was perhaps the (lost) reply of Cyril 
on this occasion that suggested the Ejpistle fabricated 
in his name, in support of the Alexandrine system, in 
Ireland. 

The second was the Easter of 455. E/Cspecting this, 
Leo, as early as 451, concluded a letter to Paschasinus 
byobservinpj thatTheophilus^ appointed April 24, a day 
altogether at variance with ecclesiastical rule ; April 17 
being assigned in the Roman Paschal Cycles. Once 
more, there can be little doubt, the reply, as in the case 
of 444, was unfavourable. Two years later, the Pope 
addressed Marcian, emperor of the East, on the subject. 
He began by stating^ that, to obviate two Easters in one 



^He/used. — Id verum invenimus 
quod ab Alexandriuae ecclesiae 
episcopo beatitudini vestrae re- 
scriptum est (Migne, P.L. LIV 
606). 

That Leo's request was to hold 
the feast on March 26, appears 
from the case in point quoted by 
Paschasinus : in 417, the Romans 
would not celebrate on April 22, 
but on March 25, whence a most 
serious error [!]. Sicut evenit. . 
anno consulatus Honorii Aug. XL 
et Constantii bis. Tunc enim, 
cum declinaretur ne x. Kal. Mai. 
die Pascha teneretur, celebratum 
est viii. die Kal. Apr. . . et error 
gravissimus est ortus {ih). 



2 Theophilus. — Theophilus viii. 
Kl. Maias constituit observandum, 
quod regula ecclesiastica penitus 
invenimus alienum ; in nostris 
autem paschalibus cyclis . . . xv. 
Kl. Maias eiusdem anni pascha 
celebrandum esse sit scriptum {ib. 
929). 

'^Stating.— Fsischale festum . . . 
ita est lunaris cursus conditione 
mutabile, ut . . diei ambigua oc- 
currat electio, ut ex hoc fiat . . ut 
non simul omnis ecclesia . . obser- 
vet. Studuerunt qnidem sancti 
patres occasionem hiiiuserroris au- 
ferre, omnem banc curam Alexan- 
drino episcopo delegantes (quoniam 
apud Aegyptios huius supputati- 



INTRODUCTION. 



CXI 



year, the Nicene Fathers took measures [not by compos- 
ing a decemnovennal cycle, as Dionysins fabricated, 
but] by delegating the whole question to the bishop of 
Alexandria (the Egyptians being reputed to have 
traditional knowledge of this computation), who was 
every year to notify the day to the Apostolic See, 
thence to be communicated by letters to the re- 
moter Churches. But, he went on, Theophilus, in 
his 100-year List, laid down a date different from that of 
others. In his 74th year (A.D. 453), they kept his 
April 12 ; in his 75th (454), they would keep his April 4 
(March 28 is given by 84 and 84 (12). The concession 
was plainly made to be reciprocated). But, for the 76th 
(455), a day is given unauthorized by any precedent, any 
calculation, since the Passion, — i.e., April 24, which far 
exceeds the ancient, constituted (Petrine) limit ; whilst (reasons 
others assign April 17; the legitimate Paschal limits being ^^ImÍ. 
(according to the 84 (12,) March 22— April 21. The aifdfor 
occasional incidence on April 22, 23, is justified to some ^P£|^ ^'\ 
extent, on the ground that, although the Kesurrection Day) ; 
falls outside, the Passion falls within, the limit. But 
to prolong to April 24 is too unusuaP, too overt a trans- 
gression. The emperor was accordingly requested to 
direct the Egyptians, or others, if such there were, 
skilled in such reckoning, to solve the scruple, so that 
all should celebrate in accordance with tradition and 
within the term. 

On the same day (June 15, 453), another letter was Julianus ; 
despatched which clearly expresses the object of the first. 
After stating the matter whereon the emperor had been 
written to, bishop Julianus, papal legate at Constanti- 
nople, was enjoined^ to frequently suggest to Marcian to 



onis antiquitus tradita videbatur 
esse peritia), per quem quotannis 
dies praedietae solemnitatis sedi 
apostolicae indicaretur, cuius 
scriptis ad longinquiores ecclesias 
indicium generale percurreret {ib. 
1055). 

^Unusual. — Ad viii. autem Kl. 
Mai arum paschalem observantiam 



perducere nimis insolens et aperta 
transgressio est {ib. 1057). 

'^Enjoined. — Crebrius , . principi 
dignare 'suggerere, ut indissimul- 
anter Aegyptios iubeat amraoneri, 
ne in aummae festivitatis die, aut 
dissensione aliqua aut transgres- 
sione peccetur {ib. 1059), 



CXll 



INTRODUCTION. 



same 



Reply of 
Proterius 



cause tlie Egyptians be plainly admonislied not to create 
dissension regarding tlie chief festival day. 

Not content witli the imperial reply that the matter 
had been referred to the Egyptians, Leo again wrote 
(Jan. 454) to Julianus that the Paschal date should be 
inquired into, so that all occasion of error^ might be 
removed ; adding a fresh argument, that in the Roman 
Annals April 17 was most plainly appointed and Easter 
had been so celebrated. Julianus was finally urged to act 
with more vigour in the matter. Two months passed 
and, on March 10, a third letter to Julianus concluded 
by directing him to intimate- to the emperor, in the name 
of the Pope and with more insistence, to have the reply 
sent, as the day was drawing nigh for the Pope to know 
what date to insert in the Formatae,^ or Communicatory 
Letters of Paschal notification. 

At length, the response so loner and so anxiously 
awaited, a letter sent through Marcian from Proterius of 
Alexandria, came to hand. But it proved a sore disap- 
pointment, rendered all the more galling by the tone 
of undisguised triumph. The emperor, it began, not 
from himself, but moved-* by the letters of his Holiness, 
had written that, some having deemed the Easter in 
question not rightly assigned, the matter should be 
studied more closely. This had been done (especially 
in pursuance of receipt of a papal communication^), partly 
from the Books of the Law, partly from the institutes of 
the ancients. Moreover, the whole of the Theophilan 
100-year List^ had been gone through and found so per- 



"^ Error. — Unde sollicitius con- 
gruit hoc inquiri, lit omnis occasio 
tollatur erroris. Nam in nostris 
annalibus, xv, Kl. Maiarum dies 
apertissirae a Patribus nostris et 
constitutus legitur et celebratus 
{ih. 1072). 

- Intimate. — De future paschate, 
ut saepe iam scripsi, esto sollicitus 
et clementissimo principi meo 
nomine opportunius intimato, ut 
quid sibi rescriptum sit, faciat 
certiorem, quoniam imminent 
dies, ut nosse possimus quem diem 
Formatis ascribere debeamus, et 



omnium ex hac parte suspicio evi- 
dentius possit absolvi {ih. 1082). 

'■' Formatae. — See Du Cange, 
Glo/tsarium, etc., s.v. ; or Cabas- 
sutius, Notitia Coyicilior., etc., ca,p. 



xlv. 



p. 'J/o sq. 



^ Moved. — Verumtamen, non velut 
a se commotus hoc indicavit, sed 
quia scripta tuae sanctitatis ac- 
ceperit {ih. 1085). 

^Communication. — Ex illo iam 
tempore quo commonitorium tuae 
venerationis accepi {ih.). 

^List. — Sumens etiam et cen- 
tenalem cursum paschae, descrip- 



INTRODUCTION. 



CXlll 



feet, that no one, whosoever he be, could in any way 
whatever find fault with, or vituperate, the authority 
thereof. Perchance,^ however, as his Holiness wrote, the 
date was an error of a faulty copy or transcriber; where- Alexan- 
fore the feast ought to be changed. But God forbid ! Íprnt/,^' 
Rather, let it be celebrated as a Centennial List of the refusal to 
same most holy father, Theophilus, had it, and which f^^^^ 
accorded with the List of the elders, namely, on the 
29th day of the month Pharmuthi, according to the 
Egyptians, which is the 8th of the Kalends of May [April 
24]. " For so both we and the entire Egyptian region 
and the whole Orient are to celebrate the day, with the 
help of God." 

Lest, however, this should be considered mere dogma- reason and 
tism,2 proof is given, substantially the Alexandrine con- J^erefor 
tention we have already seen, that when moon 14 fell 
on Sunday, Easter was to be put off for a week. Four 
instances are quoted (with the years numbered in the 
Diocletian Era) : A.D. 373, 377, 387, 444 (Diocletian 
Nos., 89, 93, 103, 160). A.D. 550 (Diocletian No. 266), 
he added^ somewhat officiously, would be the same as 
455 (No. 171). To assert that to hold Easter in the 



turn a . . Theophilo, omnemque 
percurrens, ita repeii diligenter 
integreque compositum, ut, qui- 
camque ille sit, auctoritatem 
scripturae huius quolibet modo 
reprehendere ac vituperare non 
possit (ib.). 

'^Perchance, etc. — Sed forte, sicut 
tua sanctitas scribit, mendosi co- 
dicis aut librarii error est, et prop- 
terea nos oporteret diem. . 
transferre. Quod absit. Celebre- 
tur autem ita potius, ut centen- 
arius annorum cursus eiusdem 
beatissimi patris nostri et episcopi 
Theophilicontinet, qui antiquorum 
paginis omnino concordat, id est, 
xxix. dies mensis Pharmuthi, 
iuxta Aegyptios, qui est viii. Kl. 
Maias. Et nos enimettota Aegypta 
regio atque Oriens universus sic 
ipsum diem celebraturi sumus, 
Deo praestante {ib.). 

'^Dogmatism. — TJt autem non ar- 



bitremtir absolute quae [quod] 
nobis videtur scribere seu velle 
aifirmare, inseruimus etiam causas 
huic epistolae, etc {ib. 1086). 

•^ Added. — Illud autem necessario 
vobis innotescimus, quod et in 
futuro cclxvi. anno ab imperio 
Diocletiani, xiiii. luna rursus oc- 
currente xxii. die Pharmuthi men- 
sis, qui est XV. Kl. Mai., domini- 
cum Pascha[e] xxviiii. die mensis 
ipsius, qui est viii. Kl. Mai., Deo 
praestante, celebrabitur. — Cologne 
MS. No. 83ii, fol. 180a (Krusch, 
op. cit. 275). 

A.D. 455 was XIX. B:moon 14, 
Sun., Ap. 17 ; Eas., Ap. 24. Next 
XIX. B, with, namely, same 
moon 14 and Easter, would be 
550. The criteria of the P. L 
text (1090) are the emendation of 
Bucherius and denote A,D. 482, 
VIII. C:moon 14, Sun., Ap. 18 ; 
Eas., Ap. 25 ! 

i 



CXIV 



INTRODUCTION. 



refusal^) 
probable 
motive of 



Leo, 
prudent 
proce- 
dure of ; 



Becond [lunar] montli is to celebrate in Pliarmiitlii is to 
be misled by tbe Jews, who, as they know not God, 
know not tbe Pascli. The Alexandrine Fathers, on the 
other hand, drew up the decemnovennal cj^cle under the 
guidance of the Holy Spirit. The letter concluded with 
a long-drawn declamatory statement, to the effect that 
the lunar month which commences on April 4 is the first, 
not the second. 

The circumstances explain and perhaps to some extent 
justify the tenor and temper of the foregoing. Had 
Proterius, like his predecessor, Cyril, been consulted 
directly and informed, in addition (for the matter could 
hardly fail to be recorded in the E/Oman Paschal Annals), 
that Athanasius, as his Festal Letters were there to prove, 
conformed more than once to the Petrine tradition ; 
whilst, in the Roman computation, moon 14 would not 
fall on April 17 in 455, the response, it is fair to infer, 
would have been different. Instead, the thinly veiled 
coercive course was adopted of approaching him through 
the secular power, to amend a date, which, whether 
Theophilan or scribal, \vas judged to be erroneous mainly 
on the ground that it differed from the Roman. 

Leo wisely averted the imminent crisis. In acknow- 
ledging receipt (May, 454) to Marcian, he acquiesced, 
he stated, not^as convinced by the reasoning, but per- 
suaded by his desire for unity. In the ensuing March, 
he wrote to the emperor that he had communicated to 
all the priests of the "Western parts the day intimated- In 
the Instruction of the Alexandrine bishop, that, laying 
aside all scruple, in zeal for unity and peace, Easter 
should be celebrated on April 24. Among those whom 
the papal notification reached, the entry in the present 
Annals^ and in the Annals of Innisf alien* shows, were the 



^ Not, etc. — Non quia hoc ratio 
manifesta docuerit, sed quia 
unitatis, quam niaxime oustodi- 
mus, cura persuaserit {P. L. LIV, 
1101). 

2 Intimated. — Dudum in hac ob- 
servantiae regula me adquie- 
scere sim professus et eundem diem 
. . omnibus Occidentalium par- 



tium sacerdotibus intimasse, quern 
Alexandrini episcopi declaravit 
Instructio, id est, ut anno prae- 
senti viii. Kl. Mai. Pascha cele- 
bretur, omissis omnibus scrupulis, 
studio unitatis etpacis {ib. 1111). 

•' Annals. — Vol. I. p. 14. 

^ Innisfallen. — Kl. [Jan., vii. f.], 
xxvi [i]. 1. Pascha in viii. Kl. Maii 



INTRODUCTION. 



CXV 



Irish. How the Curia estimated the pertinacious intent 
of Proterius appears in the account of the transaction 
with which Prosper brought his Oronicle^ to a close. 

The mention of the Easter Calendar days, March 22 — 
April 21, proves that the 84 (12) was the official Cycle 
at the time. The chief result of the protracted question 
was that, to obviate similar sinister differences, Yictorius 
of Aquitaine was employed to compose a cycle. What 
that was, has been shown above. 

The earliest evidence of a different Paschal system in 
Ireland is supplied in the Act&^ of the Council of Ccesarea, 
a fabrication known to Bede as the Synodical Epistle of 
Theophilus, from which he gravely quotes^ that the Pas- 
sion took place on March 22 and the Resurrection on 
March 25. Whereupon, the scholiast, Bridefert, for 
once incisively and appositely annotates :* " I am sur- 
prised why any one brought a thing so absurd back to 
memory." The Tract opens with the statement that, 
after the Apostles died, there were different Easters and 
fasting periods of varying duration. The Gauls^ held 



result, — 

Victorian 

Cycle. 



Irish Pas- 
chal con- 
troversy ; 
native fab- 
rications, 

a) 
C cesarean 

Acts : 
preamble, 



(O'Conor: R. H. SS. II. Annal. 
Inisfal. p. 3). 
^ Chronicle. — Eodemanno,Pascha 
Dominicum die viii. Kl. Maii cele- 
bratum est, pertinaci intentione 
Alexandrini episcopi, . . quam- 
vis sanctus Leo xv. Kl. Maii potius 
observandum protestaretur. Ex- 
tant eiusdem Papie epistolai, ad 
. . Marcianum dataB, quibus ra- 
tio veritatis sollicitatae evidenter 
patefacta est, et quibus ecclesia 
Catholica instrui potest, quod 
haec persuasio studio unitatis et 
pads tolerata sit potius quam 
probata : nunquam deinceps imi- 
tanda, ut quae exitialem attulit 
offensionem, omnem in perpetuum 
perdat auctoritatem [!]. — Val- 
entiano VIII. et Anthemio Coss. , 
[scil. A.D. 455]. (Recueil des Hist, 
des Gaules, ed. Bouquet, Paris, 
1738, I. 635 D.) 

'^Acts, etc. — Best edited, with ap- 
paratus criticus and variants, in 
Krusch {op. cit. 302-10), Marianus 
Scotus gave it in the first (unpub- 
lished) Book of his Chronicle. His 



recension is still um-ollated {Todd 
Lee. Ser. III. 8). Under the title 
De ordinatione feriarum Pascha- 
lium per Theophilum, episcopum 
Caesariensem, ac reliquorum epis- 
coporum synodum, Noviomagus 
added it to the Genuine Didas- 
calics of Bede {P.L. XC. 607-10. 
In col. 610, from Omnis Paschalis 
to the end does not belong to the 
tract. It is the Alexandrine rule 
for finding the moon of Quadra- 
gesima Sunday, for which see p. 
clx., note 8 infra.). 

^ Quotes. — Quam vis Theophilus 
Caesariensis, antiquus videlicet 
vicinusque apostolicorum tem- 
porum doctor, in epistola synodica 
. . . ita dicit . . Passus namque Domi- 
nus ah xi. Cal. Apr. . . . et ah viii. 
Cal. Apr. resurrexit {De temp. rat. 
xlvii.). 

^Annotates. — Miror quare aliquis 
tam absurdam rem ad memoriam 
reduxisset (P.L. XC. 493). 

^Oauls. — Quoted by Bede uhi 
sup.). 

i2 



cxvi 



INTRODUCTION. 



gist, 



proof of 
fabrica- 
tion, 

intent. 



the feast on March 25 ; the East, on whatever day the 
14th of the moon fell. To secure uniformity, Pope 
Victor directed Theophilus to convene the bishops of his 
province in his metropolitan see of Csesarea, in Pales- 
tine. Having duly met, Theophilus and the bishops 
in the approved computistic method of question and 
answer, fixed the Creation on the Eoman Equinox, 
March 25. They decided likewise that Easter was to be 
held on Sunday. But the gist lies in a query of the 
convener: Since the Lord suffered on March 22, and 
rose on March 25, was it not impious to exclude March 
22, 23, 24 from the Paschal limit? The bishops, as was 
to be expected, replied that it was, and that these three 
days should be included. It was accordingly decreed^ 
that the Easter limits should be March 22 — April 21 ; 
with Paschal lunar days, 14 — 21. 

As the Acts of the Ccesarean Council, convened ^ at the 
instance of Yictor by Theophilus, in the matter of the 
Quartadecimans, are lost, the fabricator may have known 
that his work was not likely to be detected by collation 
with the original. Be that as it may, he fatally be- 
trayed himself in one particular: March 25 was the 
Poman, not the Eastern, equinoctial date. 

The object was to maintain the 84, with modifications, 
against a Table having Easter on March 22, 23, 24. 
Easters placed on April 19, 20, 21, because of objection 
to Easter before March 25, D, E, F of Table Q show, 
occur in nine years. Of these, two, April 20 (XX. E), 
and 21 (X. F), if held on March 23 and 24, would fall on 
moon 21. The Fathers, in their wisdom, obviated the 
difficulty by adding a lunar day. This provision had 
the additional advantage that the two uncanonical 



^ Decreed. — Constitutum est ergo 
in ilia senodo. iit nee ante xi. Kl. 
Apr., nee post xi. Kl. Mai., pascha 
debeat observare, et nee antea, 
nee postea, cuicumque constitutum 
limitem transgrediendi esset liber- 
tas. Similiter et de luna precep- 
tum divinum servetur. Manda- 



tum est per Moysen : Sit vobis 
observatum a xiili. luna usque in 
xxi. — Ambrosian MS. H, 150, fol. 
66a (Krusch, op. cit. 310). The 
statement about the Paschal limits 
is also quoted by Bede {uhi sup.). 

'^Convened. — A.D. 197, according 
to Petavius {De doc. temp. IT. 392). 



INTRODUCTION. CXVU 

Easters, April 22 (XYIII. G) and 23 (XXVII. A) could 
be held on March 25, 26, moon 21. 

Assuming, for reasons to be stated, that the Victorian date, 
was the cycle intended, and that the purpose was to 
prove the adaptability of the 84, the date may be ap- 
proximately fixed. In 509, the Easter of 84 fell on 
April 19 ; in the previous lunation, it would fall on 
March 22, coinciding with the Victorian, and proving 
that, with an enlarged limit, the 84 need not be super- 
seded. The forgery may consequently be dated 508. 

Later, a similar production saw the light in the (2) 
Tractate^ of St Athanasius, bishop of Alexandria, on the -^«^«»^«5- 
Paschal system. This is an exposition of the bald tate: 
statements of the Csesarean Acts and of the pinax, or P^iTort» 
Paschal table, drawn up by elders in accordance with 
the Csesarean decree, that Easter was to be celebrated 
neither before March 22, nor after April 21. The fabri- proofs of 
cator betrays himself Irish in a method'-^ of lunar reckon- fabnca- 
ing taken from 84, X III. and in determining the Equinox.^ 
Spring has three months, of which not alone the middle 
month, but the middle day of the middle month, gave 
beginning to the world. From Feb. 9 (beginning of 
Spring) to March 11 is one month ; thence to March 25 
are 15 days, i.e., half a month: total, one month and a 
half. But the Athanasian Equinox, he either forgot, 
or more probably knew not, was March 21 ; whence, 
reasoning as here represented, the putative author 
should have reckoned Spring from Feb. 5. On the 
other hand, the Roman Spring began on Feb. 7.* The 
fanciful calculation, in fact, was based on the half- 
quarter [leth-ratha), a native measure of time. 



^ Tractate. — Given anew , from the 
Cologne and Ambrosian MSS., by 
Krusch {op. cit. 328-36). 

"^Method. — Given in the account 
of the s^WTiows Anatolius, p. cxxi., 
infra. 

'^Equinox. — Sed cum tres menses 
vernum tempus habeat, horum 
trium medius est, qui initium 
dedit mundo, neque solum mensis 



medius, sed etiam dies mensium 
medius. Ex v. Id. enim Feb. 
(Veris incoacio) in v. Id. Martii, 
unus est mensis ; ex v. Id. autem 
Martii, in viii. Kl. Apr. xv. dies 
sunt, i.e. medietas mensis. Ita 
imus et demedius mensis subse- 
quitur. — Col. MS., fol. 192b 
(Krusch. op. cit. 332). 

^Feh. 7. — Mommsen : Bom. Chi on. 
1 Ausg., Berlin, 1858, p. 59. 



CXVlll 



INTRODUCTION. 



date, 
A.D. 546, 



intent. 



(3) 
Pseudo — 
Anatolius, 
ancient 

and 
modern 
critics im- 
posed on 

by, 



It is further laid down that, when (as in the Ccesarean 
Acts) moon 14 and Sunday coincide^ Easter is to be 
celebrated ; but, as this cannot always happen, to ensure 
Sunday incidence, the lunar days are to be extended to 
moon 21. 

The forgery is evidence that the Festal Letters of 
Athanasius were known, most probably by repute, in 
Ireland. As to the date, the ' pinax^ drawn up by the 
elders' indicates a fairly considerable time. This would 
agree with 547. In that year, the Easter of 84 was April 
21 ; in the previous lunation, it would be March 24, the 
Victorian day. The imposture, we may consequently 
conclude, was issued in 546, to prove that the old system 
need not be discarded in favour of the new. 
But such novel principles were not to pass unchallenged. 
Against them came forth a doughty champion of the old 
system. For textual distortion, resourceful invention 
and vituperative scorn, the spurious Anatolius stood 
peerless in the field of fabrication. Nor was his triumph 
confined to his own time. Columbanus^ quoted his dicta 
as binding on a Pope ; the defenders^ of rival Paschal 
methods appealed to him in support of their respective 
contentions ; Bede^ vainly taxed his skill to reconcile the 
contradictions of the " holy man " ; Bucherius^ the first 



^Coincide. — Sed cum in hoc mense 
et dies et luna convenissent, luna 
scilicet xiiii. et dies dominica, tunc 
celebraretur. Sanae [sic], quia rur- 
sus frequenter luna xiiii . cum domi • 
nica diae non concurreret, extendi 
lunam in vii. dies malluerunt, 
dummodo diem dominicam in re- 
surrectionis laeticiam retinerent. 
Ideo, quando sic dies veniret, 
usque ad xxi. lunam, propter do- 
minicam diem, pascha distullimus, 
semper tamen ut neque ante xi. 
Kl. Apr., neque post xi, Kl. Mai., 
celebremus. Sic inventum, ut 
mensis et dies et luna in celebra- 
tione paschae retineretur. — Col. 
MS.,fol.l93a{Krusch,oj9.di.333-4). 

'^ Finax. — For the original, see p. 
cxvi., note 1, supra. 



^ Columhanus. — Infra, p. cxxviii, 

•^ Defenders. — In the Whitby 
Conference, p. cliv-v. See also the 
Epistle of Cummian, p. cxxxvii., 
infra. 

^ Bede. — De temp. rat. vi., xiv,, 
XXX,, XXXV., xlii. ; Ep.ad Wic. P. 
L. XC. 599sq. 

^ Bucheritis. — Haec omnia Ana- 
tolii placita, quam paradoxa sint, 
nemo non videt : ex illis quidem 
magnam in lectoris intellectu con- 
fusion em oriri necessum est. Pror- 
sus ut an Anatolii, tanti viri, 
esse possint, non immerito quae- 
siverimus. Sed tot Bedae adeoque 
Eusebii testimonia, quae eadem 
verba referunt et MS. Codex du- 
bitare vetant, ut supra [p. 451-2] 
vidimus {De doc. temp. p. 462-3). 



INTRODUCTION. 



CXIX 



editor, had his grave doubts removed by Bede's accept- 
ance ; Dupin^ believed it to be ancient, although full of 
errors, and perhaps a little corrupted by the translator ; 
Gallandius^ reprinted the BooTc as the genuine offspring 
of " our holy father" ; whilst, in our own day, a writer 
who taxes Ideler with lack of solid original research 
has the courage to maintain the authenticity. So hard 
does inveterate error die ! 

The BooTc * of Anatolius on the Paschal system begins preamble, 
by stating that the error of Paschal cycles arose from 
attending to lunar, to the neglect of solar, computation, 
though each is taken into account in Hebrew and Greek 
volumes. Of such, Hippolytus composed a cycle from 
certain unknown [!] lunar courses ; some, making a cycle 
of 25 [95] years, others, one of 30 [?], not a few, one 
of 84, never reached the true Paschal method. But 
their predecessors, most versed in Hebrew and Greek 
books, namely, Isidore^ [of Pelusium, A.D. 4501, Jerome 
[420], and Clement [100], though beginning the months 
differently, attained one and the same most certain Pas- 
chal method. Origen,^ likewise, most erudite of all and 



1 Dupin. — Neansmoins je crois que 
ce Canon est ancien, quoique plein 
d'erreurs et peut-etre iin peu cor- 
rompu par celui qui I'a traduit 
{Bibliotheque Nouvelle des Auteurs 
ecclesiastiques, Paris, 1698, torn. I. 
p. 573). 

2 Gallandius. — Huncigitursancti 
patris nostri genuinum fetum exhi- 
bemus ex accurata unica Bucherii 
editione {Bihliotheca Veterum Pat- 
rum, etc., torn. III. Venetiis, 1767, 
Praef. p. xxxviii.). 

'^ Writer. — Ebrard, quoted by 
Krusch [Die Einfuhruyig , etc., p. 
145), by whom he is duly pilloried 
[ih. 142-3). 

* Book. — First published by Bu- 
cherius {op. cit. 439-41) ; reprinted 
in the Bib. Vet. Patr. ; herefrom 
inMigne, Patrologia Graeco-I/atina, 
X. 209-22, with commentary of 
Bucherius (221-32); edited from 
Cologne MS., with variants of the 



Bucherian Codex, by Krusch (Der 
84jahrige Cycius, etc., 311-27). 

^Isidore. — Taking this "prede- 
cessor" to be the bishop of Seville, 
who died in 636, whilst the Book 
is quoted by St. Columbanus, 
Krusch concluded that, although 
given in the two MSS. {op. cit. 317), 
Isidore and perhaps even Jerome 
and Clement could be struck out, 
as a later addition [!]. " Gestutzc 
auf das wichtige Zeugniss Colum- 
bans wird man mit gutem Recht 
die Worte * Isidorum et,' viellecht 
sogar die ganze Parenthese, als 
spateren Zusatz streichen konnen" 
{ih. 314). 

^ Origen. — Sedet Origenis [-nes], 
omnium eruditissimus et calculi 
conponendi perspicasissimus, qu- 
ippe qui et Calcenterus vocatus 
est, libellum de pascha luculentis- 
sime edidit {ib. 317). 

Evidently the writer took Cal- 



cxx 



INTRODUCTION. 



Anatolian 

text 
falsified 



earliest 
Easter, 
March 27 
reason for 



most perspicacious in calculation (hence named Calcen- 
terus), issued a [spurious] book on the Pasch, showing 
that regard should be had to the course of the moon, 
the passing of the Equinox, and the progress of the sun. 
A passage is then quoted from this fabricated work, after 
which the subject is said to have been undertaken to 
fulfil a promise. 

Next follows the excerpt from the Prologue to the lost 
Anatolian Paschal Table, taken from Rufinus' Version 
of the Ecclesiastical History of Eusebius. The falsifi- 
cation^ occurs in the opening sentence. " Now, in the 
first 5' ear, the beginning of the first month, which is the 
beginning of the 19-year cycle, is, according to the 
Egyptians, Faminoth 26 ; according to the Macedonians, 
Dystri 22 ; but, according to the Eomans, March 25, 
namely, the 8th of the Kalends of April." Needless to 
say, the text of Eufinus has : " according to the Romans, 
11th of the Kalends of April " (March 22). Besides, 
to represent Anatolius counting the days of the Roman 
month directly in this context is an original and droll 
conceit. 

The final sentence- of the genuine Anatolian extract 
states that, on the Equinox, when moon 14 is opposite 
the sun, the latter is in the Vernal part, the former in 
the Autumnal ; whence the 14th should be after the 
Equinox. Accordingly, Easter (the fabrication pro- 
ceeds) was to be held when one day had passed after the 
Equinox, i.e., March 26, moon 14 — 20. The extension to 
moon 20 arises, because it is impossible to have March 26, 
moon 14, on Sunday eveiy year ; whilst moon 14, though 
it does not fill all the night, still, if it rises in the second 



centems to signify colcvlator. So 
aho Columbanns quoted below. 
Cumniian perhaps knew the mean- 
ing : inveni et Originem chalcen- 
terum et vereadamantinum {Epist. 
Fasciwl Ussher, Whs. iv. 434). 
The Munich Computus contrasts 
calcenfores with tractatores (fol. 
21a). 

XaXKtrTfpog, intestina habens 
aerea. Ita cognominatus fuit Didy- 



] mus Grammaticus [circa A.D. 46], 

dicitur enim scripsisse supra 

ter mille libros. — Suidas {Ste- 
i phavi Tkes. Lond. 1825, 10419 C). 
' ^Falsification. — See the text, p. 

xlv, : the falsification, p. Ixix., 

siim^a. 

-Sentence. — Quoted by Bede, in 
I the Epistle to Wictheda (P. L. 
I XC. 602; Cum enim — autumnalis). 



INTRODUCTION. 



vigil (9 — 12 p.m.), illumines the greater part thereof. 
[To show the source of this, the Athanasian Tractate, 
explaining the moon 14 — 21 of the C cesarean Acts^ says : 
"But^ the moon, although, extended to its 21st part, it 
does not fill all the night, still illumines the greater 
part thereof." This, in turn, was based on the moon 
30 = moon 1 of XIII. of the 84 and proves that the 
author of the Tractate was Irish too.] 

Certainly, (the impostor continues to expound) if the moon 21 
rise of the moon is delayed until midnight, light over- ^^^'^* 
comes not darkness, but vice versa ; although it is not paschal, 
possible that darkness should to any degree dominate 
light ; for the solemnity of the Hesurrection is light and 
there is no communication between it and darkness. 
And if the moon shine out in the third vigil (12 p.m. — 
3 a.m.), it is undoubtedly the 21st or 22nd [^.e., moon 
21 = m.22, by the equation explained above], whereon the 
true Pasch cannot be immolated. They'^ who decide 
that it can, not alone are unable to affirm this by Scrip- 
ture authority, but they incur the crime of sacrilege 
and contumacy and peril of souls, in asserting that the 
true light, which dominates all darkness, can be offered 
during the prevalence of darkness. 

This paragraph is of interest from being cited at 
length in the letter of Columbanus to Pope Gregory on 
the Paschal question. 

Next, the rule of not celebrating Easter later than the Moon 13 
20th of the moon is declarod not to be contrary, as = ™- ^^^' 
some Gallic computers affirm, to what is read in Exodus^ deduction 
about eating unleavened bread from the 14th to the tl^erefrom, 



^But, etc. — Luna vero licet, usque 
ad xxi. partem extensa, non totara 
impleat noctem, plurimum tamen 
noctis inluminat. — Ambrosian MS. 
fol, 134b (Krusch, Der 84jahrige, 
etc. 334). 

Xx. luna, licet totam noctem 
non impleat, tamen, in ii. vigilia 
exorta, maiorem noctis partem 
inluminat (Liher Anatholi, ib. p. 
319). 



'^Tfiey, etc. — Nam qui hac lunae 
aetate pascha definiunt posse cele- 
brari, non solum illud auctoritate 
divinae scribturae adfirmare non 
possunt, sed et sacrilegii et con- 
tumatiae crimen et animarum per- 
iculum incurrunt, dum adfirmant 
veram lucem posse immolari cum 
aliqua dominatione tenebrarum, 
quae omnibus tenebris dominatur 
{ib. 320). 

'^ Exodus.— Xii. 18-19. 



CXXll 



INTRODUCTIOX. 



21st. [The reference is to the Ccesarean Acts, which 
direct the Mosaic command of observing from the 14th 
to the 21st to be kept, and to the explanation of the 
extension to the 21st in the Athanasiam Tractate.'] 
The error arose from their ignorance that [according 
to the perversion already mentioned of the principle 
of the 84, XIII.] moon 13 and moon 14, and so on, 
to 20 and 21, fall on one day [i.e, moon 13 to 
12.30 p.m., moon 14 thenceforward]. '' Compute^ there- 
fore from the end of the 13th moon, which is the 
beginning of the 14th, to the end of the 20th, whence 
the beginning of the 21st commences, and you will find 
only 7 days, whereon the Pasch of the Lord is to be 
offered. But, what wonder if they erred in the 21st of 
induciiou the moon, who added three days before the Equinox, 
whereon they decide the Pasch can be offered. 
Which certainly is in every way absurd, even 
to suppose, since it has been clearly laid down by the 
most explicit historiographers of the Jews and by the 
Seventy Seniors that the Pasch could not be offered on 
the Equinox." 



of March 
22-3-4 de 
clared aL 
surd, 



^ Compufa, etc. — Conputa ergo a 
fine xiii. lunae, quod est xiiii. 
initium, ad finem xx.,unde et xxi. 
principium incoatur, et invenies 
vii. tantum azimorum dies, in 
quibus verissimuni pasclia Domini 
dictu praefinitum est imniolare 
debere. 

Sed quid mirum, si in xxi. 
luna erraverint, qui tres ad- 
diderunt dies ante aequinoctium, 
in quibus pascha immolari posse 
definiunt ? Quod certum est 
omnimodis etiam putari absurdum, 
cum apertissimis ludaeorum his- 
toriochirografis [sic] et Ixx, se- 
nioribus evidenter difinitum sit, 
pascha in aequinoctio immolare 
non posse. 

(From Sed to absurdvm is cited 
by Bede, Ep. ad Wic. The query 
he answers thus : Quibus respon- 
dendum, quia Anatholius potuerit 
nosse plurimos, qui sic vel sic de 
Pascha eenserint, nee tamen ad 



nostram notitiam pervenerint [!] 
P. L. XC. 604.) 

Sed illis nihil ardui fuit, quibus 
licitum erat omnibus diebus, 
quando xiiii. luna advenisset post 
aequinoctium, pascha caelebrare. 
Quorum exemplum sequentes 
usque hodie omnes Asiae episcopi, 
quippe qui et ipsi ab auctore in- 
repraehensibile, lohanne scilicet 
evangelista et pectoris accubitore, 
. . regulam susciperant . 
non adquiescentes auctoritati. . . 
Petri et Pauli successorum, qui 
. . . sollemnitatem resurrectionis 
Domini in die tantam dominica 
posse celebrari docuerunt. Unde 
et content io quaedam exorta est 
inter eorum successores, Victorem 
scilicet, Romane urbis . . epis- 
copum et Policraten, qui tunc in 
episcopis Asiae primatum agere 
videbatur ; quae in Hereneo, 
tunc Galliae partis praesule, 
rectissime paccata est, utrisque 



INTRODUCTION. 



CXXlll 



But tliere was no difficulty for those to whom it was 
lawful to celebrate the Pasch when moon 14 fell after 
the Equinox: whose example is followed even to this 
day by all the Asian bishops, who adopt the rule of 
John and not that of the successors of Peter and Paul, 
who taught that the Eesurrection is to be celebrated 
only on Sunday. Whence contention arose between 
their respective successors, namely, Yictor, bishop of 
Rome, and Policrates, primate of Asia, which was 
amicably decided by Irenseus, chief bishop of Gaul, 
each side observing its traditional rule.'^ 

The mystical significance of each of the two celebra- gist,— 
tions is then set forth, after which the objection is g^day^ 
solved that the Pasch of light cannot be celebrated, moon 14— 
except on moon 14. This leads to the main contention : 20, and 
some^ sage and most acute persons laid down that it Equinox, 
is impossible to find Sunday after the Equinox, and possible in 
not exceeding moon 20, in that confined and briefest goiJjf and 
space of a 19-year circle. But, to manifestly convince lunar 
their incredulity, he will give that circle with the cy^^^s. 
course of the moon, prefixing the days in which the 
year revolves, reckoned on Kalends, Nones, Ides, and 
last days of months. Of the numeration which follows 
(whereof the solar portion is given in Table B), the 
January items will suffice to show the arrangement. 

Jan. on the Kalends^ 1 day, moon 1st. 

on the Nones, 5 days, ,, 5th. 

^ on the Ides, 13 ,, ,, 13th, 
On the second day 

hejore the Kalends of February, 31 „ ,, 1st, 



partibus in sua regula persever- 
antibus (Krusch, op. cit. 321). 

^Some, etc. — Sed hoc ab aliis 
sapientibus et acutissimis viris 
inpossibile esse difinitur, quod 
in illo angusto ac brevissimo x. et 
viiii. annorum circulo spatio 
pascha verissimum, id est, in die 
dominica, aequinoctio [sic] trans- 
grediens et xx. lunam non ex- 
cedens, inveneretur. Sed nos, ut 
manifestius fiat quod illis in- 



credulitatem inducit, ilium quern 
diximus annorum circulum cum 
lunae cursibus ponemus, con- 
potatis ante diebus, quibus re- 
ciprocis cursibus involvitur annus, 
in Kl. et Non. et Id. et pri. Kl., et 
eolis ascensu et discensu. 

Ian. in Kl., una dies, luna i., 
in Non., V. dies, luna v., 
in Id., xiii. dies, luna xiii., 
in pri. Kl. Fb.j xxxi. dies, 1. i. 



CXXIV INTRODUCTION. 

Next, the circle is given with the Heading •} This 
Easter is from March 27 to Ajjril 23. The first and last 
items are : — 

(1) Equinox [M. 25], Sat., moon 26 j Easter ^ April 16, moon 18. 
(19) „ Fri., „ 15, „ March 37, „ 17. 

As regards the solar years, the initial and final are 
common : the 19 years, consequently, the ferial incidence 
of March25 proves, are intended to form a decemnovennal 
19-year solar cycle ! This is effected by employing but two 
Solar ^ bissextile years. As an idle calculation, the cycle is 
accurate : it contains 6937 days, or 991 weeks. The 
forger doubtless anticipated, with what prescience time 
has shown, that it would escape notice that 19 actual 
years, whether Egyptian or Julian, have, at least, 4 
bissextiles, or 991 weeks, and 2 days. In fact, the 19 
here given contain 5 leap-years. The wonder is to find 
Bucherius imposed upon by so transparent a device. Ex- 
pressed in Dominical Letters, the two sequences are : — 

No., 12 3 4 5 6 7 
P.- A., A G F E D C BA 
Jul., B A GF E D C BA 

No., 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 

P.-A., DOB A G F ED 

Jul., DC B A G FE D C 

(P.-A., Pseudo-Anatolian; Jul., Julian.) 

date, The two leap-years, it will have been noticed, are the 

A.D. 556. 7tli and 17th. The Booh was composed after the 
Athanasian Tractate, and, as will be seen, before the 
departure, about A.D. 590, of Columbanus from Ireland. It 
would enhance the deception to have the week-days and 
Easters of such a venerable document identical, as far 



8 


9 


10 


G 


F 


E 


G 


F 


E 


18 


19 




C 


B 




B 


AG 





^Heading. — Hoc pascha a vi. Kl. 
Aprilis usque in viiii. Kl. Maii. 
Aequinoc. Sab., 1. xxvi., p. xvi. 



Kl. Mai., 1. xviii. 
Aequinoc. vi. f., 1. xv., p. vi. Kl. 
Apr., 1. xvii {ih. 324-5). 



INTRODUCTION. CXXV 

as possible, witL. those that could be easily verified. 
This makes it probable that the solar cycle tampered 
with was that which began at 550, a year which — 
hardly an undesigned coincidence — was the first but one 
of the cycle of 84. As the reckoning is made on March 
25, No. 3 is accurate for that day. So likewise are the 
other Nos., to the 10th, inclusive. With exception of 
Nos. 5 and 9, the correct years have the same Easters 
of those of 84. TsTos. 6, 7, 8 have accordingly the same 
ferial and Paschal incidence in the two cycles. The 
fabrication may consequently be assigned to No. 7, 
A.D. 556. 

Respecting the Paschal dates, the Table given on next 19 Easters 
page will show what an impossible work the forger sibierecur- 
essayed. In the first place, the initial epact is not ^ence on 
that of Anatolius. Secondly, the Saltus is inserted (not and lunar 
in the last j^ear, as in the normal decemnovennal cycle, days, 
but), owing to ignorance or forgetfulness of the part 
assumed, in the 14th, in accordance with the cycle most 
familiar to the fabricator. Thirdly, the same 19 Easters 
always recur, and in the same sequence ; excluding 
March 25, 26, days never omitted, and including April 
22, 23, days never observed, by the Irish. Finally, the 
remainder of the Table is made up of dates derivable 
from the pseudo- Anatolian epacts used with the true 
solar cycle : they include March 23, although 24 is 
railed against as too early, and April 25, a day two days 
later than the cyclic date. Sed quis in scriptis spuriis 
certitudinem prcestahit ? 



[Table. 



CXXVl 



INTRODUCTION. 





PSEUDO-ANATOLIAN PASCHAL TABLE. 






G.N. 


Ep. 


A 


« 


F 


E 


D 


° 


B 




I. 


2 


A 16 
18 


A15 
17 


A 14 
16 


A 13 
15 


A12 
14 


A 18 
20 


A 17 
19 




II. 


13 


A 2 

15 


A 1 

14 


A 7 
20 


A 6 

19 


A 5 

18 


A 4 
17 


A 3 

16 




III. 


24 


A 23 

18 


A 22 

17 


A 21 
16 


A 20 
15 


A19 
14 


A 25 

20 


A 24 
19 




IV. 


5 


A 9 
14 


A 15 
20 


A 14 
19 


A 13 
18 


A12 
17 


All 
16 


A 10 
15 




V. 


16 


A 2 

18 


A 1 

17 


M31 

16 


M30 
15 


M29 
14 


A 4 

20 


A 3 

19 




VI. 


27 


A 16 
14 


A 22 
20 


A21 
19 


A 20 
18 


A19 
17 


A 18 
16 


A 17 
15 


B. 


VII. 


8 


A 9 
17 


A 8 
16 


A 7 
15 


A 6 

14 


A 12 
20 


All 
19 


A 10 
18 




VIII. 


19 


M26 

14 


A 1 
20 


M31 
19 


M30 

18 


M29 
17 


M28 
16 


M27 
15 




IX. 


30 


A16 
17 


A 15 

16 


A 14 
15 


A 13 
14 


A19 
20 


A 18 
19 


A 17 
18 




X. 


11 


A 9 
20 


A 8 
19 


A 7 
18 


A 6 
17 


A 5 

16 


A 4 
15 


A 3 

14 




XI. 


22 


M26 

17 


M25 
16 


M24 
15 


M23 

14 


M29 
20 


M28 
19 


M27 

18 




XII. 


3 


A 16 
19 


A 15 

18 


A 14 
17 


A 13 
16 


A12 
15 


All 
14 


A17 
20 




XIIL 


14 


A 2 
16 


A 1 

15 


M31 
14 


A 6 

20 


A 5 

19 


A 4 

18 


A 3 
17 


S. 


XIV. 


26 


A 23 
20 


A 22 
19 


A21 
18 


A 20 
17 


A 19 
16 


A 18 
15 


A17 
14 




XV. 


7 


A 9 
16 


A 8 
15 


A 7 
14 


A13 

20 


A 12 
19 


All 
18 


A 10 

17 




XVI. 


18 


A 2 
20 

A16 
16 


A 1 
19 


M31 
18 


M30 
17 


M29 
16 


M28 
15 


M27 
14 


n. 


XVII. 


29 


A 15 
15 


A 14 
14 


A 20 
20 


A 19 
19 


A 18 
18 


A17 
17 




XVIII. 


10 


A 9 

19 


A 8 

18 


A 7 
17 


A 6 

16 


A 5 
15 


A 4 
14 


A 10 
20 




XIX. 


21 


M26 
16 


M25 
15 


M24 
14 


M30 
20 


M29 
19 


M28 
18 


M27 
17 



INTRODUCTION. 



CXXVll 



The Dominical Letters are arranged to show the 
sequence of the 19 pretended recurrent Easters, which, 
with the respective lunar days, are given in heavier type. 

This cycle^ the writer continues, is not approved of by March 22 
some African ( ? Gallican) computists, who wrote more detestable 
ample cycles^ as being contrary to their opinion, that Paschal 
Easter should be from March 22 to April 21,— limits^ ^™'*'* 
not alone not to be followed, but to be detested and cut 
away. After proof of this, the Booh concludes with an 
account, in response to the second alleged request,^ of the 
ascent and descent of the sun, i.e. diminution of days 
and nights, from Dec. 25 to March 25, June 24, Sep. 24, 
Dec. 25 ; which is, and most probably was intended to 
be, an enigma. 

Besides the internal evidence, we have the testimony Intent. 
of Columbanus that Anatolius was directed against 
the Victorian Paschal system. A cycle at variance with 
the fixed Julian years, it needed no profound computistic 
skill to discover, would be worthless. The intent, how- 
ever, was not to employ such, but to perpetuate, whilst 
nominally condemning, the 84, as the sole system that 
ena,bled the divine precept of celebrating Easter from the 
14th to the 20th of the moon to be carried into effect 
How well it succeeded with the Northern Irish (the fabri- 
cator, we can hardly doubt, was himself an Ultonian), 
appears from the subsequent history of the controversy. 

The next defender of the 84 was Saint Columbanus. Colum- 
His Paschal observance was strenuously opposed by the letter of to 
bishops of Gaul, who naturally followed the Table of Gregory 
their compatriot, sanctioned, as it had been, by a 
National Council.* Accordingly, in a letter (600) to 



the Great, 



^ Cycle. — Hie circulus x. et viiii. 
annorum a quibusdam rimariis 
AfiFricanis, qui anipliores circulos 
conscribserunt, non probatur, quia 
eorum opinionibus et suspetionibus 
videtur esse contrarius {ib. 325). 

^Lirtiits — Quos terminos non so- 
lum non sequendos sed etiam 
detestandos ac succidendos esse 
dicernimus (ifc). 



'^Request. — Caeterum quod tuae 
epistulae subieceras, ut solis 
ascensum discensumque, qui in 
deminutione dierum ac noctium 
conficitur, huic opusculo insinuare 
conarer, hoc modo incoatur et con- 
sumitur {ih. 326). 

'^Council. — Placuit itaque, Deo 
propitio, ut sanctum Pascha 



cxxvm 



INTRODUCTION. 



Pseudo- 
Anatolius 
cited in. 



Resurec- 
tion before 
Passion 
absurd ; 
moon 21 
22, unlaw- 
ful. 



Gregory the Great, lie defended tlie 84 and impugned 
Yictorius in a strain that shows with what confidence he 
advocated his cause. He begins by requesting^ the Pon- 
tiff's opinion respecting Easter on the 21st, or 22nd, of 
the moon ; which, be it said without offence, is fully 
proved by many computists not to be an Easter, as 
being of darkness. It has not escaped, he believes, the 
Pope's ability to what extent Anatolius, a man of 
wondrous learning, as Jerome says, whose work was cited 
by Eusebius and lauded by Jerome, reasoned in vituper- 
ating this age of the moon, and passed a dreadful 
sentence against Gallic calculators, erring, as he said, 
regarding Easter. He then quotes the long passage of 
the spurious Anatolius, tq\síí\yq to the 21st and 22nd of 
the moon, the substance of which has been already given.^ 

How, he proceeds, can either of these two things 
reasonably stand : the ResuiTection to be before [the 
traditional date, March 25, of the] Passion, which 
even to suppose is absurd ; or the 7 days, moon 14 — 20, 
during which alone the Pasch was to be legitimately 
eaten, be extended, contrary to what is just and lawful ? 
Why^ then does one so sage approve of an Easter of dark- 
ness? He is surprised, he confesses, that this error of 
Gaul has not been eliminated by the Pope long ago, 
unless perhaps, what he can scarce believe, that not to 



secundum laterculum Victorii ab 
omnibus sacerdotibus uno tempore 
celebretur. — Cone. Aurelian .IV., 
A.D. 541, Can. II. (Acta Concil. 
ed. Harduin., II. 1436.) 

^Requesting.— Qyda ergo dicis de 
Pascha xxi. aut xxii. lunae, quod 
iam (tua tamen pace dictum sit) 
non esse Pascha, nimirum tene- 
brosum, a multis comprobatur 
calcalenteris [calcenteris] ? Non 
latet enim, ut credo, efficaciam 
tuam, quantum Anatolius, mira,e 
doctrinae vir, ut sanctus ait 
Hieronymus, cuius Eusebius . . 
excerpta nseruit. . et s, Hier- 



onymus . . hoc idem de Pascha 
opus collaudavit., de hac lunae 
aetate vituperando disputet : qui 
contra Gallicanos rimarios, de 
Pascha (ut ait) errantes, horren- 
dam intuiit sententiam (P. L. 
LXXX. 260). 

2 Given. — P. cxxi., supra. 

'■''Why, etc. — Quare ergo tu, tam 
sapiens, . . Pascha tenebrosum 
cohs? Miror, fateor, a te hunc 
Galliae errorem. . . iamdiu non 
fuisse rasum : nisi forte putem 
(quod vix credere possum), dum 
eum non constat a te fuisse emen- 
datum, apud te esse probatum 
{ib. 261). 



INTRODUCTION. CXXÍX 

have amended lias arisen from having sanctioned. For 
let him know^ that by their [religious] masters and by 
Irish antiquaries, philosophers and computists most 
skilled in the art of calculation, Yictorius has not alone 
not been received, but has been deemed deserving of 
derision or pity, rather than authority. 

After all the^ authors he has read, he is not satisfied GTailic 
with the unique opinion of those [Gallic] bishops : We tharuth- 
ought not to malce the Pasch with Jews. For, how is day cele- 
this pertinent? Are reprobate Jews to be believed to je^jsh/^ 
make the Pasch, who are now without a temple and^^^voidof 
away from Jerusalem, since they crucified Christ ? Is t?on^^^ 
this 14th of the moon to be believed their's and not 
rather acknowledged as of God himself, who alone per- 
fectly knew by what mystery the 14th was selected 
for the Pasch ? Let^ those who thus object reproach God 
why, if he wished us not to make the Pasch with 
them, did his prescience not obviate the contumacy of 
the Jews, by prescribing 9 days of unleavened bread in 
the Law, so that the beginning of our solemnity should 
not exceed the end of their's? For, if the Pasch is to 
be celebrated on the 2l8t or 22nd, 9 days will be com- 
puted, from the 14th to the 22nd : 7, namely, prescribed 
by God and 2 added by men. But, if men can of 
themselves add anything to divine decision, is not this, 



1 Know. — Scias namque nostris 
magistris et Hibernicis antiquis, 
philosophis et sapientissimis com- 
ponendi calculi computariis, Vic- 
torium non fuisse receptum, sed 
magis risu vel venia dignum, 
quam auctoritate [ih.^. 

2 After. — Non mihi satisfacit, 
post tantos quos legi auctores, 
unaistorum sententiaepiscoporum 
dicentium : Cum ludaeis Pascha 
facere non dehemus {ib.). 

^ Let, etc. — Qui hoc opponunt, 
. . Deo improperent, quare non 
sua praescientia antea tunc prae- 
caverit ludaeorum contumaciam, 



ut, si nollet nos cum eis Pascha 
facere, novem dies azymorum in 
Lege praeciperet, ut vel nostrae 
solemnitatis initium finempolemni- 
tatis eorum non excederet? 
Nam, si in xxi. aut xxii. Pascha 
celebrandum, a xiv. usque ad xxii. 
novem dies computabuntur : vii. 
scilicet a Deo praecepti et ii. ab 
hominibus aucti. Sed, si licet 
hominibus augere per se aliquid 
divinae censurae, interrogo, ne 
forte videatur contrarium esse illi 
Deuteronomii sentent^ae : Ecce 
(inquit) verhum quod tihi do : neque 
adiicias ad illud, neque auferas ah 
eo [Deut. iv. 20] (»6. 262). 



cxxx 



INTRODUCTION. 



To excuse 
Victorius 
is to con- 
demn 
Jerome, 



Letter to 
Gallican 
Council : 



Paschal 
principles 
of Western 
churches, 



he asks, contrary to the sentence of Deuteronomy: 
Behold the word which I give you, you shall not add 
thereto, neither shall you take theo^efrom? 

It is therefore for the Pope either to excuse or 
condemn Victorius ; knowing^ that, if he shall praise 
him, it will he a question of helieving either himself or 
Jerome, that lauded Anatolius, Avho was opposed to 
Victorius: so that he who follows the one cannot receive 
the other. 

Again, in his letter (603) to the Fathers of the Coun-' 
cil of Chalons-sur-Saone (convened to discuss his case, 
but which he refused to attend, on the ground chiefly 
that he had dealt with the subject in three tomes sent 
to the Pope, and in a briefer lihellus presented to their 
brother bishop, Arigius [archbishop of Lyons]), he states- 
that all the Western churches do not admit the Resur- 
rection to be before the Passion, i.e., Easter before the 
Equinox [March 25], and do not go bej^ond the 20th of 
the moon. He likewise confesses^ that he trusts more 
in the tradition of his native land, to celebrate Easter 



1 Knoioing. — Sciens, si ilium 
laudaveris, inter te et supra dic- 
tum Hieronymum fidei futurum 
fore negotium, qui nimirum 
Anatolium laudavit huic con- 
trarium : ita ut qui unum secutus 
fuerit, alterum recipere non po- 
tent {ih.). 

- States. — Omnes enim ecclesiae 
totius Occidentis . . . non 
recipiunt fieri debere Resurrec- 
tion em ante Passionem, id est, 
ante aequinoctium Pascha, et xx. 
lunam non excedunt ih. 266). 

^ Confesses. — Sed confiteor con- 
scientiae meae secreta, quod plus 
credo traditioni patriae meae 
iuxta do[ctrinam] et calculum 
Ixxxiv. annorum et Anatolium. . . 
quam iuxta Victorium, nuper 
dubie scribentem, et, ubi necesse 
erat, nihil definientem, ut ipse in 
suo testatus est Prologo : qui, 
post tempora D. Martini et D. 
Hieronymi et papae Damasi post 



[per] centum et tres annos sub 
Hilaro scripsit {ih. 266-7). 

" Chronographum a. 354 ad- 
legari a S. Columbano in epistula 
secunda (Aligne, P. L. LXXX. 
p. 267), scripta a. 603, contendunt 
Duchesnius {Lib. Poni. Paris. 1 886, 
I. p. xxxiv.) et Kruschius (jVe?ies' 
Archil', IX. 147). Scilicet cum 
ibi memoretur Victorius, ' qui 
post tempora domini Martini et 
domini Hieronynn' et papae 
Damasi post centum et tres annos 
sub Hilaro conscripsit,' ea com- 
putatio, cum Victorius canonem 
elaboraverit a. 4o7, ducit ad a. 
3o4, in quo finit Chronographus ; 
neque id aliqua probabilitate 
caret [I], (j[uamquam Damaso 
[366-84] a Columbano computatio 
ilia non magis tribuitur quam 
Martino [ob. 397] vel Hieronymo 
[ob. 420] neque recte tribui potest, 
cum corpus id de quo agitur ante 
scriptum sit quam is papa f actus 



INTRODUCTION. 



according to the calculation of 84 and of Anatolius, rather 
than according to Victorius, lately writing dubiously contemp- 
and, where such was necessary, deciding nothing, as he crf^ion^of 
himself has testified in his Prologue : who, after the times Victorian 
of Martin, Jerome and pope Damasus, wrote [a cycle ^^ 
to last] during 103 years, under Hilarus. The national 
disdain for one who declines to take a side appears in 
the sarcastic and somewhat misleading reference to the 
avowed neutrality of Victorius. 

But, owing, no doubt, to the chilling fact that the Letter of 
tomes failed to elicit any response from the Curia, Í^ i*^?^ 
no trace of confidence is observable in a letter directed 
to a successor (most likely, Sabinian) of Gregory. 
He sends,^ he states, the writings addressed by him 
(and which Satan twice prevented the bearers from 
delivering) to Pope Gregory to be inquired into ; since 
the books of their province proceed not on the Paschal 
Terms of the book of those Gauls, which is not received 
(even) in two places by their masters, as shown in said 
epistles. 

He beseeches^ the Pope to grant to laborious pilgrims petition 



est neque usquam in eo nomen eius 
adsit" (M. G. H. SS. Antiqss. 
IX. Chronica Minora^ ed. Momm- 
sen, p. 34). 

The qualified 'probability' is 
readily disposed of. Columbanus 
was not so ignorant as to imply 
that the number in question ap- 
plied to any of the three first- 
named. He had before him the 
per annos centum et dnos futnros 
of the Prologue: to these he 
rightly added the initial year, 
giving 103 as the prospective Vic- 
torian Paschal years. Post is, ac- 
cordingly, an error for per. 

^ Sends. — Idcirco semel et bis 
Satanas impedivit portitores nos- 
trorum ad. . papamconscriptorum 
Gregorium, . . qui tibi quoque 
ofterendi discutiendique a nostra 
transmittuntur vilitate, . . dum 
non eosdem terminos scandunt 



libri nostrae provinciae et istorum 
liber Gallorum, qui a nostris viris 
non recipitur per duo loca magis- 
tris, sicut in epistolis . . ad supra 
dictum beatum papam . . indicare 
. . studuimus (ib. 269). 

'•^ ^eseecAes.— Itaque . . , preces 
tantum ad te ... fundimus, ut 
nobis peregrinis laborantibus tuae 
piae sententiae praestes solatium, 
quo, si non contra fidem est, no.^^- 
trorum traditionem robores seni- 
orum, quo ritum Paschae, sicut 
accepimus a maioribus, observare 
per tuum possimus indicium in 
nostra peregrination e. Constat 
enim nos in nostra esse patria, dum 
nullas istorum suscipimus regulas 
Gallorum, sed in desertis sedentes 
. . cum nostrorum regulis mane- 
mus seniorum, pro quibus defen- 
dendis, sive ad vos . . apostolicos 
patres, sive ad istos . . nostros in 
k 2 



CXXXll 



INTRODUCTION. 



for pro- 
tection 



reason 
therefor, 



untenable. 



the solace of his judgment, and thereby, if not contrary 
to faith, to strengthen the tradition of their seniors, 
that, by his decision, they, in their pilgrimage, may 
observe the Paschal rite as received from their elders. 
It is plain they are within their own (Irish) country in 
rejecting the Gallic rules : seated in the desert, with the 
rules of their seniors, in defence of which he addressed 
Gregory and the Gallic Fathers (the letter to the latter 
being enclosed). As those who were tumultuous rather 
than reasoning could not be convinced, they postulate 
authorization to live as Polycarp and pope Anicetus 
taught, — separated in perfect charity, each preserving 
what he received. 

The valediction^ bids the pope be mindful to decide 
for them in accordance with the 150 authors of the 
[Second Ecumenical] Synod of Constantinople [A.D. 
381], who judged that churches of God placed among 
barbarous nations should live, as taught by (their) 
fathers, by their own laws. 

The canon inaptly adduced in support of this untenable 
claim to exemption from the local episcopal jurisdiction 
is the second, which concludes^ thus : But the churches 
of God in barbarous ^peoples are to be administered 
according to the prevalent patristic custom [not in the 
manner defined in the part of the canon immediately 
preceding]. 

With the expulsion of the founder, the observance of 



Christ© patres, scripsimus istas, 
quas haec chartula tibi com men - 
dat, epistolas. Et quandoquidem 
meritis satisfacere non potuimus, 
utpote tumultuautibus potius 
quam ratiocinantibus, vestrae ma- 
turae punctum aiictoritatis postu- 
lamus, ut . . possimus vivere . . 
sicut . . Polycarpus . et papa Ani- 
cetus . . cum integra charitate 
separantes, unusquisque quod acce- 
pit servans, . . docuerunt [ih.). 
1 Valediction. — Vale, dulcissime 



in Christo papa : memor nostri . . 
in piissimis sanctionibus iuxta 
Constantiiiopolitanae synodi cl. 
auc tores, ecclesias Dei in barbaris 
gentibus constitutas suis vivere 
legibus sicut edoctas a patribus, 
iudicantes {ih. 269-70). 

'^ Concludes. — Táf It tv toIq jSap- 
j3apiKoi(; tOvfmf ruv títoíi ÍKK\r](TÍa(; 
oiKOvofitlcOai xptj Kara ti)v Kparr]- 
aaanv avvijOtiav tu)V "KaTspwv. — 
Cod. Can. Ufiiv. Eccl. CLXV {P. L. 
LXVII. 78). 



J 



INTHODUCTION. CXXXill 

the 84, it is scarcely open to doubt, ceased in the ?*^^^"^®^ 
monastery of Luxeuil. At all events, a Calendar, itself euil, 
a copy, carried thence to the abbey of Corbie before replaced 
657 has the Victorian Paschal data^ exclusively. torian^- 

March 22. — Here begins the time of the Paschal 
lÍTnit [earliest Easter]. 

April 24. — Here ends the time of the Paschal limit 
[latest Easter]. 

Though no proof is forthcoming, the cycle first fol- used in 
lowed in Bobbio, it can hardly be questioned, was the ° ^°' 
84. For the evidence respecting the introduction and 
use of the Victorian Cycle after the time of the first abbot, pplaeed 

«^ by Vic- 

the reader is referred to the valuable essay ^ of Dr. Bruno torian. 
Krusch: the Introduction of the Grecian Paschal 
system into the West. 

Shortly after the departure of Columbanus, two re- Alexand 
markable events occurred not far from his alma mater. F^^^ Y^^^ 
A Note^ of the eighth or ninth century in the Wurzburg 
Irish copy of St. Matthew states that Mosinu Maccumin, Note rela- 
scrihe and abbot of Bangor, was the first af the Irish *^^® *^- 
who learned the Computus by rote from a certain Greeh. 
Afterwards, Mocuaroc Maccu Nethsemon, whom the 
Romans styled Doctor of the whole world, and j^upil of 
the aforesaid scribe, in the island called Crannach of 
Downpatrich, committed this hnowledge to writing, lest 
it should lapse from memory. 



^Data. — Hie incipit tempus et li- 
mitis [sic] paschalis, XÍ. K, April. 

Hie finit tempus et limetis [sic] 
paschalis. VIII. Kl, Madias. 

(Piper : Karls des Grossen KaL- 
endarium lEinleit. zmn Vergleich. 
KaL fir 1858\ Berlin, 1858, p. 
Ixii.) 

'■^ Essay. — Neues Archiv der Gsl- 
schft. fiir dltere deutsche Gschchts- 



et abbas Benncuir, primus Hiber- 
nensium compotem [computum] a 
Greco quodam sapiente memorali- 
ter dedicit [didicit]. Deindo 
Mocuoros[-roc] Maccumin Semon 
[Maccu Nethsemon], quem Romani 
doctorem totius mundi nomina- 
bant, alumnusque praefati scribae, 
in insola [insula] quae vocatur 
Crannach Duinlethglaisse, hanc 
scientiam Uteris fixit, ne memoria 



hide. , Hannover, 1883, Neunter laberetur ( Die dlte^ten Evangel^ en 

Bnd., LrsterHft., i>ie^m>ArMní/ handschriften der Wilrzburger 

der griecliischen FaschaMtus im Universitatsbibliothek, hesprocken 

Abendoande, 99-169. ^o/t Dr. Georg Schepps, Wútz^ 

iNote. — Mosinu Maccumin, scriba burg, 1877, p. 26). 



CXXXIV 



INTRODUCTION. 



Mosinu, or 
Sillan. 



Mochua- 
roc, or 
Cuaran. 



Cranny. 



Fabricat- 
ed Epistle 
of Cyril : 



In tlie List of Homonymous Saints in the Book of 
Leinster,^ Mosinu Maccu Mind- is second of the four 
under Mosinu. He was also called Sillan, under which 
name his obit is given in the present Annals, at GIO, 
and the Calendar of Aengus has his feast at Feb. 28. As 
Sinlanus, he is commemorated in the hymn^ in memory 
of the abbots in the Antiphonar}^ of Bangor, and styled 
famioiis doctor of the world. Of the pupil, Mochuaroc 
of the Wisdom, founder of Kilcoran, near Youghal, par- 
ticulars are given under A.D. 1121. 

Crannach (place of [high] trees) is Cranny Island in 
the south-western arm of Strangford Lough, a few miles 
from Downpatrick. The Note is thus of further interest, 
as showing that the school, whereof the Scriptorium 
formed part, sometimes lay at some distance outside 
the monastic enclosure. 

The Comjjutus in question was, of course, the Alex- 
andrine decemnovennal cycle and it gave occasion to yet 
another fabrication,^ the Ej)istle of Cyril. In his 
genuine letter to the Fathers of the Council of Carthage 
(A.D. 419), St. Cyril states, at the close,-Hhat the Easter of 



'^Lemster. — Lith. ed., p. 368, col. 
6,1.41. 

^Mind and Min are pronounced 
Mec7i. 

•^ Hymn. — 

Elegit sanctum 8inlanum, 

Famosum mundi magistruni. 
(Fol.36b, 11. 16,17.) 

^ Fabrication. — First detected 
by Petavius {op. cit.Wh. II. cap. Ixv., 
Vol. I. p. 114), who printed the 
genuine and supposititious let- 
lers (II. 503-4), and proved the 
Easter of the forgery was that of 
607 {ib. 508). 

In view of the fact that, not to 
mention older writers, Ideler, De 
Rossi and Mommsen did not ac- 
cept the conclusion of Petavius, 
the fraud was exposed anew by 
Krusch, in a manner that obviates 
cavil {Der S4jdhrige Cyclus, etc., 
p. 101-9). The text is given, with 



variants of six MSS. and two edi- 
tions {ib. 344-9). 

^ Close. — De Pascha vero, ut 
scripsistis, nuntiamus vobis xuii. 
Cal. Maias nos futura Indictione 
celebrare. Et, alia manu : Deus 
et Dominus noster sanctam ves- 
tram congregationem custodiat : 
quod optamus, charissimi fratres 
(Codex Cavonmn Vetns, P. L. 
LXVII. 227 ; Krusch, op. cit. 
345). 

The erroneous textual i-eading 
arose from one of the besetting 
scribal mistakes : the first ii of 
xiiii. were mistaken for u. All 
the MSS. and one edition have 
uiiii. 

As the Easter for 420 was April 
18 in the 84 and 84 (12), the re- 

j quest for information was a com- 

[ plimentary formality. 



INTRODUCTION. CXXXV 

the next Indiction (A.D. 420), would be the xiiii.th of 
the Kalends of May (April 18). Xiiii. was made into 
villi., giving (Friday) April 23 as the Easter day! 
Pseudo-Cyril, accordingly, desired the Fathers to cele- 
brate on that day, on account of the embolismal year. 
By celebrating on March 26, moon 22, as they were pre- coutents, 
paring^ to do, they would make the embolismal a common 
year, making Paschal the moon that began on March 5, 
pursuant to the Latin Rule: Jaji. 1, Sunday, moon 27 
( = March 26, moon 22). 

(Three sections follow, of similar import and equal 
value; some of the contents of which are cited by 
Cummian ; by the author of the Munich Cotnpidiis ; 
and by Bede.) 

These criteria are not to be found in the 84. They date, 
occur in the Victorian Cycle at 691, a date too late, and ^-I^-GOO, 
in the Alexandrine at 607. The forgery thus saw the 
light in 606. In 607, the 84 and Yictorian Easter 
would be April 16 ; the Alexandrine, April 23. More- 
over, the imcanonical 84 Easter, April 23, would soon 
recur, in 612. The motive, consequently, was to make 
known, in anticipation, that Cyril who, it was well 
known, had composed a Paschal Cycle, had condemned iutent. 
the Latin (Victorian) Rule and approved of a day 
hitherto never adopted in Ireland. 

Next in time is a letter-^ addressed^ to Segene (abbot of Paschal 
lona, 623—652) and Beccan, a solitary, a dear brother Cummian^- 
in flesh and spirit, by Cummian. After an apology for preamble/ 
addressing them, the writer states^ that in the year of its 



1 Preparing. — (Quod optamus, 
carissimi fratres) ut simul Pascha 
celebremus viiii. Kl. Mai., propter 
rationeni embolisnii anni. Quod 
si facialis vii. Kl. ApL, luna xxii., 
ut preparatis, communem annum 
facitis de embolismo, dum obser- 
vatis lunam incensam in iii. Non. 
Mar., iuxta regulam Latinorum : 
Kl. Ian. Dominica, luna xxvii. 
{lb. 345). 
'^Letter. — The eleventh in XJssher's 



Vetermn epistolarimi Hiher- 
nicarum Sylloge (Wks. iv. 432- 
43). 

•^ Addressed. — Dominis . . Se- 
gieno, abbati Columbae sancti . . 
Beccanoque solitario, charo carne 
et spiritu fratri, . . Cummianus, 
supplex peccator, magnis minimus, 
apologeticam in Christo salutem 
{ib. 432). 

•* States. — Ego enim primo anno 
quo cyclus dxxxii. annorum a 



CXXXVl 



INTEODUCTION. 



I 

Scriptural 
and fabri- 
cated 
patristic 
proofs. 



II. 

historical 
proofs. 



introduction, he did not receive the cycle of 532, but 
devoted the time to the Scripture, history and cycles 
bearing on the subject. Then come Paschal texts, 
succeeded by three quotations from Jerome and one 
citation from Origen, all four not otherwise known. 
Passion-week events are next set forth : the Lord suffer- 
ed on Friday, moon 14 ; lay in the tomb on Saturday, 
moon 15; arose on Sunday, moon 16. Whence ^ the 
whole Oriental church assigned a week, 14 — 20, to the 
Passion; another 15 — 21, to the Sepulture; a third, 
16 — 22, to the Resurrection. But if, as they do in 
lona, moon 14 is given to the Resurrection, the Sepul- 
ture will have moon 13 ; the Passion, moon 12. 

Statements follow relative to uniform celebration, 
?rom the Acts of Ccesarea and Councils of Nice and 
Aries. The main contention is now introduced by 
words attributed to Jerome, that care should be taken 
not to eat the lamb outside the church. Whence it is 
manifest that Jews, heretics and conventicles of perverse 
doctrines, who eat not the lamb within the church, 
eat not the flesh of the lamb, but of the dragon. Where- 
upon Cummian asks- those whom he addresses to con- 
sider who are the conventicles, whether the Hebrews, 
Greeks, Latins and Egyptians, all united in observance 
of the chief s-olemnities, or the particle of the Britons 
and Irish, almost the extremes of the world. 



nostris celebrari orsus est, non 
suscepi, sed silui : nee laudare, nee 
vituperare ausus. . . . Hinc 
per annum secretus sanctuarium 
Dei ingressus, hoc est, scrip turam 
sacram, ut valui, involvi ; deinde, 
historias ; postrerao, cycles, quos 
invenire potui [ib.). 

^ Whence, etc. — Unde Orientalis 
tota ecclesia tres hebdomadas 
sacratissimis solennitatibus Dni. 
nri. lesu Christi venerabiliter, 
i.e. passioni, sepulturae, resur- 
rectioni, deputaverunt : passioni, 
axiv. in XX. ; sepulturae, a xv. in 
xxi. : ressurectioni, a xvi. in xxii., 



lunam : septimanam pro rev^erentia 
Dominici diei cousecrans. Quia, 
si xiv. luna resurrectioni deputetur 
(ut vos facitis), xiii. in sepultura, 
et xii. in passione, praepostero 
ordine, fiet {ih. 435). 

-' Asks. — Vos considerate quae 
sunt conventicula quae dixi : utrum 
Hebraei et Graeci et Latini et 
Aegyptii, simul in observatione 
praecipuarum solennitatum uniti, 
an Britonum Scotorunique par- 
ticula, qui sunt pene extremi et, 
ut ita dicam, mentagrae, orbis 

, terrarum : hoc mihi indicate {ib, 

I 436). 



INTRODUCTION. 



CXXXVll 



Uniform Paschal celebration being thus gatuitously 
laid down as a test of church membership, he proceeds 
to develope a facile theme, — necessity of union with the 
church. Old and New Testament texts are interspersed 
with four quotations, not in the editions, of Augustine ]^^*^.^^*'^'' , 
and two, one genuine, the other spurious, of Jerome, texts. 
Cyprian and Gregory the Great, respectively. The 
relevancy will sufficiently appear from one example. 
After quoting a fabricated Augustinian application of 
Psalm cxx. (cxxi.) 6 and Exodus xxi. 17, to those who 
think evil of the church, he asks:^ ''What more deroga- 
tory can be thought of mother church, than to say : 
Rome errSy Jerusalem errs, Antioch errs, Alexandria 
errs, all the world errs : the Irish and Britons alone think 
rightly V 

Finally, coming to cycles, he found ,them all, though III. 
differing in day and moon, month and bissextile, epact S'^^Jjg ^ 
and saltus, icontrary to that of those whom he addresses : enumera- 
1) that brought^ and composed by Patrick, their pope, ^ion^o* 
with [Easter on] moon 15 to- 21 and Equinox, March 
21 ; (2) Anatolius, whom they extol [but who states] 
that they who observe the cycle of 84 can never attain 
to correct Paschal reckoning ; (3) Theophilus ; (4) 
Dionysius; (5) Cyril ; (6) Morinus; (7) Augustine; (8) 
Victorius; (9) Pachomius, the monk, founder of the 
cenobite communities of Egypt, to whom an angel dictated 
the Paschal system ; (10) the decemnovennal cycle of the 
318 [Nicene] Fathers, named in Greek Enneacedeci- 
terida [! Enneacaidecaeteris]. 



^ Asks. — Quid autem pravius 
sentiri potest de ecclesia matre, 
quani si dicamus : Roma crrat^ 
Hierosolyma errat, Alexandria 
errat, totus mundus errat : soli 
tantmn Scoti et Britones rectum 
sapiunt 1 {lb. 438-9). 

■^ Brought, etc. — Primum, ilium, 
quem sanctus Patricius, papa nos- 
ter, tulit et facit [fecit] : in quo 
luna a xiv. [xv.] usque in xxi. 
regulariter, et aequinoctium a xii. 
Kl. Apr., observatur ; secundo, 



Anatolium, quem vos extollitis 
quidem [lege qui dicit] ad veram 
paschae rationem numquam per- 
venire eos qui cyclum Ixxxiv. an- 
norum observant ; tertio, Theo- 
philum ; quarto, Dionysium ; 
qumto, Cyrillum ; sexto, Morinum; 
septinio, Augustinum ; octavo, 
Victorium ; nono, Pacomium mon- 
achum, Aegypti coenobiorum 
fundatorem, cui ab angelo ratio 
paschae dictata est ; decimo, 
cccxviii. episcoporum decennoven* 



CXXXVlll INTRODUCTION. 

These^lie found to be contrary to the 84 (whereof 
author, place and time are uncertain) ,in Kalends, bissex- 
Fabri- tile, moon 14, first month, epact and Equinox. Let us 
^EpLtle of scrutinize, as Cyril saith, what the Nicene Synod ar- 
Cyrilcittid, ranged, the l^th-moonsof all years in a deceninovennal 
cycle (which Yictorius in 28 turns, with 532 years and 
133 leap-years, made to recur to where it began), lest we 
he deceived in the moon of the first month. The quota- 
tion (the bracketted words being Cummian's ; and 28 
turns, a deduction unauthorized by the Prologue) is 
continued, containing nearly the whole of the spurious 
Epistle of Cyril. After a challenge to test these, or 
renounce Catholic testimonies, eight Xew Testament 
texts, chiefly about not judging others and bearing each 
others' burdens, follow. 
Magh- The year being ended, in accordance with Deuteron- 

^^"® omy, he consulted his elders, the successors of their 

^"^ former fathers, i.e., Ailbe, bishop [of Emly], Ciaran of 

Clonmacnoise, Brendan [of Birr], Nessan [of Mungret] 
and Lugid [Molua of Clonfert-Mulloe], what they 
thought of the excommunication passed on them by said 
apostolic sees. They assembled, some in person, others 
by deputy, in Magh-Lene [probably, near Birr], and 
decided to celebrate Easter the following year with the 
ditía^-eed universal church. "But,- not long after, arose a white- 
washed wall, pretending he was preserving the tradition 
of the elders, who did not make both one, but divided 
and in part made void what was promised : whom the 
Lord, as I hope, will smite, in whatsoever way it 
pleas eth him !" 



iialem cyclum, qui Graece Eiinea- Yictorius per vicesimas et octavas 

cedeciterida dicitur (í6. 440). vices, cum kalendis dxxxu. et 

These, e^c— Hunc [lios] inveiii bissexis cxxxiii., m idipsura rediro 

valde huic (cuius auctorem, locum, fecit), nt nou fallamur in luna (ib.). 

tempus, iiicertum liabemus) esse - i?t(i, eic— tSed noii multo post, 

contrarium in kalendis, in bissexto, surrexit quidam paries deaU)atus, 

in epacta, in xiv. luna, in primo traditionum semorum servare se 

raense, in aequinoctio. Scrutami- ; simulans, qui utraque non fecit 

nique, ut [pseudo-] Cvrillus ait, | unum, sed divisit, et irritum ex 

quod ordinavit synodm Nicena— \ parte fecit quod promissum est : 

luuas xiv.as omnium annorum per ; quem Domiuus, ut spero, percutiet 

decemnovmtuiltm cyclum (quem I quoquo modo voluerit (i6. 442). 



INTRODUCTION. 



CXXXIX 



Then, in pursuance oi the synodal decree that major sent to 
causes were to be referred to the chief city, they sent^ consult 
men of known wisdom and humility, as sons to a mother, 
whereof some arrived in Rome and returned in the third 
year, and reported they were in one hospice with a Greek 
and Jew, Scythian and Egyptian, and with the same in 
St. Peter's on Easter (in which the Irish were separated 
by a whole month), and they testified : Throughout the 
whole world, this Easter, as we know, is celebrated. *'And- 
we have proof that the power of God was in the relics of 
holy martyrs and the writings which they brought. Wo 
have seen with our eyes a mtaiden quite blind open her 
eyes at these relics, a paralytic walk and many demons 
cast out." 

These things he said, not to impugn Segene and apology 
Beccan, but to defend himself, hiding like a night-crow fpg^.i^gj^ 
in his domicile. He concludes with an>pology for any of, rude 
rudeness of language. How far this, was called for, one language ; 
instance will show. After citing the fabricated testi- 
mony of Augustine, he proceeds. " And this, I beg, 
look diligently into, that you may excuse or direct me 
by your words, or by producing writings, more powerful 
and more certain, if any you have, for understanding 
the other better sense, and I will accept it gratefully, 
as I have adopted this. But, if you have not, be silent 
and call us not heretics." 

The list of cycles is perhaps the most ludicrous tissue 



^ Sent, etc. — Misimus quos novi- 
mussapienteset humiles esse, velut 
natos ad matrem, . . et ad urbem 
Romam aliqui ex eis venientes, 
tertio anno ad nos usque pervene- 
runt . . et in uno hospitio cum 
Graeco et Hebraeo, Scytha et Ae- 
gyptiaco, in ecclesia sancti Petri 
simul in I'ascha (in quo mense 
integro disiuncti sunnis) fuerunt. 
Et ante sancta sic testati sunt 
nobis, dicentes ; Fer totum orhem 
terrarum hoc Fascha, ut scimus, cele- 
bratur. Et nos in reliquiis sancto- 
rum martyrum et scripturis quas 
attulerant, probavimus inesse vir- 



tutem Dei. Vidimus oculis nostris 
puellam coecam omnino ad has 
reliquias oculos aperientemetpara- 
lyticum ambulantem et multa de- 
monia eiecta {ib. 442-3). 

- And, etc. — Et hoc, obsecro, dili- 
genter inspicite, ut mihi ignosca- 
tis, vel me dirigatis verbis vestris 
vel scriptis fortioribus et certiori- 
bus prolatis, ad aliud melius intel- 
ligendum, si habetis : et ego 
snscipiam gratanter, ut hoc sus- 
cepi. Si vero non habetis, silete 
et nolite nos haereticos vocare {ib. 
437). 



cxl 



INTRODUCTION. 



of the 10 
cycles, 5 
fictitious, 



date, 
A.D. 632. 



of fact and fiction in existence. Passing over the cliro- 
nology that places Dionysius before Cyril and Yictorius, 
the description of the Patrician cycle is demonstrably 
false ; Anatolius is the native patchwork ; Morinus is 
the Irish fictitious Morianus, fictitious bishop of Alex- 
andria, whose Epistle/ Be ortu Paschali, was written 
against the Victorian Cycle ; Augustine, composer of 
a cycle, is as mythical as Morinus ; the revelation^ to 
Pachomius is taken from the Epistle of Cyril; finally, 
the cycle of the Nicene Fathers is the well-known 
falsification^ of the monk Dionysius. 

As regards the date, Segene was abbot of lona from 
623 to 652. During his incumbency, the difference of a 
month between the Easters kept in Rome and Ireland 
occurred in 631 and 642: the Victorian and Alexandrine 
being March 24 ; the Irish, April 21. The letter was 
apparently written soon after the return of the delegates, 
in the third year; namely, either in 632 or 643. Of 



^ Epistle, — Printed by Muratori 
(A)iecodota Ambrosiaua, Patavii, 
1713, III. 195-6). The title is : 
Incipit Epistola Moriani, episcopi 
Alexandrini, de ortu Paschali eo 
quod senserunt alii diverse. The 
conclusion is Appendix XXIII. of 
C.H.B. IV. (Uhronicon Paschale 
tome, p. 386), with heading : De 
Pasckate Judaeorum. and is like- 
wise given by Jan (Historia Cycli 
Dionysiani : P.L. LXVII. 430) as 
the end of a disputation de ra- 
tione Paschali of Morinus, bishop 
of Alexandria, from the Bodleian 
MS., Digby 63. The texts of 
Muratori and Jan are practically 
the same ; the (bracketted) C.H.B. 
variants, quite in keeping with 
the original galimatias, indicate 
an independent source. Appa- 
rently, the editors took the tract 
to be genuine. 

Observa igitur cursum lunarem, 
iuxta regulam Graecorum et more 
Aegyptiorum, et non secundem 
epactas, id est, adiectiones lunares: 
quia ibi pervenitur a iiii. luna 



usque ad xvi., hie autem ad 
XV,, iuxta compositionem Eusebii 
(losephi), qui primus conscripsit 
circulum xix. annorum (x. et viii. 
annorum), Athanasii, Theophili, 
Dionysiique Exigui, usque dum 
scripsit Victorius Hilario, papae 
urbis Romae episcopo (Hilarii, 
papae u. R. episcopi). Tunc cessa- 
verunt disputatores Alexandrini 
et Antiocheni [!] circulos post 
alios describere. 

Dionysius before Victorius was 
too much for Du Cange. Accord- 
ingl}^ he prints Dionysiique Exigui 
in Italics and notes on the margin: 
Forte est glossema. On Joseph he 
makes no remark. 

- Revelation. — This and another 
passage from the writing of 
" blessed Cyril, bishop of Alex- 
andria," relative to the moon- 
stone cycle are two of the " indica- 
tions of divine authority" adduced 
by Bede in support of the Alex- 
andrine luni-solar reckoning {De 
temp. rat. xliii. ). 

^ Falsification. — See p. Ivi., supra. 



INTRODUCTION. 



cxli 



Aidan, bishop of Lindisfarne (634 — 651), Bede narrates^ 
that lie kept Easter from the 14th to the 20th of the 
moon, the Northern Irish thus celebrating ; whilst the 
Southern had already, by papal admonition, learned to 
hold the canonical feast. This refers to what he states 
elsewhere, that Pope Honorius wrote ^ to the Irish, ex- 
horting them not to think their small number, on the 
uttermost bounds of the earth, to be wiser than all the 
ancient and modern churches of Christ throughout the 
world and not to celebrate a different Easter, contrary 
to the Paschal calculation and synodical decrees of the 
bishops of the universe. The admonition in question, 
there can be no reasonable doubt, occasioned the pro- 
ceedings described by Cummian. The dates may, ac- c 
cordingly, be assigned as follows: papal epistle arrived, 
629 ; synod held : delegates set out, 630 ; delegates in 
St. Peter's, 631 ; delegates returned : letter of Cummian 
written, 632. 

With respect to the author, a monk resident in Ire- Oummian, 
land, addressing a defence to the abbot of lona, is probably 
[proved to have belonged to one of the Irish Columban i)ur°row 
monasteries. Of these, the chief was Durrow, which 
lay close to .the Southern Half of the Island. Further- 
more, to have his decision so long waited for and to 
have exercised the dominant influence described, Cum- 
mian, in addition to his repute as computist, must have 
held a position of influence, such as, we know, the 
abbatial was in the Early Irish Church. Segene, the occasion 
tenor shows, declined to take part in the synod ; Cum- ^^^^^^J^^*, 
mian was accordingly present as abbot of Durrow, not 
as representative of the successor of Columba, Hence 
the occasion and spirit of the communication : co-ordinate 



of Epistle, 



1 Narrates. — DiempaschaeDom- 
inicum more suae gentis, . . a xiv. a 
luna usque ad xx.am observare 
solebat. Hoc eteiiim ordine septen- 
trionalis Scottorum provincia . . 
celebrabat . . . Porro gentes Scot- 
torum, quae in australibus Hiber- 
niae insulae partibus morabantur, 
iamdudum ad admonitionem 
apostolicae sedis antistitis, pascha 



canonico ritu observare didicerunt 
[H.E. III. 3). 

2 Wrote. — Misit . . Honorius liter- 
asetiamgenti Scottorum , . . soller- 
ter exhortans, ne paucitatem suam 
in extremis terras finibus constitu- 
tam, sapientiorem antiquis sive 
modernis, quae per orbem erant, 
Christi ecclesiis aestimarent ; neve 
contra paschales computes et de- 



cxlii 



INTRODUCTION. 



Small 
attend- 
ance at 
Synod of 
Magh- 
Lene, ex- 
planation 

of. 
Confer- 
ence of 
Slieve- 
niargy, 
result of, 

Easter 
already 
corrected 
in most of 
S. I. : 
East, 



in rank, the chief superior in Ireland drew up a justi- 
fication, partly in deference to, but chiefly (with the 
usual fate of such endeavours) to convince, the head of 
the Order. 

Though scarce a fourth was represented in the Synod, 
the Southern Half of Ireland, Bede states, adopted the 
correct calculation, owing to the papal exhortatio i. 
This apparent inconsistency admits, in great part, of 
satisfactory explanation. Almost simultaneously with 
that of Magh-Lene, another meeting,^ presided over by 
the local king, was held in Slievemargy, Queen's CO., 
to hear a discussion between Laserian, abbot, after- 
wards bishop, of Leighlin, and Munnu, abbot of 
Taghmon, co. Wexford : the former, advocating the new 
(Paschal) Order that lately came from Rome; the latter, 
defending the old. Munnu retired unconvinced, — a 
fact which goes to prove that the maintenance of the 
observance introduced by Fiac was thenceforth confined 
in the East to the diocese of Ferns. 



creta synodalium totius orbis pon- 
tificum aliud pascha celebrarent 
H.E. II. 19). 

1 Meeting. — Quodam tempore 
erat magnum concilium populorum 
Hiberniae in Campo Albo, inter 
quos erat contentio circa ordinem 
Paschae. Lasreanus enim, abbas 
monasterii Leighlenne, . . novum 
ordinem defendebat, qui nuper de 
Romavenit; alii vero veterem de- 
fendebant. Sanctus auteni Munnu 
. . iam veterem defendebat . ordi- 
nem. Tunc Suibne, filius Dom- 
naill, dux regionis Huamairche, 
dixit .... Erant enim illi tunc in 
Campo Albo, cui imminet mons 
Marge {Vita S. Finteni sivc 
Munnu, ap. Usser. Brit. Eccl. 
Antiq. c. xvii. Wks. vi. 503-5). 

Suibne, son of Domnall, is men- 
tioned in the tract on the Omargy 
septs {BL of Lnstr. 313b, 50-1) 
and in the list of Omargy kings 
{ib. 337f, 65-6). The following 
table shows the descent and the 
connection with Fiac : — 



Daire Barrach 
(eponymous head). 

Fiac. 
I 



Ercad. 

Fiac 

(of Sletty, 

first bishop 

of Leinster). 

(B. L. 352a, 47-50.) 



Breccan. 

I 
Err. 

Oengus. 

I 
Echu. 

Dermot. 

Cormac. 



Domnall. 

I 
Suibne. 
{B. L. 313b, 37-52.) 

Cormac, son of Dermot, is said 
to have granted an Emly (not 
identified) to Comgall of Bangor 
(S.i/. 3l4a, 60-1). As fresh proof 



INTRODITCTION. 



cxliii 



Towards the North West, from the prayer^ in (the N. West, 
Canon of) the Stowe Missal for the conversion of a pagaii 
king and his people, we learn that part (in the present 
diocese of Killaloe) was still heathen ; whilst, from the 
inclusion of Laurentius, Mellitus and Justus in (the 
Canon^ of) the same Missal, we can infer that part had 
adopted the system recommended by those bishops to 
the episcopate and abbots of Ireland. 

In the South, Lismore, founded after Mochuaroc o/^?"^^-— 
the Wisdom set up on the yew-clad slope by the mouth 
of Avonmore, knew no other than the Computus 
brought from Cranny of Downpatrick to Kilcoran. 
From the monastery of Cuaran, the Alexandrine cycle Ardmore, 
passed across to adjacent Ardmore. 

Cloyne, Cork and Ross, late sixth-century founda- ^^^^^®' 
tions, at first, it is probable, observed the Victorian Ross.' 
Easters; afterwards, the Alexandrine, when they learned 
of them from Youghal or Lismore. The transition, it 
has to be borne in mind, involved no violent change. 
It was, in fact, practically imperceptible. The compara- 
tively few differences between the two systems, we 
have seen,^ were duly noted by Yictorius. All that had 



of the agreement of native autho- 
rities and the amount of authentic 
history omitted from the extant 
Annals, he is the Cormacus^filius 
Diarmada, of the Acts of St. 
Fintan of Clonenagh, who was for 
a long time king of South Leinster, 
abdicated in old age and died a 
saintly death as monk of Bangor 
(Lanigan, E.H.I. II. 67-8). 

Cernach, son of Flann, who died, 
according to the present Annals, 
in 766, was sixth in descent (not 
in the regal line) from a brother 
of Suibne {B.L. 313b, 30-37). 

According to the regnal list, 
Domnall, son of Aed, slain in 1042, 
was Donnchad, and Muircertach 
O'Tracey, who died in 1057, 
was son of said Donnchad, and 
ggs. of Tressach, eponymous head 



of the O'Traceys {B.L. 337f, 

54-7). 

1 Prayer. — Hanc igitur oblatio- 
nem . . quam tibi oiferimus . . . 
in hac ecclesia, quam famulus tuus 
ad honorem nominis gloriae tuae 
aedificavit, quaesumus, Domine, 
ut placatus suscipias, eumque 
atque omnem populum ab idolorum 
cultura eripias, et ad te, Deum 
verum,Patrem omnipotentem,con- 
vertas (Stowe Missal, fol.25a, 25b : 
Trans. R.I. A. XXVII. 212). 

- Cano7i.— Cum omnibus . . . 
oiferentibus . . offert senior 
noster . . pro commemorando 
anathletico gradu . . episco- 
porum . . Laurenti, Melleti, 
lusti (fol. 27b-30b : ib 215-17). 

^ Seen. — Supra, p. xc. 



cxliv 



INTRODUCTION. 



Aghadoe 
Ardfert. 



Synod 
super- 
fluous. 



Victorian 
system 
advocated 
by Cura- 
mian. 



to be done, accordingly, was to celebrate on the Greek 
date when such was marked in the Table. 

Respecting Aghadoe and Ardfert, we are happily- 
freed from conjecture. Faithlenn,^ founder of the 
monastery on the matchless island thence fittingly 
named Innisfallen, was son of Aed Daman, king of 
West Munster. Naturally, the donation was made by 
his father, and consequently before 631 , the year of the 
king's demise.^ The Annals of the abbey were based,^ in 
the early portion, partly on the Table of the Aquitanian. 
And that the Cycle was used for the primary purpose, 
is proved by the large number of years having no 
historical items attached. This being so, for such as 
were committed to no method, knowledge that the 
Alexandrine was the more accurate sufficed of itself 
to induce the requisite alteration. 

Thus it fell out that the South, for by far the 
greater portion, had no concern in the Synod. Seeing, 
however, that the important discovery of the inde- 
pendent existence of the most correct cycle was only 
recently made, Bede may well be condoned for erro- 
neously assigning the cause of the change. 

As to the Paschal system advocated so strenuously by 
Cummian, no ambiguity can arise. A cycle of 532 
(arranged by Victorius into 133 bissextiles), with 



1 Faithlenn. — The following from 
the Genealogy of Coirpre-Luachra 
{B. L. 321a) compared with the 
Geneaologies of Saints (ih. 351c) 
phows he was kinsman and co- 
temporary of Cumraine the Tall, 
who died in 662. 

Duach larlaithi. 



1 
Cobthach. 

Crimthand. 

1 
Aed Daman. 

Faithlend. 



Garrine. 

Fiachra. 

Fiachna. 

Cummine Fota. 



- Demise. — [A.D. 631] Mors Aeda 
Damain,righlar-Mumhain. Death 
of Aed Daman, king of West 
Munster (O'Conor : R. H. 8S. II. 
Ann. Inisfal. p. 12). 

-^ Based.— [k.T). 458, rede 457] 
Victorius scripsit ciclum Pascha[e] 
{ih. p. 3). 

[A.D. 562, recte 559] Finis cicli 
Victorii {ih. p. 7). 

The years are assigned, partly 
from the scanty textual data (c/. 
p. cxiv. n. 4, supra), partly in ac- 
cordance with the Ulster Chrono- 
logy. For O'Conor's competence 
to deal with chronistic material, 
see T.L.S. III. 342, 352, 373-5. 



INTRODUCTION. 



cxlv 



Easter from the 16th to the 22nd of the moon, 
exclusively designates the Victorian. Under the cir- 
cumstances, the evidence is conclusive that, towards the 
middle of the seventh century, the cycle of the Aqui- 
tanian was still used in the Curia. The reason lay in 
the very characteristic contemned by Columhanus, — 
marking the different Easters, and leaving the selection 
to the decision of the pontiff. 

On the other hand, Bode represents the Letter of the objeo- 
Roman Clergy (of which anon) as evidently^ establishing ^^""'^ • 
that Easter is to be sought for between the 15th and Bede; 
21st of the moon, as ivas proved in the Council of Nice. 
But, though he textually cites the opening of the Letter, 
which mentions the Quartadeciman heresy and the close, 
dealing with the Pelagian, of the intermediate, or Pas- 
chal, portion, he baldly states that it expounded^ the 
system of Paschal observance. In the light of the direct 
testimony of Cummian, this appears of a piece with 
his statements that, in the matter of the Easter of 455, 
Leo rejoiced^ to be laudably vanquished by those who 
invincibly adhered to the Nicene decrees and sent a 
letter^ of thanks, which is given in full, to Proterius ! 

More comprehensive and direct in contradiction is 
what Ussher^ surmised may have been the part not 



1 Evidently, eic— Evidenter ad- 
struens, quia dominicum Paschae 
diem a xv.a luna usque ad xxi.am, 
quod in Nicaena synodo probatum 
est, oportet inquiri [H.E. II. 19). 

- Expounded. — Exposita autem 
ratione paschalis observantiae, ita 
de Pelagianis in eadem epistola 
subdunt [ib.). 

'■'• Rejoiced. — Unanimitate eorum 
qui Nicenae synodi decretis invin- 
cibiliter adhaerebant laudabiliter 
vinci gaudebat {De tenqj. rat. 
xlviii.). 

^Letter. — Cuiuscirculi Proterius, 
. . ad inquisitionem . Leonis, 
luculentissimam reddens rationem, 
talis rescripti ab eo meruit tenore 
praedicari ; Laetijicaverunt [etc. 
op. cii.xliv.). The letter of Leo^has 



since been found. It deals exclu- 
sively with the Incarnation ! (Kru- 
sch, op. cit. 136.) The document 
that imposed on Bede was probably 
fabricated by the monk Dionysius. 
(Cf. Krusch Nenes Archiv., p. 110). 

Quite in keeping is the gloss in 
the Carlsruhe Bede : A rescrÍ23t 
that ivas sent by Pope Leo, in 
praise of the cycle that ivas sent 
by Prosp)cr [sic] — athscribend 
rucad o'n phapa Leo, do molud in 
chicuil tucad ó Prospir (Glos. Hib. 
249). 

^ Ussher. — Qui . . defectus ex an- 
tiquissimis fortasse Whitbiensis 
coenobii schedis aliquo modo sup- 
pleri poterit ; in quibus, praefixo 
titulo Vitalini (Vitaliani haud 
dubie) papse urbis Romae, sub- 
I 



cxItí ixtroduction. 

supposed quoted in Bede^ of the letter of "Pope Vitalian [657-672] 
''' Popl °^ ^^ ^i^» C)swy : ' that- Easter should be celebrated ac- 
Vitalian's cording to the rule of the 318 Nicene Fathers and the 
^^^Oswy* computation of Cyril and Dionysius ; the Apostolic See 

neither having approved the Paschal rule, nor following 

the Paschal Order, of Victorius." 
not the It is surprising how the overwhelming reasons to 

portion of ^^g contrary escaped the attention of Ussher. The 

papal •' ^ 

letter Anoflo-Irish Easter controversy had ended ; which, 
in^Me- caoi'eover, the Victorian system had no connexion 
with. Resides, Bede was not so well-disposed towards 
opponents of his infallible Alexandrine, as to suppress 
a crushing condemnation of the kind. Furthermore, 
having attacked Victorius in a manner which, he 
admits,^ admirers of the Aquitanian might consider 
unadvised, why quote in justification the invective-^ of 
an obscure provincial bishop, to the exclusion of a 
pronouncement proceeding from the head of the 
church ; except that, as his precis leaves no doubt, the 
papal Avords were nothing more than a colourless 
exhortation to Paschal uniformity ? The title, Vita- 
linus [!], pope of the city of Rome, which imposed on 
the editor of the Sylloge, it is plain, was the insertion 
of a reader of Bede, whether at Whitby or elsewhere. 



jectum reperi { Vet. Ep.Hih. Sylloge, \ Ussher inserted dchemus after cele- 

ix. Wks. iv. 428). In-are ; Jan has cclchrnnt. 

, n , n,, . 11 ., " Admits. — \'erum, ne nos ama- 

^ Bede. — Etpostnonnulla.fiuibus , ,.. ^ .. ^ ' -i, 

J 1 , 1 ^ u i * tores \ ictorn temere illuni ageres- 

de celebrando per orbem totura i . , ^ y-^ 

,, 1 ^1 ., . ., SOS esse lacerent, legant hbrura 

uno vero Pascha loquitur . . iiuiuit i 4.- • • 4. *.••■•• a7- 

( 11 p- TTT km\ doctissiini et saiictissiini vin, Vic- 

\ ■ • • " I' j toris videlicet Capuani episcopi, 

-That, etc. — Nunquamenimcele- de Pascha (Dc tcm-p. rat. li.). 

brare [licet] sanctum Pascha, nisi... ^ Invectirc. — Et in processu 

secundum apostolicam regulam operis: "Sed nunc,'' inquit, " ordo 

cccxviii. sanctorum patrum ac expetit utcyclorum quos Victorius 

computum sancti Cyrilli et Diony- | ediditpatefaciamevidentererrores, 

sii . . . Nam Victoris sedes apos- 1 dum nescit legitimum diem definire 

tolica non adprobavit regulam 1 paschalem, ut, cum in praeteritis 

Paschae, ideo nee sequitur eius ostensushoc modofuerit deliquisse, 

dispositionem pro Pascha i, Ussher. i in praesentibus ac futuris et auc- 

op. cit. 428-9 ; Jan, Uistoria Cycli I toTÍt»teca,re&t, et occasionem pi'avae 

Dionysiani, P. L. LXVII. 471). \ persuasionis amittaV {ih.). 



INTRODUCTION. 



cxlvii 



who thereby displayed his profound learning and 
critical acumen. 

The precious excerpt is the final statement in the 
Suggestiov^ of Boniface, chief secretary of the notaries^ 
to Pope John, relative to the Easter of 526, and is as 
reliable as the Nicene falsification of his correspondent, 
the monk Dionysius, with which the Suggestion ap- 
propriately^ opens.- It consequently dates 132 years 
before the pontificate of Vitalian. 

Assuming that he wrote in good faith, this high 
curial functionary, we thus find, was so unversed 
in the public correspondence of a renowned pontiff, 
as to be unaware of the statement of Pope Leo 
regarding what was done by the Nicene Fathers in 
the matter of Paschal calculation ! Furthermore, having 
in view some of the known facts, it argues aggra- 
vated nescience to assert that the Curia never adopted 
the Victorian cycle. 

In the first place, it was drawn up, as we have seen,^ 



i Suggestion. — Exemplum suges- 
tionis Bonifati, primiceri notari- 
omm, ad Johannem papain de 
ratione paschali (Krusch, Nenes 
Archiv, 109). 

Jan, who quotes but the final 
paragraph, as above, writes: Gemi- 
na istis [namely, testimonies to the 
exclusive use of the Alexandrine 
system] sunt quae in Codice [Oxo- 
niensi] Digbieano [63], quae saec. 
ix. exaratum . . ostendemus, sub 
titulo : Scriptio primiceri i notario- 
rum ad Joannem papain de ratione 
paschali, post alia leguntur ; Nun- 
quam enim (etc., loc. cit). 

Whilst admitting that, according 
to this, the Digb}' MS. ' seems to 
contain the entire Suggestion ' 
{Neues Archiv, 108), Krusch states 
that Jan's inclusion of Nunquam, 
etc., was an error arising from his 
having overlooked the end of Boni- 
fatius' Minute and the beginning 
of the writing of Vitalian {ib. 158)! 
" Der Irrthum ist dadurch entstan- 
den, dass in der Handschrift der 



von mir oben, S. 108, aus einem 
Miinchener Codex herausgegebene 
Brief des Primicerius Bonifatius 
an Papst Johannes vorausging, 
und Janus des Ende desselben und 
den Anfang des Schreibens Vital- 
ians ubersah " (ib.). 

This is a large draft on credulity. 
But readers of the History will be 
slow to believe that Jan was the 
superficial work er here represented. 
Besides, why should he omit a title 
that so enhanced the value of the 
testimony in favour of the Diony- 
sian Cycle ? 

- Opens. — Sugero igitur aposto- 
latui vestro beatissimos patres in 
Niceno concilio decenovenalem 
cycluni, quem Greci enneakedecy- 
derida [sic] nominant, unianimiter 
adprobasse, quod sui circuitus 
revolutione continua xiiii. pas- 
chales lunas per omnia tempora 
usque in finem seculi sine ullo 
errore demonstraverunt {Neues 
Archiv, p. 109). 

^ Seen. — Supra, p. Ixxxiii, 



source of, 

Suggestion 
of Boni- 
face ; a 
falsehood. 



because: — 

(a) Nicene 
cycle pro- 
ved a falsi- 
fication 
from let- 
ter of Leo ; 

(b) Victor- 
ian cycle 
official be- 



(1) drawn 
vip to cur 
ial order ; 



cxlviii 



INTRODUCTION. 



(2) not set 
aside by 
Hilarus ; 



(3) anoth- 
er Pope 
accused 
for adher- 
ence to ; 



(4) forger- 
ies against 
same Pope 
otherwise 
pointless. 



Letter 

from 

Northern 

Clergy to 

Pope, A.D. 

640. 



at the request of the archdeacon of Rome, acting 
officiall}^ for Leo. Again, the same dignitary, Hilarus 
was the next Pope : who can credit that he repudiated 
what himself had been the medium of obtaininsf ? 
Thirdly, the well-known charge^ against Pope Symma- 
chus (498 — 514) of celebrating Easter contrary to the 
universal church (in 501) was based on the fact that 
he kept March 25 — of the 84 (12) — given by Yietorius 
as alternative to April 22, the Victorian and Alexan- 
drine day. Foiuthly, the Rescri'pt- to, SLud Constitution'-^ 
of, tlie Nicene Council, denouncing Victorius and his 
method, which Avere issued in the name of Pope 
Silvester (314 — 335) by the opponents of Symmachus, 
would never have been fabricated, had not the Vic- 
torian cycle been official at the time. 

Nine years later, the Northern Clergy, on their side, 
wrote to E/Ome, in justification of their persistence. The 
letter arrived shortly before the death of Severinus, in 
640. After the paj^al election, it was opened and a 
reply, inscribed to eleven named,five bishops, five priests, 
and one abbot (all of the North, with Thomian, the 
primate, first), was sent by Hilary, archpriest; John, pope- 
elect; John, chief secretary; and John, counsellor of the 
Apostolic See. Bede^ (to whose industry we owe what 
has been preserved of the document) describes the Pas- 



1 Charge. — Liher Pontificalis, ed. 
Duchesne, Paris, 1886, p. cxxxvi. 

-Rescript. — Atque in greinio ves- 
trae synodi parva propter disei- 
plinam ecclesiae allegabo praeccp- 
ta: propter Victorinum,(|uiarbitrio 
suo quidquid vcllet atfirmabat et 
c3^clos paschae pronunciabat fal- 
laces, et ciim episeopis totius urbis 
Italiae examinatam univorsitas 
vestri sancti concilii dignetur ac- 
cipere veritatera. — /ve^rriptnm Sil- 
vestri episcopi ad Si/71. Nic {Acta 
Concil. I. 244). 

•"• Constitution. — Victorinum ita- 
que, . . qui in sua ferocitate quid- 
quid vellet affirmabat hominibus et 



cyclos paschae pronuntiabat fal- 
laces, ut lioc quod constituit x. 
Kal. Mai. custodiri vestro scrnione, 
sicut Veritas habet, cassetur et 
vestro iudicio condemnetur, et 
filiorum nostrum augustorum prae- 
currat auctoritas ad condemnan- 
dum Victorinum episcopum. Dam- 
navit autem . . \'ictorinum epis- 
copum, qui, ignorans lunae ratio- 
nem, sub arbitrio sui tenacitate 
disrumpebat veritatem. — Canon 
I vii Constitutio Silrcfftri, episcopi 
urhis Romae, Cap. J I [Acta Concil. 
I. 287). 

^ Bede.—II. E. II., 19. See p. 
xclv., n. 1, supra. 



I 



INTRODUCTION. 



Cxlix 



chal portions in tlie terms already set fortli. The mis- 
sive, however, had no immediate efíect. 

The next native evidence bearinp: on the question Catalogue 
belongs to the tliird quarter of the seventh century. The ^^ ^'^^^ 
Catalogue of Irish Saints states that the First and Second circa Á.D. 
Orders (432—598) celehratedi one Easter, on the 14th ^^^» 
of the moon, after the Vernal Equinox (March 25) ; the 
Third Order (598—664), different Easters : they celebra- 
ted with obdurate intents, some on the 14th, otliers on 
the 16th, The obduracy has manifest reference to the 
Book of Anatoliiis on the one side, and the Epistle of 

Cummian on the other. 

* 

The Cycle of 84 was carried by Columba to lona. ^y^^p q£ 
Adamnaii relates that, on one of his visits to Ireland, 84 and 
while staying at Clonmacnoise, during the incumbency ° ^"^ ^' 
of Ailither- (585 — 5í59), the saint prophesied^ concerning 
the Easter discord between the churches of Ireland. 
He " could hardly," Reeves* well observes, " have been 
ignorant of the discrepancy, yet he evinced no desire to 
alter the existing practice, and such was the respect for 
his memory in after times, that the bare fact of his obser- 
vance of the old rule operated, during more than a cen- 
tury, as the great obstacle to adoption of the Eoman 
Easter in the monastery of Hy and its dependencies." 

Of Aidan, Irish bishop of Lindisfarne, Bede's enco- Aidan 
mium has one exception^, — his non- observance of the 



1 Celebrated. — Primus Ordo . . . 
unum Pascha, xiv.a luna post 
aequinoctium vernale, celebrabant. 

Secundus Ordo . . . unum Pascha, 
xiv.a luna post aequinoctium 
[habebant]. 

Tertius Ordo . . . habebant . . 
diversam solemnitatem paschalem. 
Alii enim resurrectionem xiv. 
lima; alii xiv., cum duris inten- 
tionibus celebrabant (Usslier: Brit. 
Ecd. Antiq. c. xvii. Wks. vi. 477-9). 

- Ailither. — He is the Fereyrinus 
(the equivalent of the native word) 
mentioned in the colophon to the 
excerpts from the Gospel of St. 



John prefixed to the vStowe Missal 
(fol. 11a. Trans. R.I. A. XXVII. 
139). 

•^Prophesied. — Prophetavit . . de 
ilia, quae post multos dies ob 
diversitatem Paschalis festi orta 
est inter Scotiae ecclesias, discor- 
dia {Vita Col. I 3). 

^ Reeves. — Adamnan, p. 26. 

^ Exception. — Quod autem Pas- 
cha non suo tempore observabat, 
vel canonicum eius tempus igno- 
rans, vel suae gentis auctoritate 
ne agnitum sequeretur devictus, 
non approbro, nee laudo {H.E. 
III. 17). 



cl 



INTRODUCTION. 



correct Easter, either because he knew not, or, knowing, 
was prevailed on by the authority of his people not to 
adopt, the canonical time. It is added, ^ somewhat un- 
necessarily, that Aidan did not, as some falsely imagined, 
celebrate on the 14th of the moon, on any week-day, with 
the Jews, but on Sunday from the 14th to the 20th. 
Finan, Under his Irish successor, Finan (651 — 661), it was 

that controversy-' on the subject first arose in England : 
those who had come from Kent and Gaul asserting that 
the Irish celebrated contrary to the custom of the whole 
church. Of these, the moist aggressive was a compa- 
triot, taught in Gaui or Italy, by name Ronau, whose 
disputes^ with Finan, whilst convincing many or leading 
them to enquire, rendered the obstinate bishop more 
pertinacious and an open adversary. But what mainly 
led to the crisis was that the king followed what he had 
seen practised by the Irish, who baptized and taught 
him ; the queen, what she had seen in Kent. Whence'^ 



^ Added, — Hanc non, ut quidam 
falso opinantur, xiv. luna, in qua- 
libetferia.cumiudaeis, sed die Do- 
minica, semper agebat, a luna xiv. 
usque ad xx {^ib.). 

~ Controversy. — His temporibus 
quaes tio facta est frequens et mag- 
na de observatione Paschae, coniir- 
mantibus eis qui de Cantia vel de 
Galliis advenerant, quod Scotti . . 
contra universalis ecclesiae moreni 
celebrarent ( Bede, H.E. III. 25). 

'^Disputes. — Qui cum Finano con- 
fligens multos (|uideni correxit, 
vel ad sollertioreni veritatis in- 
quisitionem accendit ; nequaquam 
tamen Finanum emendare potuit, 
quin potius, quodessethomoferocis 
animi, acerbiorem castigando et 
apeitum veritatis adversarium 
reddidit {ib.). 

^ Whence, etc. — Unde nonnun- 
quam contigisse fertur illis tem- 
poribus, ut bis in anno uno Pascha 
celebraretur : et cum rex Pascha 
. . faceret, tunc regina, . . persis- 
tens adhuc in ieiunio, diem Palraa- 
rum celebraret (»6.). 



* ' The inconvenience of the dis- 
cordant reckonings came practi- 
cally to the front when, on one 
occasion [sic], Oswy was keeping 
his Easter-day with Finan, while 
Eanfled and her attendants were 
observing their 'day of Palms.' 
It was a visible discrepancy, such 
as had occurred . . when some Irish 
visitors to Rome found that their 
fellow-lodgers, a Jew, a Greek, a 
' Scj^thian ' and an Egyptian, went 
to St. Peter's for the Easter ser- 
vice, while tliey Mere keeping a 
Lenten Sunday at home" {Cha li- 
ters of Early English Chnrch 
History, by Wm. Bright, D.D., 
Regius Professor of Ecclesiastical 
History, Oxford, ed. 3, p. 192). 

Considering the source, nonnun- 
qiHWi — on one occasion is a notable 
equation. Again, " the Irish visi- 
tors " found themselves with their 
fellow-lodgers" in St. Peter's '* for 
the Easter service." Tliose who 
' ' were keeping a Lenten Sunday 
at home" were the Irish in Ireland. 
To decide the matter, here are the 



INTRODUCTION. 



cli 



it is said that occasionally in those times two Easters 
were celebrated in one year : the king keeping his 
Easter, w^hile the queen was still fasting on Palm Sun- 
day, Assuming that Oswy and Eaniied were married 
in 643, the year after his succession to the throne of 
Northumbria, the divergent Easters were the following. 



Irish, 




Alexandrine 


643 E 


A. 


6 


A. 


13 


644 DC 


M. 


28 


A. 


4 


645 B 


A. 


17 


A. 


24 


646 A 


A. 


2 


A. 


9 


647 G 


M. 


25 


A. 


1 


648 FE 


A. 


13 


A. 


20 


649 D 


M. 


29 


A. 


5 


650 C 


A. 


18 


M. 


28 


651 B 


A, 


10 


A. 


17 


653 F 


A. 


14 


A. 


21 


654 E 


A. 


6 


A. 


13 


657 A 


A. 


2 


A. 


9 


660 ED 


M. 


29 


A. 


5 


661 C 


A. 


18 


M. 


28 


663 A 


M. 


26 


A. 


2 


664 GF 


A. 


14 


A. 


21 



Irish and 
Alexan- 
drine 
divergent 
Easters, 
A.D. 643- 
664 



During one-and-twenty years, until uniformity was 
enforced in 664, the king's Easter was thirteen times 
one week earlier; twice, three weeks later, than the 
queen's, — clear proof, it may he observed in passing, 
that Bede had no firsthand acquaintance with the cj^cle 
of 84 ; otherwise, in his known zeal for the Alexan- 
drine system, he would not have rested content with an 
indefinite hearsay number. 

Finan was succeeded by a third Irish bishop, Colman. Colman, 
The advocates of the new calculation deemed the time 
had now come to determine the controversy in their fav- 
our. For the next three years, accordingly, the agitation 



statements of Cummian, to whom 
the Professor refers the reader : in 
ecclesia sancti Petri simul in Pas- 



cha (in quo mense integro disi- 
uncti sumus") fuerunt (Ussher, 
V.E.B.S. xi. Wks.iv. 443). 



clii 



INTRODUCTION. 



(Paschal 
uniform- 
ity not 
essential; 



two 
Easters in 
one year: 



A.D. 577, 
A. 18 ; 
M. 21. 



A.D. 590, 
M. 26 ; 

A. 2.) 



was kept going, on the specious pleaHhat 'the minds and 
hearts of many were moved, lest. Christians in name, 
they had, or might, run in vain !' None of these zealots, 
it is tolerably safe to assert, had ever heard of the words 
of St. Chrysostom,- that nobody was ever punished, or 
called to account, for not holding Easter on this or 
on that month. 

But, considering the intercourse with the Continent, 
ihey could hardly have been unaware of the different 
Easters held in 577 and 590, as recorded by Gregory of 
Tours, which furnish such an instructive commentar^^ 
on the proceedings to be described. 

In the former^ year, Tours, with many other cities in 
Gaul, kept Easter on [tlie Victorian date] the 18th of 
April ; others, with the Spaniards, a full month pre- 
viously, on the 21st of March. " Nevertheless, as they 
report, those [baptismal] fonts Avhich in Spain by God's 
will are filled [on Easter Eve] were filled up on our 
Pasch." 

In the latter,"^ Victorius assigned two days : [Greek] 
March 26, moon 15 ; Latin, April 2, moon 22. The 
second date was given, according to the historian, lest 
the Christians, like the Jews, should celebrate on this 
[Alexandrine] moon 15 ! " Wherefore," he proceeds, 
" many in Gaul celebrated on the 15th of the moon; 
but we, on the 22nd. We made careful inquiry, how- 
ever, and the Spanish fonts, which are miraculously 
filled, were filled up on our Pasch." 



^ Flea. — Movit liaec quaestio 
sensus et corda multorum, timen- 
tium ne forte, accepto Cliristiaui- 
tatis vocabulo, in vacuum currer- 
ent aut cucurrissent {ib). 

- Chrysostom. — "On ^k rtp hlvi 
lit]vi Kai T(f) dnvi, ovk tTroirjat t» 
Traaxcti ovBfuj 'eKoXaaOt] ttotb ovdk 
'evtKKiiOij (apud Usser. Brit. Ecd. 
Antiq. Wks. vi. 509). 

■' Former. — Eo anno dubietas 
Paschae fuit. In (ialliis vero, nos 
cum multis civitatibus. xiv. Kal. 



Maias sanctum Pasclia celebravi- 
mus. Alii vero, cum Hispanis, 
xii. Kal. Aprilis solemnitatem 
banc tenuerunt. Tamen,ut ferunt, 
fontes illi qui in liispaniis riutu 
Dei complentur, in iiostro Pascba 
repleti sunt (<^reg. Tur. H.F. V. 17; 
liecueil des Jlistoriens des Gaitles, 
Paris, 1739, II. 242C). 

^Latter. — Dubietas Pascbae fuit, 
ob boc quod in cyclo Victor luna 
XV. Pascba scripsit fieri. Sed,. ne 
Christiani, ut ludaei, sub bac luna 



INTRODUCTION. 



cliii 



The matter having been brought formally under notice Whitby 
of the king, the result, omitting irrelevant details, Avas a Confer- 
conference^, in 6(34, between the opposing disputants, in 
presence of the king and queen, at Whitby, in York- 
shii-e. Oswy opened the proceedings, saying they had 
met to enquire which was the true tradition and to 
follow same, and then called on Colman. His Easter. Colman's 
the bishop said, he had received- from the elders who '^^sumeu , 
sent him : which all their fathers, men beloved of 
God, were known to have celebrated, and blessed John, 
the specially beloved disciple, celebrated in all the 
churches over which he presided. [The reference to the 
Evangelist is taken from the spurious Anatoliits.] 

Whereto Wilfrid, the deputed spokesman of the other Wilfrid's 
side, replied that their Easter they saw celebrated in '^««ponse. 
Rome, Italy and Gaul. The same, tliey learned, was kept 
in Africa, Asia, Egypt, Greece and the whole world, except^ 
by these Irish alone and the accomplices of their obsti- 
nacy, the Picts and Britons, with whom, from the two 
uttermost isles of the ocean and these not in their en- 
tirety [an allusion to the Southern Irish], they contend, 
with foolish labour, agaimst the universe. 



haec sollemnia celebrarent, ad- 
didit : Latini aute^n luna xxii. 
Ob hoc multi in Galliis xv. luna 
celebraverunt. Nos autem xxii. 
Inquisivimus tamen studiose : sed 
fontes Hispaniae, qui divinitus 
implentur, in nostrum Pascha re- 
pleti sunt {ih. X. 23 : p. 378E, 
379 A.) 

The miraculous fonts of Oser, 
opposite Seville, are also men- 
tioned in VI. 43 ; De gloria Mai - 
tyrwn, 24, and De gloria Confes- 
sorum, 69. 

^Conference. — "Thiscontroversj^ 
was occasioned, or hastened, by 
the double Easter, which, accord- 
ing to the rival modes of compu- 
tation, would happen in A.D. 66Ó, 
in which year the Church of Rome 
would celebrate the festival upon 
6th April, the Scots delaying i t unti 1 



the thirteenth " (Bedae H.E., ed. 
Stevenson, Lond., 1838, p. 221). 
Nesutor. In 665, "the Church 
of Rome " and " the Scots " would 
celebrate on April 6. 

-Received. — A maioribus nieis 
accepi, qui me hue episcopum 
miserunt, quod omnes patres nos- 
tri, viri Deo dilecti, eodem modo 
celebrasse noscuntur . . . Ipsum 
est quodbeatus evangelista Johan- 
nes, discipulus specialiter Domino 
dilectus, cum omnibus quibus 
praeerat ecclesiis, celebrasse legi- 
tur (Bede, H.E. IIT. 25). 

'•^Except. — Praeter hos tantum 
et obstinationis eorum complices, 
Pictos dico et Brittones, cum qui- 
bus, de duabus ultimis insulis et 
his Don totis, contra totum orbem 
stulto labore pugnant {ih.}. 



cliv INTRODUCTION. 

Colman's When Colinaii expressed surprise tliat lie sliould call 

tlieir labour foolish, in following the example of the 

great apostle, who was worthy to recline on the bosom of 

dlclaimer ^^® ""^^^"^ [taken from AnatoUus], Wilfrid disclaimed 

and reprehending John, \^o, like Peter and Paul, had to 

second defer to the Jewish Christians. Hence John began 

° * celebration on the evening of the 14th of the first 

month, on whatever day it fell. But Peter^, when he 

preached at E/ome, waited, like John, for the 14th, and, 

if next day was Sunday, began celebration on the 14th ; 

but, if Sunday was not the 15th, but the IGth or any 

day to the 21st, he waited for such, and began to keep 

feast on the previous Saturday. This evangelic and 

apostolic tradition [ !] John's successoi^ in Asia and the 

whole cburch were converted to. And that this is the 

true Pasch, which alone is to be celebrated by the 

faithful, was not newly decreed, but confirmed, by the 

Nicene Council, as ecclesiastical history teaches. 

Whence Colman's party followed neither John, nor 
Peter ; neither Law, nor Gospel. John took no heed 
of Sunday ; the Irish celebrate on that day alone ; 
Peter celebrated from the 15th to the 21st [!] ; the 
Irish, from the 14th to the 20th: often beginning on 
the evening of the 13th, neither mentioned in the Law, 
nor sanctioned by the Lord, and thereby excluding 
the 21st of the moon, contrary to the Law. 

^ Peter. — At vero Petrus, cum j viter, sed confirmatum est, ut 
Romae praedicaret .... xiv. j ecclesiastica docet historia. 



lunam primi mensis, aeque sicut 
lohannes, orientem ad vesperam 
semper expectaret ; et, . . si do- 
mi uica dies . . erat mane ventura, 
in ipsa vespera pascha dominicum 
celebrare incipiebat . . . Neqiie 
haec evangelica et apostolica tra- 
ditio legem solvit, sed adimplet : 
... in quam observantiam imitan- 
dam omncs beati lohannis succes- 
sores in Asia post obitum eius, et 
omnis per orbem ecclesia conversa 
est. Et hoc esse veruni Pascha, 
hoc solum fidelibus celebrandum, 
Niceno concilio non statutum no- 



Unde constat vos, Colmane, 
neque lohannis . . . exempla 
sectari neque Petri . . . . ; 
neque legi, neque evangelic . . 
congruere. lobannes . . nil de 
prima Sabbati curabat ; quod vos 
non facitis, qui nonnisi prima . . 
celebratis. Petrus a xv. luna usque 
ad xxi. . . . celebrabat, quod vos 
non facitas, qui a xiv. usque ad 
XX. . . observatis ; ita ut xiii.lunaad 
vesperam saepius Pascha incipiatis, 
cuius neque I-ex ullam mentionem 
fecit, neque auctor . . Evangelii . . 
Novi Testamenti sacramenta in 



INTRODUCTION. 



clv 



In reply, Colman could only ask whether Anatolius, Colman's 
» a holy man and much lauded in ecclesiastical histoiy, specting 
opposed the spirit of Law and Gospel, in writing that Anatolius 
Easter was to be kept from the 14th to the 20th ; or Columba 
their Columba and his successors, men beloved of God, 
many of them wonder- workers, who kept the feast in the 
same way ? Anatolius, Wilfrid conceded, was most Wilfrids 
saintly, learned and praiseworthy. But what had they in g^^^^jj^" 
common with him who did not observe his instructions? tolius, 
He composed^ a 19-year cycle, which they either knew 
not,or knowingly contemned,although observed by the 
universal church. He so calculated the 14th of Easter 
Sunday, as to have it be the 15th, after the manner 
of the EgjT-ptians, on the same evening; similarly, the 
20th to be the 21st, at close of same day, on Sunday. 
This distinction they were proved to be ignorant of by 
the fact that they sometimes most manifestly kept 
Easter before full moon, i.e., on the 13th. [The refer- 
ence turned to such good account is to the silly 
pseudo- Anatolian equation, 13 = 14, etc., which has 
been already explained.] 

Concerning the sanctity of their Columba and his as to 
successors, far be it from him to retort that, at the judg- ^ol^^iba. 
ment, to many saying that they had prophesied and cast 
out devils and wrought many miracles in His name, 
the Lord would reply he knew them not, rather would 
he believe they erred in good faith; no one- having come 



commemorationem suae passionis, 
ecclesiae celebranda tradidit {ib.) 
1 Composed. — llle . . circulum x. 
et ix. annorum posuit, queni vos 
aut ignoratis, aut agnitum et a tota 
Christi ecclesia custoditum pro 
nihilo contemnitis. llle sic in 
Pascha Dominico xiv. lunam com- 
putavit, ut banc eadem ipsa die, 
more Aegyptiorum, xv. lunam ad 
vesperam fateretur ; sic item xx. 
die Dominico Paschae annotavit, 
ut banc, declinata eadem die, esse 
xxi. crederet. Cuius regulam dis- 
tinctiouis vos iguorasse probat, 



quod aliquoties Pascha manifestis- 
sime ante plenilunium, i.e. in xiii. 
luna, facitis (ib.) 

- No one, etc. — Nullus advenerat, 
qui eis instituti perfections decreta 
. . ostenderet ; quos utique credo, 
si qui tunc ad eos catbolicus calcu- 
lator adveniret, sic eius monita 
fuisse secuturos. 

Tu autem et socii tui, si audita 
ilecreta sedis apostolicae, imo uni- 
versalis ecclesiae, et haec literis 
sacris confirmata, sequi contemnitis, 
absque ulla dubitatione peccatis. 
Etsi euim patres tui sancti f uerunt, 



clvi 



INTRODUCTION. 



King, 
queries of 



and 
replies 
thereto : 



decision 
of. 



applauded 

and 
adopted. 



to show them the better calculation, which, had such 
arrived, they would, he believed, have adopted. In 
any case, Golnian and his adherents undoubtedly sinned 
by not following the decrees of the apostolic see, nay 
of the universal church, and these contirmed by 
sacred Scripture. For, though their fathers were 
saintly, was their paucity, in a corner of a most 
remote island, to be preferred to the entire church ^ 
And if that Columba of their's was holy and power- 
ful in miracles, could he be preferred to Peter, to 
whom, the Lord said : Thou art Peter and u/jon this rock 
I will build my church, and the gates of hell shall not 
prevail against it, and to thee I ivill give the keys of the 
kingdom of heaven f 

Hereupon, the king asked Colman, were these words 
really said by the Lord to Peter. On his replying yes, the 
king asked could he produce any such power given to 
their Columba [!] On his saying not, the king queried 
whether they both agreed that the words were said to 
Peter chiefly, and the keys given to him, by the Lord. 
Both assented, and the king closed the proceedings by 
declaring^ that Peter was the doorkeeper whom he would 
not contradict, but w^hose commands he would obey, to 
his knowledge and ability, lest, on going to the gates of 
heaven, there should be no one to open, the keybearer 
being his adversary! All present, as was to be ex- 
pected, sitting and standing, great and small, applauded 
and, in the approving words of the historian, ' renounc- 
ing the less perfect, hastened to conform to the better, 
institution.' 



uumquid universali, quae per orbem 
est, ecclesiae Christi eoruiii est 
paucitus uno de angulo extreiuae 
iusulae praef erenda ? Et, si sanctus 
erat ao potens virtutibus ille Col- 
umba vester, . . uumquid praeferri 
potuit beatissimo apostolorum priu- 
cipi, cui Dominus ait. . ? {ib.) 

1 Dedariwj. — Et ego vobis dico, 
quia hie est ostiarius ille cui ego 
contradicere nolo, sed, iu quantum 



novi vel valeo, huius cupio in omni- 
bus obedire statutis ; ne forte, me 
advenieute ad fores regni coelorum, 
non sit qui reseret, averso illo qui 
claves teuere probatur. 

Haec dicente rege, faverunt as- 
sidentes quique sive stantes, mai- 
ores una cum mediocribus, et, 
abdicata minus perfecta institu- 
tione, ad ea ([Uae meliora cognover- 
aut sese transferre festinabant [ib.). 



INTRODUCTION. 



clvii 



In the light of the history of the Paschal question, 
Wilfrid's farrago of fictitious tradition and fabricated 
testimony can hardly fail to excite a smile. But it 
proved a grim reality for the vanquished. Colman/ Colman 
seeing, according to the introsjDective narrative of Bede, ents ex- 
his doctrine set at nought and his adherents despised, pelled. 
taking with him such as would follow him (those namely, 
who would not accept the Catholic [ !] Easter and 
the coronal tonsure, for concerning this too there was no 
small question), returned to Ireland [lona], to consult 
with his own what it behoved them to do in the matter. 

How all the Irish were got rid of on this pretext is 
beside the present question. Suffice it that, according 
to the present Annals, four years later, Colman, carry- 
ing with him the relics of the (Irish) saints, voyaged to 
Inishbofin, where he built him a church and died in 676. 

As was to be expected under the circumstances, the 
monks of lona continued steadfast in the old way. In 
time, however, Adamnan, the most erudite, and, next to Adamnan, 
the founder, most celebrated, of the abbots, either on his ^f ^j^^^" 
first visit, in 686, or, more probably, his second, two andrine 
years later, to his friend, king Alfrid, made some stay system by; 
in Northumbria. There he saw^ the ' canonical rites', 
and, being earnestly exhorted by many, including Coel- 
frid, preceptor of Bede, whose monastery of Jarrow he 
went to see, not to live, with his exceedingly few in an 
extreme corner of the world, contrary to the custom of 
the universe in the matter of Paschal observance or 
any other decrees, was won over to the new system. On 
his return,^ he endeavoured to convert lona and those 



1 Colman. — Colman, videns spre- 
tam suam doctrinam sectamque 
esse despectam, assumtis his qui se 
sequi voluerunt (i.e. qui Pasclia 
catholicura et tonsuram coronae — 
nam et de hoc quaestio non mimima 
erat — recipere nolebant), in Scot- 
tiam regressus est, tractaturus cum 
suis quid de his facere deberet {ib. 
III. 26). 

2 Smv, etc. — Cum . . videret ritus 
ecclesiae canonicos,sed et apluribus 



qui erant eruditiores esset sollerter 
admonitus, ne contra universalem 
ecclesiae morem, vel in observantia 
paschali, vel in aliis quibusque 
decretis, cum suis paucissimis et in 
extreme mundi angulo positis vivere 
praesumeret, mutatus mente est ; 
ita ut ea quae viderat et audierat 
. . suae suorumque consuetudini 
libentissime praefen-et {ih. V. 15). 
•' Return. — Qui, cum domum rediis- 
set, curavit sues qui erant in Hii, 



clviii 



INTRODUCTIOX. 



fails in 
lona ; 



partiall}' 
succeeds 
in Ire- 
land ; 



return & 



death of. 

lona led 
to adopt 
new sys- 
tem by 
Egbert ; 



subject thereto, but totally failed. Doubtless, they 
were not slow to remind him that he could hardly claim 
to be more sage and more saintly than Columba. 

Still, for eight ^ years, from 690, outward harmony 
prevailed. The abbot yielding to the opposition of 
the monks, lona witnessed not the scandal of two 
Easters in one year At length, however, they reached 
the parting of the ways. In 697, Adamnan had oc- 
casion to visit Ireland, where he seems to have re- 
mained until the year of his death. During this 
period, he gradually gained over by his persuasive- 
ness nearly all w^ho were not under the influence 
of lona. Finally, not improbably in the abbey of 
Durrow, he kept Easter- on March 30, whilst the Colum- 
ban communities were entering on the second and more 
rigid half of their Lent, preparatory to Easter on April 
20, 704. Thus pledged, he returned, with what fore- 
boding we can easily imagine, to his island home. But 
he was mercifully spared the humiliation^ of a more 
serious discord, — the abbot observing the follow^ing 
twelfth of April as Palm Sunday: the monks celebrating 
it as Easter Day. In the September after his return, 
he was called to his crown. 

Twelve years passed away, and Egbert, an English 
priest who had been educated in Ireland^, came to lona, 
and, by his pious and sedulous exhortations, brought the 
monks to adopt^ the reformed calculation, in 716 ; the 



quive eidem erant subditi monas- 
terio, ad eum, quem cognoverat 
quemque ipse toto ex corde suscep- 
erat, veritatis calleni perducere, 
nee valuit (/6.\ 

1 Eight. — In 689, the Easters were 
the same. In the eight following 
years, the incidence was 





Ir. 


Al. 


690 B 


M. 27 


A. 8 


691 A 


A. 16 


A. 23 


692 OF 


A. 7 


A. 14 


693 E 


A. 20 


M. 30 


694 D 


A. 12 


A. 19 


695 C 


A. 4 


A. 11 


696 BA 


A. 16 


M. 26 


697 G 


A. 8 


A. 15 



- Easter — Celebrato in Hibernia 
canonico PaschafBede, JI.E.YAT}.) 

" Humiliation. — Divina utique 
gratia disponente, ut vir unitatis 
et ac pacis .studiosissimus ante ad 
vitam raperetur aeternani, quam, 
redeunte tempore paschali, gravi- 
orem cum eis (jui eum ad veritatem 
sequi nolebant, cogeretur habere 
discordiam {ih.'). 

■» Ireland.— Beáe, H. E. III. 27. 

•'' Adopt. — Qui, quoniam et doctor 
suavissimus . . erat, . libenter audi- 
tus ab universis immutavit piis ac 
sedulis exhortationibus inveteratam 
illam traditionem parentum eorum 
(t6. V. 22). 



INTRODUCTION. clix 

new Easter being April 19 ; the old, April 12. In the curt^ 
terms of the present Annals : Easter is changed in lona 
establishment. Egbert remained until 729, when he 
died on EasterSunday, April 24, — a day, Bede accurately 
states,'-^ whereon the feast had never before been kept in 
the same place. The Irish date, in that year, was a 
week earlier. The example of the chief house, there endof the 
can be no doubt, was followed in due time by the <^ontro- 
Columban foundations in Ireland. 

In conclusion, sufficient, though not exhaustive, /m7= 
confirmatory evidence that Init signifies (not Shrove- Quadrage- 
tide, as at 1014 f in the Rolls' edition of the Tripartite,^ ^^^ 
and elsewhere,^ but) Quadragesima Sunday, is given 
under A.D. 1109. The error arose from the constantly 
recurring cause, — proleptic attribution of latter-day 
meaning. The textual entry of that year forbids a chronistic 
higher date to any native document containing value of ; 
mention of Ash Wednesday. Such, for instance, is the 
Corpus Missal, v^hioh. has a full ceremonial for that day. 

The three series of Initium lunar days (2 — 8, Irish ; lunar days 
3 — 9, Alexandrine ; 4 — 10, Victorian) given above^ from of, rules ro 
the Munich Comj^utus are found by deducting 12 (the '" ' 
difference between a full lunar month and the 42 
Lenten days) from the respective Easter lunar days. 
(Paschal lunar reckonings based on the same rule are 
laid down for the Alexandrine by a scholiast^ on the 
Calendar of Aengus in the Speckled Book.) Herein, 
however, as in solar technique, the computist proves 

1 Curt. — Pascha commutatur in I E. I. A., Irish MS. Series, vol. I. 
Eoa civitate. [ 1880), p. Ixii. 

■ States. — Mira autem divinae dis- i ^Ceremonial. — Corpus Missal, eA. 



pensatio provisiouis erat, quod 
venerabilis vir non solum in Pascha 
transivit de hoc mundo ad Patrem, 
varum etiam cum eo die Pascha 
celebraretur, quo uuuquam prius 
in eis locis celebrari solebat (H.E. 
V. 22). 

3 1014.— Vo\. I. p. 531. 

■» Tripartite.—?^. 115, 671. 

^Elsewhere.— War of the Gaedhil 
with the Gain, 1867, p. xxvi. ; 
Annals of Loch Ce, 1871, vol. I. 
p. 2 ; Calendar of Oengus ( Trans. 



Warren, 1879, p. 100-3. The original 
meaning is shown in the Secret of 
the Mass for Quadragesima Sunday; 
Sacrificiuni quadragesimal is initii, 
etc. Strange, that, with the change 
in the beginning of Lent, this pra^-er 
was not transferred to Ash Wednes - 
day. It is found in the original 
place, not alone in the Corpus, 
but in every Roman Missal to the 
present. 

' Above. — P. Ixxv. 

8 Scholiast.— Todd Lect. Series 



clx 



INTRODUCTION. 



partly 
erroneous. 

Correct 
rales : 



(l)for 
March lu- 
nations ; 



(2) for 
April lu- 
nations. 



Irish his- 
tory un- 
written. 



himsell' not quite proficient. The rule holds good for 
the March lunations ; but, except in the Alexandrine, 
not for the April, nor for XIII. of the 84 and XXIII. of 
the 84 (12). In these, 13 (the difference between a hollow 
lunar month and 42) is to be subtracted, leaving 1 — 7, 
instead of 2 — 8, Irish, and 3 — 9, instead of 4 — 10, 
Victorian. 

The first March lunation of the 84 will illustrate the 
rule : I. C, epact 19 : Easter, March 28, moon 16. The 
beginning of Lent consequently is to have moon 4 
(16- 12). Quadragesima Sunday is Feb. 14 and has 
moon 4; new moon falling on Feb. 11. 

The first April lunation of the same will explain the 
exception : IV. G F, epact 22; Easter, April 21, moon 
14. The Beginning of Lent is accordingly to have 
moon 1 (14-13). Quadragesima Sunday is March 10, 
moon 1 ; new moon falling on the same day. 

For the rest, the more closelj'' the subject is in- 
vestigated, the more poignant becomes the vain 
regret that no one arose to breathe life into the dead 
details of the Annals, and achieve for early native 
History, civil or ecclesiastical, what Adamnan did for 
Columba and Bede for the Enoflish church. 



III. 384sq. The mention of Init 
proves that the scholia on the 
Calendar can date back to the first 
decade of the twelfth century. 

The text of this Rule mentioned 
above (p. cxv., note '-) is too char- 
acteristic of scril)al incompetenc}' 
and editorial laxity to be omitted. 
Omnis paschalis luna cuiuscunque 
a?tatis est, si detrahis ab ea septem 
[duodecim], fiet tibi ietas luna^ 
(|Uie fit in Initio Quadragesima'. 
Verbi gratia : Si deciina quinta 
luna est paschalis, toUe de quin- 
decim duodecim, et remanent 
centum et undecim [I ! ! trcs]. Ter- 
tia est lunain Initio Quadragesima*, 
eo anno quo decima quinta luna est 
die Dominico Pascha^ et oietera 
similiter (Bedif Op., Basil., 1563, 
II. 347 ; Colonic Agrip., 1612, II. 
233 ; P. L. XC. 610). 

Two imperfect tenth-century 



MSS. of the Victorian Cj'cle give 
day and moon of the Initium Qua- 
dragesimae after the epact (M.G.H., 
SS. Antiqss. IX., 674, 685). Un- 
fortunately, with one exception, 

j these valuable data have been 

I omitted bv the editor. Victorian 
Cyclic No.^181 (A.I). 208) had, ac- 

' cording to the Greeks, the Begin- 
ning of Lent on March 13. moon 
10 : Easter, April 24, m. 21 (?7>. 703. 
To judge from this, the inserted 
reckoning was Alexandrine. The 
Victorian Easter (XIII. B) was 
April 17, mo(m 16 (Tables U, V) : 
Quadragesima Sunday, March 6, 

t m. 3 (16-13); i.e. new moon, 
March 4 (Table W). Moon 10 of 
the MSS. should be m. 9 (21 - 12). 
The epact of the Alexandrine XIX. 
is 27) which has new moon on 

' March 5 ; moon 9 on March 13 

I (Table W.) 



INTRODUCTION. clxi 

It remains to discharge tlie pleasing duty of thanking 
the Council of the Royal Irisli Academy, for uni- 
form encouragement and consideration throughout the 
progress of the work ; Mr. E. W. B. Nicholson, Bodley's 
Librarian, who had the MS. B. daily sent to the Rad- 
clifí'e, after the closing hour of the Bodleian; Rev. 
Maxwell H. Close, who with characteristic liberality had 
the Munich Computus photographed ; the Lord Abbot 
and Community of Mount Melleray, for spontaneous 
and unrestricted loans from their valuable library ; 
Very Rev. Percy S. Barron, Sub-Prior and Librarian, 
Mount Melleray, whose accurate verifications and 
transcriptions were of material assistance : and Mr. 
Alfred de Burgh, xissistant Librarian, Trinity College, 
Dublin, whose courtesy and firsthand acquaintance 
with books were equal to the most exigent demands. 

B. MACCARTHY. 



m 



[clxii] 



APPENDIX A 



HIPPOLYTAN PASCHAL TABLES. 

Ill addition to their importance as Paschal data, 
the Hippolytan Tables are the earhest proof hitherto 
brought to light of the knowledge of the Julian luni-solar 
year among the Romans. For convenience of reference, 
the Times, which were explained in the lost Exposi- 
tion, have been printed separately. The text * has 
been taken from photographs. 



* Instead of the firsthand work postulated in a publication of the 
kind, the Corpus IiiscrijHionum Graecarum merely subjoins the variants 
of various editors, without any attempt at discrimination (Vol. IV., 
Berlin, 1877, no. 8613, p. 283-4). The ferial numbers are ferial letters 
(Notantur autem feriae litteris, . . . ita quidem, ut littera . . . 
a [significet diem] Veneris, p. 285) ; the two dates, still a crux (Qua 
vero caussa factum sit, ut annis 3 et 11 cyclorum duplex mensis dies 
praefigeretur, quern ex feriae nota apposita alterum tantum intellegen- 
dum esse appareat, non satis liquet, ib.). 



(olxiiij 

fniNAf.] 

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AnPKIAIAIO OABBATo. KM HOAIMOT MIINOO riíNOMIiNOV KCTAITOIC |;£HC F.TECIN KAO | - 
u,V VIIOTETAKTAI EN T», I1INAKI EPENETO AE EN TOIC IIAI'.« | XIIKOCIN KAe«C CECHME1«- 
TAl AIIONIICTIZECeAl AE | AEl OT AN ENIIECH KTIMAKll 







MAdIC 


[IJ 


EM 


Alll'KI 

II 1\) ,A. Nw 


[2] 




APPEI 




SS 


III'O IB l\.\ 


[3j 




AIII'EI 
11 PO E. El 


w 


EM 


AIIPEI 

npo A KA 


[5] 




AnPEI 
nPO IE. KA 


[6] 


SS 


AnPEi 

N«,NAIC 


[7] 


EM 


AnPEI 
npo .H. KA 


[8] 




AnPEi 

EIAOIC 


[9] 


EM 


AHPEl 

11 PO A. Nu 


[10] 




AnPEl 
npo IB KA 


[11] 


SS 


AllPEI 

npo T:. EI 


[12| 


EM 


AnPEi 

npo .A. KA 


LI 3] 




AIlPEl 
IIPO IE. KA 


[14] 


SS 


AnPEI 
NoiNAlC 


[IS] 


EM AnPEI 






IIPO H KA 


[16] 




AUPEI 



['"■1 



[nr.l 



[v-l 



[VI.] 



[v,..] 
A 



'■ 


" 


A 


Z 


s 


E 


z 


s 


E 


A 


r 


B 


s 


E 


A 


r 


B 


A 


r 


B 


.\ 


Z 


s 


E 


n 


A 


Z 


s 


E 


A 


s 


E 


A 


I- 


B 


A 


r 


H 


A 


z 


S 


E 


B 


A 


Z 


s 


E 


A 


s 


E 


A 


r 


B 


A 



by|. 

Lino 1, .A. — Tlio imiiiU are ftl. 
wayH 4t tho centre, ur near the top, 
of the lottora. 

Line 2, ál.. -AI., orig. Note 
the «..litiiry in»tance of the loiuor 
placiil iHf.iiu the greater numeral. 

Lino (i. -HoginH between K unci 
A .,( KAOuC; enda under H of 
AllONHCITAUCOAI, of 1. 6. 
Tahle. 

Between the dutea an'l nunieralH, 
a ruled lino in cut. The irregu- 
larity of the veriioal no. columns, 
after the first column, shows the 



alignuiuiil wait made by u 
liuri/.ontal ruling linos, elo 
ciiiDing above, are visible ; 



the 'I'ablu lira somewhat xigzHg. 

(IJ ElAitlC— KIAOKC, orig. 
„ AIIPBI.— AlIPll, urig. 

[2] npo. -AlwavK, except in the 
Hiading of the Eostors, in con- 
traction : 1* drawn through, ond 
tts long 0«, n. The loop is worn 
away in some placun, and not 
civen in the Paschal Table. 



Cf. 



npo represents fjui;>(> rv rpó. 
. Idolor. Hanilbmli, Ú.JÍlS. 
(3| IIPO ID —IIPO lA, urig., 
rith npo IB required by thesolar 



and lunisolar incidence) in smaller 
lott«r on the m.irgin, over SS. The 
^ame rccure at [11] (witli reading 

detected 

the double error, and made the 

correction, when he was adding SS. 

Tho.»et>v„ nuiki- III. tl"-' l^icon- 

tractii.ns.i: ni .; : .: .")i ili.-uiar. 
gin, menti. :: Mil i. 

[<iir.- I.. 1- '..ns:. 

[9JZ. .-. ■■' . > " -i •" Iw- 

gins. C(. Sunaii» L..-1, .i [ill. p. 
cLxviii. 

[11] nPO IB.— See [3]. 

[12] EM.— Centre stroke of E 
the character 



[TABLE.] 

ÍEAB I. OF TBE KINOSHir OF ALEXANDBK, AUTOCBAT, THE XIVTH OF THB PASOH WAS ON THE 1DB8 [13th] 

III- Al'BIL, SATUHllAY ; AN EMBOLISMAt, MONTH HAVINO PASSED. IT WILL BE IN THE rUTUllE VEABS AS 
I AUKANOED IN TUB TABLE. IT WAS LIKEWISE IN THE ELAl'SED [vEAKs) AS IT Is M.VBKBD [IN THE TABLE]. 



[clxiv] 



[I| EM. IDES [13tii| of APKIL 

[2] 4 BEFORE NONES [2nd] OF APR. 

B. 12 BEFORE KALENDS OF APR. 
[3] [MARCH 21] 

141 EM. 5 BEFORE IDES [9th] OF APR. 
4 BEFORE KALENDS OF APR. 
[5] [MAR. 29] 

15 BEFORE KALENDS OF APR. 
[6] [MAR. 18] 

B. NONES [.JTii] 
[7] EM. OF APR. 

8 BEFORE KAI,ENDS OF APR. 
[8] [MARCH 35] 

1 9] EM, IDEt, [13th] OF APR. 

[10] 4 BEFORE NONES [2nd] OF APR. 

12 BEFORE KALENDS OF APR. 
[11] B. [MAR. 12] 

[12] EM. 5 BEFORE IDES [9tii] OF APR. 
4 BEFORE KALENDS OF APR. 
[13] [MARCH 29] 

15 BEFORE KALENDS OF APR. 
[14] [MARCH 18] 

B. NONES [5tii] 
[15] EM. OF APRIL 

8 BEFORE KALENDS OF APR. 
[16] [MARCH 25] 



[■•1 



[.._..] [.v.] [v.] [VI.] [VII.] 



' when the : 



4lh of the Pas- 



tra lition, deeming they ought to 
observe the Uth of the moon 
(whereon the Jews were enjoined 
to sacrifice the lamb) as the feast of 
the Saviour's pasch, by breaking the 
fast, whatever day of the week it 
should fall on ; the latter preser- 
ving the custom derived from apos- 
tolic tradition and operative to 
then, that it was not meet to break 
the fast on any other except the day 
of the Resurrection ( H. E. vi. "23). 



This 



J that the 



ity at the time fasted on the Sun- 
days of Lent. Under the circum- 
stances, the Hippolytin restriction 
of the Asiatic rule to Sunday «as 
a compromise little calculated to 
secure acceptance for this cycle at 
Alexandria and Rome. 

[9] 7.— Second cycle of óS be- 
gins. Cf. Sunduy'List, 4 [9], p. 



APPENDIX A. 



clxv 



[XPONOI EN Tw IIINAKI.] 
Col. [I.]_ 
[2] rENEjCIC XT. After, 
with second line opposite, A. 
[3] EZEKIIAC. After A. 
[4] IwCEIjAC. After Z. An 
I is after the final C. 

[15] E^OAOClKATA AAjNI- 
[li]A, After, with 1. 1 higher 
than, r. 

Col. [II.] 
[1] ECAPA KA|TA AANII- 
HA KAI [EN] El PHMw. After, 
with 11. 2, 3 opposite, S. 

L. 1, ECAPA.— ECACA, orig. 
,, 2, TA.— lA, orig. 
,, 3, HA.— HA, orig. 
,, ,, KAL— SAI, orig. 
[6] EZEKIAC I KATA AA[NI- 
HA] I KAI liuCEIlAC. After, 
with 11. 1, 2 higher than, Z. 
L. 3, IwCEL— IwCCI, orig. 
[16] IIAeOC XT, after S. 

Col. [III.] 
[3] IHCO)TC. after S. Lower 
curve of C touches O, which is 
broken at top, to the left. The 
letters thus look very like a>, — a 
mistake made in one edition. 

Col [IV.] 
[7] IHCOrC I KA[TA] AA[NI- 
HA]. After, with 1. 1 higher 
than, A. 

Col. [VII.] 
[10] E^O|AOC. After A. 
[12] EN E|PHM(u. After A. 

[15] E[CA]PA. After A. There 
is a blank sufficient for one letter ; 
the original was probably ECPA. 



{TIMES IN THE TABLE.] 

Col. [L] 
[2] BIRTH OF CHRIST. 

[3] EZECHIAS (IL Par. xxx. 15). 

[4] JOSIAS (II. Par. xxxv. 1 ; 
IV. Reg. xxiii. 21). 

[15] EXODUS, ACCORDING 
TO DANIEL (Exod. xii. 18). 

Col. [II.] 
[1] ESDRAS, ACCORDING 
TO DANIEL (I. Esd. vi. 19), 
AND [IN] THE DESERT (Num. 
ix. 3). 



[6] EZECHIAS, ACCORDING 
TO DANIEL (cf. col. L [3]), AND 
JOSIAS (col. I. [4]). 

[16] PASSION OF CHRIST. 

Col. [III.] 
[3] JOSHUA (Jos. V. 10, 11). 



Col. [I V.J 
[7] JOSHUA, ACCORDING 
TO DANIEL (cf. col. III. [3]). 

Col. [VII.] 

[10] EXODUS (cf- col. I. [15]). 

[12] IN THE DESERT (cf. 
col. II. [1], second item). 

[15] ESDRAS (cf. col. IL [1], 
first item). 



The events were calculated to 
have preceded the years at which 
they stand by exact multij)les of 
112. The various multiples were 
given in the (lost) Hippolytan 
exposition of the Times The alter- 
native dates, according to Daniel, 
were taken from a (lost) explana- 
tion of the prophecy regarding the 
Seventy Weeks. Taking the 
Passovers in order of time, the D 
chronology, if the Table, which is 
exceedingly doubtful, be correct, 
differed from H in making the 
three first (Ex., Des., Josh.) 91 
years earlier; the fourth (Ez.) and 



fifth (Jos,), respectively 30 and 
27 later ; the sixth (Esd.), 94 
earlier. 

As regards the two remaining 
events, no difficulty presents itself. 
Birth of Christ is demonstrably 
misplaced. A. D. 223 E, II. - 
(112x2) = B.C. 2 E, IL But the 
equivalence was likewise and 
chiefly intended to be luni-solar. 
Hence A. D. 222 F, I. - 224 = B. C. 
3 F, I. The words consequently 
belong to this, the initial, year. 
The emendation is fully confirmed 
by Passion of Christ : 253 B, 
VIII. -224 = 29 B, VIIL 

m 2 



cíxvi 



APPENDIX A. 



[KTPIAKAI.] 



ETEI AAE^\NAP()r KAICAPOC 
Tw A APXH 
AI KYPIAKAT TOT IIACXA KATA KTOC 
AI AE nAPAKENTHCEIC AHAOVCI THN AlC IIPO 



i 



E£ 









A 












npo 


lA. 


KA. 


MAI. 


KY. 




u 




IlPO 


H 


El 


Anp 


KY 






[SS] 


ripo 


E 


KA 


Anp 


XY 








lIPO 


IE 


KA 


MAI 


KY 


l^} 


f4J 




TIPO 


A 


NH 


Anp 


KY 








IIPO 


11 


KA 


Anp 


KT 






[SS] 


EI 






Anp 


KY 








IllH) 


A 


KA 


Anp 


KY 


L8J 


[8] 




riPo 


lA 


KA 


MAI 


KY 








npo 


A 


EI 


Anp 


KY 






[SS] 


npo 


II 


KA 


AlIP 


KY 








riPo 


111 


KA 


MAÍ 


KY 


[12] 


[12] 




IIPO 


11 


EI 


Anp 


KY 








IIPO 


lA 


KA 


AIIP 


KY 






[SS] 


IIPO 


A 


EI 


AIJP 


KY 








IIPO 


A 


No; 


Anp 


KY 


[16] 


[16] 




IIPO 


IZ 


B 

KA 


MAI 


KY 




[17] 




IIPO 


Z 


EI 


Anp 


KY 






[SS] 


IIPO 


A 


KA 


Anp 


KY 








iiro 


r 


EI 


AIIP 


KY 


L^] 


[20] 




IIPO 


r 


Nu> 


Anp 


KY 








npo 


z 


KA 


Anp 


KY 






[SS] 


nPo 


z 


El 


AllP 


KY 








npo 


r 


KA 


Anp 


KY 


L«] 


1.24] 



IlEADINO. 

Lines correspond with the oiiginal. 

Line 1, ETEI.— Left half of 
cross stroke of T abraded, orig. 

Line 2. — Begins under second 
A of AAE^ANAPOT of 1. 1. 

Line 3.— Initial K of K YPI A K AI 
is under first E of 1. 1. 



Line 4. — Begins under first K of 
KTPl A K A Í of 1. 3 ; ends over last 
letter of Z 1 . 

Line 4, AHAOTCL— AHAOTCI, 

orig. 

,, ,, E^.— Cf, orig. 



APPENDIX A, 



clxvii 



[SUNDAYS. 



IN THE YEAR I. OF ALEXANDER C^SAR 
[IS] THE BEGINNING. 
THE SUNDAYS OF EASTER YEAR BY YEAR. 
THE MARGINAL PUNCTURES DENOTE THE BISSEXTILE. 





A.I). D.L. 




1 










222 F 


11 


before Kal. of May [A. 21] S 




[1] 




'223 E ' 


8 


Ides [6th] of A. S. 






[B. 224 DC^ 


5 


„ Kal. of A. [M. 28] S. 








225 B 


15 


„ of May [A. 17] S. 


[4] 


[4] 




22G A " 


4 


„ Nones [2nd^ 


of A. S 








m G 1 


8 


„ KaL of A. 


"M. 25] S. 






[B."228 FE' 


Ide 


3 [13th] of A. ^ S. 








229 D ' 


4 1 


before KaL of A. [M. 29] S. 


[8] 


[8] 




230 C 


14 


„ of May [A. 18] S. 








'231 B 


4 


„ Ides [10th] of A. S. 






[£."232 AG^ 


8 


„ KaL of A. [M. 25] S. 








233 F 


18 


„ of May [A. 14] S. 


[12] 


[12] 




234 E 


8 


,, Ides [6th] of A. S. 








235 D ^ 


11 


„ KaL of A. [M. 22] S. 






[B. 236 CB' 


^ 


Ides [10th] of A. S. 






[237 A ; 


4 


Nones [2nd] of A. S. 

2 
before Kal. of May [A. 15] S. 


[16] 


[16] 


238 G 
'239 F 


17 




[17] 


7 


„ Ides [7th] of A. S. 






[B. 240 ED 


4 


„ Kal. of A. [M. 29] S. 








[241 C ■ 


3 


Ides [11th] of A. iS. 


[^^] 


[20] 




'242 B " 


3 


,, Nones [3rd] of A. S. 








243 A 


7 


„ Kal. of A. [M. 26] S. 






[B. 244 GF 


7 


Ides [7th] of A. S. 






[245 E 


] 3 


„ Kal. of A. [M. 30] S. 


[8] 


[24] 



A 

The arrangement, corresponding 
to that on opposite side of chair, 
is : — 

A r E Z 
B A S 
(One column-space is thus left 
vacant.) 



A heads the Easters derived from 
col. Z [I. ] of the right side ; B, from 
S [II.] ; r, froraE [IIL] ; A from 
A [IV.]; K, from V [V.]; S, from 
B [VI.] ; Z, from A [Vll.]. 

Line 1. — The four points are qu 
the original. 



JCVlll 






APPENDIX A. 










npo 


ir 


KA 


MAI 


KY 


[9] 


[25] 




npo 


A 


Nw 


Anp 


KY 






[SS] 


nPo 


Z 


KA 


Anp 


KY 








nPo 


IZ 


KA 


MAI 


KY 


:i2] 


[28] 




nPo 


A 


KA 


Anp 


KY 








npo 


I 


KA 


Anp 


KY 






[SS] 


npo 


r 


EI 


Anp 


KY 








npo 


s 


KA 


Anp 


KY 


[10] 


[32] 




nPo 


IS 


r 

KA 


MAI 


KY 




[33] 




IIPO 


s 


EI 


Anp 


KY 






[SS] 


npo 


I 


KA 


Anp 


KY 








npo 


A 


EI 


Anp 


KY 


[4] 


[36] 




nPo 


A 


Nw 


Anp 


KY 








nPo 


ir 


KA 


Anp 


KY 






[SS] 


nPo 


s 


EI 


Anp 


KY 








npo 


A 


KA 


Anp 


KY 


P] 


[40] 




npo 


IB 


KA 


MAI 


KY 








Nio 






Anp 


KY 






[SS] 


npo 


S 


KA 


Anp 


KY 








nPo 


IS 


KA 


MAI 


KY 


[12] 


[44] 




KA 






Anp 


KY 








npo 


e 


KA 


Anp 


KY 






[SS] 


npo 


A 


EI 


Anp 


KY 








npo 


E 


KA 


Anp 


KY 


[16] 


[48] 




nPo 


IE 


KA 


MAI 


KY 




[49] 




nPo 


E 


EI 


Anp 


KY 






[SS] 


npo 


e 


KA 


Anp 


KY 








EI 






Anp 


KY 


W 


[52] 




N(u 






Anp 


KY 








npo 


IB 


KA 


Anp 


KY 






[SS] 


npo 


E 


EI 


Anp 


KY 








KA 






Anp 


KY 


[8] 


[56] 




npo 


lA 


KA 


MAI 


KY 




[1] 




npo 


H 


EI 


Anp 


KY 






[SS] 


npo 


E 


KA 


Anp 


Kl 








nPO 


IE 


KA 


MAI 


KY 


[12] 


[4] 


Line 9, 


B 

MAI.- 


-MAP, 


orig. ; 


Line 10, 


IIPO A. 


— Perhaps 


a 


owing to 


AnP overliead 


; am- 


rendering oi 


pridie. 


Cf note 


on 


ended by S 1 . 






[2] of Table, 


p. clxxi 


li., supra. 





APPENDIX A. 



clxix 





[246 D ] 


13 bef( 




'247 C 1 


1 , 


[B. 248 BA 


7 , 




249 G ' 


17 , 




[250 F ' 


1 




[251 E ^ 


10 , 


[B. 252 DC" 


3 , 




[253 B ] 


6 , 



'254 
'255 

[B;256 
"257 
'258 
259 

[B:260 
[261 
[262 
[263 

[B. 264 
[265 
[266 
[267 

[B. 268 
[269 



A 
G 
FE 
D 

C 
B 

AG 
F ] 
E ] 

D ] 

CB] 

A ] 
G ] 
F ] 
ED] 
C ] 



[B. 



"270 B ] 
'271 A ] 

'272 GF] 

273 E 

274 D 

275 C 
[B."276 BA 

"277 G " 
'278 F • 
'279 E " 
[B;280 DC" 
[281 B " 



13 before Kal. of May [A. 19] S. [9] 

Nones [4th] of A. S. 

Kal. of A. [M. 26] S. 

„ of May [A. 15] S. [12] 

„ of A. Tm. 31] S. 

„ of A. [M. 23] S. 

Ides [11th] of A. S. 

Kal. of A. [M. 27] S. [16] 



16 before Kal. of May [A. 16] S, 

6 ., Ides [8th] of A. S. 

10 ,. Kal. of A. [M. 23] S. 

1 ,. Ides [12th] of A. S. [4] 

1 „ Nones [4th] of A. S. 

13 „ Kah of A. [M. 20] S. 

6 „ Ides [8th] of A. S. 

1 „ Kal. of A. [M. 31] S. 

12 „ „ of May [A. 20] S. 

Nones [5th] of A. S. 

6 before Kal. of A. [M. 27] S. 

16 „ „ of May [A. 16] S. [12] 

Kalends [1st] of A. S. 

9 before Kal. of A [M. 24] S. 

1 „ Ides [12th.]of A. S. 

5 „ Kal. of A. [M. 28] S. [16] 



[25] 
[28] 

[32] 
[33] 
[36] 



15 before Kal. of May [A. 17] S. 

5 „ Ides [9th] of A. S. 

9 „ Kal. of A. [M. 24] S. 

Ides [13th] of A. S. 

Nones [5th] of A. S. 

12 before Kal. of A. [M. 21] S. 

5 „ Ides [9th] of A. S. 

Kalends [1st] of A. S. 

11 before Kal. of May [A. 21] S. 

8 „ Ides [6th] of A. S. 

Kal. of A. [M. 28] S. 



[8] [40] 
[44] 

[48] 

[49] 
[4] [52] 



[B] 



[56] 

[1] 



15 



of May [A. 17] S. [12] [4] 



Lines 2, 13, ADP.— AOI, orig. ; 
owing to MAI above. 

Line 10, Noj. — Most of final stroke 
of a> abraded, orig. 



Line 9. — Commencement of 
;ond cycle of 56. 



clxx 



APPENDIX A. 



nPO A No. AIIP KY [131 [51 

nPO H KA An? KY 

[SS] EI AHP KY 

nPO L\ KA An? KY [16] [8] 



npo 
npo 

[SS] npo 
npo 
npo 
npo 

[SS] npo 
npo 
npo 
npo 

[SS] npo 
nPo 
npo 
npo 

[SS] npo 
npo 



lA 

A 

H 

IH 

H 

lA 

A 

A 

IZ 

z 

A 

r 
r 
z 
z 
r 



KA 

EI 

KA 

KA 

EI 

KA 

EÍ 

KA 
El 

KA 

EI 

Nw 

KA 

EI 

KA 



MAI 
AHP 

Anp 

MAI 

Anp 
Anp 
Anp 
Anp 

MAI 
AIIP 

Anp 

AIIP 

Anp 

AIIP 

Anp 

AIIP 



KY 

KY 

KY 

KY 

Kl 

KY 

KV 

KV 

Ki 

Kl 

Kl 

KY [12] 

KY 

KY 

KY 

KY [IG] 



[4] 



[8] 



[91 



[12] 



16] 



[20] 



[24] 



npo 

npo 

[SS] npo 

npo 

npo 

npo 

[SS] npo 

npo 

npo 

npo 

[SS] npo 

npo 

IIPO 

npo 

[SS] npo 
[npo 



ir 

A 
Z 
IZ 

A 

I 

r 

s 

IS 

s 
I 

A 
A 

ir 

s 

A 



KA 

No, 

KA 

KA 

KA 

KA 

EI 

KA 

KA 

EI 

KA 

El 

Nw 

KA 

EI 

KA 



MAI 

Anp 
Anp 

MAI 

Anp 
Anp 
Anp 
Anp 

MAI 

Anp 

AIIP 
AIIP 
AIIP 

Anp 

AIIP 

Anp 



KY 
KY 
KY 
Kl 
K\ 
KY 
Kl' 
KY 
KY 
KY 
KY 
KY 
Nl 
KY 
KY 
KY" 



[4] 



[8] 



[12] 



[IG] 



[25] 



[28] 



[32] 



[36] 



■40] 



Line 8. — Begins opposite r 9 ; 
ends opposite T 8. 

Line 9. — Corresi)onds to T lU 
Í leaving blank above), and so on 



ti) end, making E a line-space 
longer than F. 

S 
].ine 8, KA.— KI, owing to El 
OÍ line 7, t)i i«;'. ; amended by B Itt, 









APPENDIX A. 


c 


Ixxi 




'282 A 


4 before 


Nones [2nd] of A. S. 


[13] 


[5] 




'283 G 


8 


>» 


Kal. of A. hi. 25] S. 






[B, 384 FE^ 


Ides 


ri3tlil of A. s. 






[285 D ; 


4 before 


Kal. of A. [M. 29] S. 


[16] 


[8] 




^286 C 
[287 B ' 


14 before 


5 

Kal, of May [A, 18] S. 




[9J 




4 


J5 


Ides [10th]' of A. S. 






[B. 288 AG 


8 


)J 


Kal. of A. [M. 25] S. 








^289 F ] 


18 


53 


■ „ of May [A. 14] S. 


[4] 


[12] 




[290 E 


8 


3J 


Ides [6th] of A. 8. 








'291 D 1 


11 


J J 


Kal, of A. [M. 21] 8. 






[B;292 CB^ 


1 ^ 


55 


Ides [10th] of A. S. 








293 A 


4 


35 


Nones [2nd] of A. S. 


[8] 


[16] 




'294 G 


17 


3J 


Kal. of May [A. 15] S. 








'295 F 


7 


J3 


Ides [7th] of A, 8. 






[B;296 ED 


4 


J 3 


Kal, of A. [M. 29] 8. 








297 C 


3 


5) 


Ides [11th] of A. 8. 


[12] 


|20] 




"298 B 


3 


53 


Nones [3rd] of A. 8. 








299 A 


7 


,, 


Kal. of A. [M, 26] 8. 






[B:300 GF 


7 


33 


Ides [7th] of A, 8. 






[301 E 


3 


33 


Kal. of A. [M, 30] 8. 

6 

Kal. of May [A. 19] 8, 


[16] 


[24] 


[302 D 


13 


before 




[25] 


[303 C 


1 




Nones [4th] of A. 8. 






[B. 304 BA 


< 




Kal. of A. [M. 26] 8. 






[305 G 


' 17 




„ of May [A. 15] 8. 


W 


[28] 


[306 E 


1 




„ of A.''[M. 31] 8. 






[307 E 


' 10 




„ of A. [M. 23] 8. 






[B. 308 DC 


' 3 




Ides [11th] of A. 8. 






[309 B 


] 6 




Kal. of A. [M, 27] 8. 


[8] 


[32] 


[310 A 


] le 




„ of May [A. 15] 8. 






[311 G 


] 6 




Ides [8th] of A. 8. 






[B. 312 FE 


] 10 




Kal. of A. [M. 23] 8. 






[313 D 


] 1 




Ides [12th] of A, 8. 


[12] 


[36] 


^314 C 


] 1 




Nones [4th] of A. S. 






^315 B 


] 13 




Kal. of A. [M. 20] 8. 






[B, 316 AG 


] c 




Ides [8th] of A. 8, 






[317 E 


1 




Kal. of A. (M. 31) 8. 


16] 


[40] 



Line 9, MAI. — MAP, orig., from 
r of AriP of 8 ; amended by T 1. 

Line 16. — Owing to the faulty 
alignment in E, S stands opposite 



A 1 ; Si, opposite A 2, and so on. 
Hence, in all probability, the 
omission of this line ; the illiterate 
graver being unwilling to extend 
tlie column below B and A, 



clxxii 






APPENDIX A. 










npo 


IB 


z 

KA 


MAI 


KY 




[41] 




Na> 






AHP 


KY 






[SS] 


npo 


s 


KA 


AHP 


KY 








npo 


IS 


KA 


MAI 


KY 


[4] 


[44] 




KA 






AHP 


KY 








npo 


e 


KA 


AHP 


KY 






[SS] 


npo 


A 


EI 


AHP 


KY 








npo 


E 


KA 


Anp 


KY 


[8] 


[48] 




npo 


IE 


KA MAI 


Kl- 








ripo 


E 


EI 


AHP 


KY 






[SS] 


npo 


e 


KA 


Anp 


KY 








EI 






Anp 


KY 


[12] 


[52] 




Nw 






Anp 


KT 








npo 


IB 


KA 


Anp 


KY 






[SS] 


npo 


E 


EI 


Anp 


KY 








KA 






Anp 


KY 


[16] 


[56] 




z 






and 9, HPO E of Z 8 


is, in 


larger 


Lines 2, 3 of the heading and, 


3on- 


letter : so 


that, line 


and ' 


ength, 


sequently, 


A, r, E, Z slope down- 


from 9 to 16, E and Z 


correspond. 


wards to the right, so 
is opposite the space 


that this line 
between E 1, 


Line 1, 


k:a.— XA, 


orig. 




2. The columns come even at 1 


• 4 ; 


Lines 5, 


6. Anp.- 


-Anr, 


orig. ; 


opposite the blank 


between 


E 8 


owing to I of MAI, overhead. 



APPENDIX A. 



clxxiii 



[318 


E ] 


[319 


D ; 


[B, 320 CB] 


[321 


A ] 


^322 


G ] 


323 


F ] 


[B. 324 


ED 


[325 


C ] 


[326 


B ^ 


[327 


A ^ 


[B, 328 


or 


[329 


E '- 


[330 


^ ] 


[331 


C ] 


[B, 332 


BA] 


[333 


G ] 



12 before Kal, of May [A, 20] S. 
Nones [5th] of A, 

6 before Kal, of A. [M. 27] 
16 „ „ of May [A. 16] 
Kalends [1st] of A, 

9 before Kal, of A. [M, 24] 



Ides [12th] of A. 
Kal. of A. [M. 28] 



S. 

s. 
s. 
s. 
s. 
s. 



„ of May [A. 17] S, 

, Ides [9th] of A, S, 

, Kal. of A. [M, 24] S, 

Ides [13th] of A. S. 

Nones [5th] of A. S. 

12 before Kal. of A. [M. 21] 8. 

5 „ Ides [9th] of A. S. 

Kalends [1st] of A, S. 



[41] 



W m 



[8] [48] 



[12] [52] 



[16] [56] 



Clxxiv APPENDIX A. 



N O T E 



A Syriac tract on the Hippolytan Canon, publislietl in Lagarde's 
Aiialecta Syriaca (Leipsic, 1858), a work not accessible to the Editor, 
has been more amply edited^ in the Analecta Sacra (Vol. IV. Ante- 
nicene Fathers, Paris, 1883) of the Solesmes Spicileyium liy Abbe 
Martin. The information, supplied by the research of tlie Librarian of 
Mount Melleray, arrived opportune!}- while tliis sheet was passing 
through the press. 

The Version and Notes relative to the provenance and cyclic 
technique are as follows. (The bracketted insertions, except [21], 
[o/nf/] and [solaris], are derived from the other Notes.) 

* Text, p. 56-7 ; translation and notes, p. 324-5. 



COIMPUTUS DIEI XIV PA8CHATTS 
AD MENTEM SANCTT HIPPOLYTI, EPISCOPI.^ 

I. Quando cognoscere volumus quota die Adar [Martii], aut Nisan 
[Aprilis], cadat dies XIV, juxta mentem Hippolyti, ordinamus annos ab 
Alexandro per octo et octo. 8i supersit unuin, XIV dies cadit in diem 
13 Nisan, illiusque littera est r((v^. Si duo supersint, dies XIV est 2 
mensis Nisan, illiusque littera est heith. Si supersint tres, dies XIV 
cadit in 22 [21] mensis Adar, illiusque littera est dolath. Si quatuor 
supersint, dies XIV cadit in diem 9 mensis Nisan, illiusque littera est 
heith. Si supersint quinque, dies XIV cadit in diem 29 mensis Adar, 
illiusque littera est lie. Si supersint sex, dies XIV cadit in diem 18 
mensis Adar, illiusque littera est dolath [()laf\ Si supersint [p. 325] 
septem, dies XIV cadit in diem 5 mensis Nisan, illiusque littera est he. 
Si supersint octo, dies XIV cadit in diem 25 mensis Adar, illiusque 
littera est olaf} 

II. Et quando scire volumus quota die hebdomadis cadat dies XIV, 
addimus- litteram diei XIV, anno íequali^ [scil. comniuni], littera» funda- 



^ . . Hanc 'fTTiKQiQiv suo Chronico 
inseinit f^lias Nisibenus, seriptor Nes- 
torianns, qui vixit xi. post Christum 
natiun sa.'ciil(3, caniqne nobis servavit 
Cod Musjei Brit, . , ex quo . . La- 
iiarde earn protulit in Analertis suis 
Si/riacis, p. 89-90. 

' *'' Seriptor syi us syriacas litteras loco 
o:ra'carnm, qiui? in laterculis marnioreis 



pouiintur, non deprehenduntur consen- 
tire cum laterculis an. 1551 repertis ad 
latus statuie s. Hippolyti. 

- Omnes littera? pneter valorem pho- 
neticum habent etiam valorem immeri- 
cum. Olaf—l; heith =2; govt a/ = 3; 
dolath =á; he = I') ; rai' = ii; zain — 1. 

•' . . Quid intelligat per litteram diei 
XIV jam ex praicedeuti paragrapho liquet, 



inveniuntur, u-iir])at. Conferre banc verum non ita certum est quid intelli- 



notam cum Hippolyteo canone volen- 
tibus notum sit olaf correspondere A ; 
heith, B : dolath, D ; he, E ; vav, F. 
CiXitera; littera?, quae, ut series esset 
complcta, afferendie essent, non nomin- 
antur in hac oclactcride. Dua? sunt, 
nempe gomal cui correspondet C, et 
zain cujus iequipollens est C 
[P. 325. 



gendum sit per Miicmnx fundamental em 
et per excessinn. Ex contextu tameu 
apparet hie agi de litteris ordinem octae- 
teridiini indicantibus. Si enim assum- 
amus litteram diei xiv in prima colum- 
nao<'^«c^«'/f/?"A"canonisllippolyteieamque 
addamus litter;e priiiuo octaeteridis, 
.secunda?, tertia?, etc., repcrinms utique 
litteram ferialem anno correspondentem. 



Haic, si ad laterculi formani com- i Sic, v. g. annus Christi 248 est annus 26 



APPENDIX A, clxxv 

mentali anni, et, anno subacto [scil. Ijissextili], oxcedenti ejus, atq\ie 
extraliimiis e summa hebdomadeni, si una existat : quod siiperest est 
feria diei XIV correspoudens. 

III. Composuifc Hippolytus canonem in quo indicat quota die Adar, 
aut Nisan, et quota die hel)domadis adveniat quovis anno dies XIV. 
PoiTo, cum hoc utentes canone volumus scire diem XIV, dividimus 
annos ab Alexandro \)ev xvi., et quod superest extrahimus ex linca xvi. 
annorum, et invenimus in hoc numero an sit, illo anno, mensis hmaris 
[solarisj subactus [scil. bissextdis], annon, et quo die, quo mense, sit 
dies XIV. Deinde redimus ad fundamentum^ hujus anni, et reperiraus 
quo die hcbdomadis cadat dies XIV hoc anno. 

IV. Oportet autem scire illo computo requiri ut xvi. anni Syri 
efticiant xvi. annos lunaves et sex menses. Porro a doctoribus scnitatus 
ille canon inventus est non esse Justus, et proinde rejectus est. Sexdecin 
anni Syri efficiunt enim 5844 dies, dum xvi. anni et sex menses lunares 
continent circa 5847 dies. Tres igitur dies inter utrumque [computum] 
superesse reperiuntur. Porro si excedens illud computetur per decem 
cycles, qui efficiunt 160 annos, triginta obtinentur dies : quod utique 
est gravis error. Propter lianc causam rejecerunt liunc canonem" 
[doctores] ; et insuper, quia, juxta ilium, dies paschalis, tempore quo 
confectus est, incidere poterat ante iequinoctiinxi vernum. 

caiionis Hippolytei, seu 2 quartae octae- | A. Igitur, anno 248, dies xi\' cadebat 

teridis. Atqui si addas D seu 4, in | in feriam priniam liebdonuida". 

prima octaeteride et D seu 4, quic est | 

littera fundanientalis quartic octaeteri- i ° Id est ad nunieruni ordinaleni, non 

dis, babes 8. Unde quuni 7, seu lieb- solum in liecaeteride,verum et in ipsaruni 

domadam, extraxeris, obtinebis 1 seu , hecaeteridum serie. 



The cj^clic explanations, candour compels the avowal, are still more 
erroneous than those in the Corpus Inscriptionum. (I.) As to the 
alleged correspondence of the Syriac letters with the Greek on the 
Hippolytan statue, suffice it that F, for an obvious reason, is not among 
the latter. So far from disagreeing, the calculations, as we shall see, 
are in perfect accord with the original. (II.) The statement that the 
letters here employed have a phonetic and numerical value needs no 
refutation. Worst of all is the assertion that the fnndainental letters 
denote the consecutive octaeterids. The dictum is completely disproved 
by the example. A.D. 248 is the 27th (not 26th) of the Canon ; the 
3rd (not 2nd) of the fourth octaeterid : whilst it has the 14th of the 
moon (March 21) on Tuesday (not Sunday) ! 

In the light of what has been said in the present Introduction on solar 
and luni-solar reckonings, the calculations present no difficulty. 

I. RQinainders (written in full in the original) are the Hippolytan 
Golden Nos. (Tables D, E, F) ; Letters (Syriac alphabetical charac- 
ters =nos.) are the ferials of a Paschal year beginning on April 1,"^" 
used partly in retrograde order (as directed in the Computus of Maxi- 
must) = the G-column of Table C and the D.L. circuit of Diagram A, 
commencing with No. 25. Tabula jed, the results are the following. 
* Supra, p. xxiv. t Part III. c. vi. Pet. III. 188. 



clxxvi 



APPENDIX A. 



FERIALS OF HIPPOLYTAN GOLDEN NO. INCIDENCE 
(DOMINICAL LETTER G). 

Adar (March). Nisan April). 



Ferials. ' D.L. 


Days. 


G.N. Days. 


G.N. 


Days. 


G.N. 


Days. 


G.N. , 


Olaf (1) G 


18 


VI. 25 


VIII. 


1 




8 




Beith (2) A 


19 


26 




2 


II. 


9 


IV. 


Gomal (3) B 


20 


, 27 




3 




10 


1 


Dolath (4) C 


21 


III. 1 28 




4 




11 


1 


He (5) D 


22 




29 


V. 


5 


VII. 


12 




Vav (6) E 


23 




30 




6 




13 


1. 


Zain (7) F 


24 




31 




I 




14 





11. The /uiidamental letters (nos.) are the fe:'ials of March 31 (with 
Dominical Letter G) in common years : excedent letters^ the ferials of 
same in leap-years, as in the first Maximan Bota* and the Concurrent 
circuit of Diagram A, commencing with no. 25. The following is the 
synopsis of the calculations for the first octaeterid. 

* P. XXIV, supra. 



WEEK-DAY INCIDENCE OF HIPPOLYTAN MOON 14 

(CALCULATED BY GOLDEN NO. FERIALS AND 

FUNDAMENTAL LETTERS (CONCURRENTS)). 



a 


b 


c d 


e 


f 


A.D. 


G.N. 


t 
Moon 14, Ferials 

Montli-days ' (Table Y) 
of. of C. 


Fund. LL. 

(Concur.) 
of a. 


Week -da Vs of C 

= d^e. 


222 F 

223 E 

224 DC 

225 B 

226 A 

227 G 

228 FE 

229 D 


I. 

II. 

III. 

IV. 

V. 

VI. 

VII. 

VIII. 


A 13 
A 2 
M 21 
A 9 
M 29 
M 18 
A 5 
M 25 


6 
2 

4 
2 

5 

1 
5 

1 


1 
2 

4 
5 
6 
7 
2 
3 


7 (Sat.) 

4 (Wed.) 
(8-7 = ) 1(S.) 

7 (Sat.) 

(11-7 = ) 4 (W.) 
(8-7 = ) 1 (S.) 

7 (Sat.) 

4 (Wed.) 



APPENDIX A. Clxxvii 

The factors are d and e. How d is found appears in I. The rule 
to find e was taken as well known. This was to reduce the given year 
to the Alexandrine A.M. ; divide by 28 : opposite the remainder in the 
first Maximan Rota is the Fundamental Letter (or Concurrent) in 
question. For example, A.D. 222 is Alexandrine A.M. 5714. Divided 
by 28, this leaves 2 ; which number in the Maximan Rota has 1 
attached (i.e. the Concurrent of no. 26 of Diagram A). As March 24 
has the same week-day incidence as March 31, here, at length, it may 
be, we have the origin of Concurrents. (Cf. p. xxix., supra.) 

III. This section calls for no observation, except that it was 
manifestly composed by one who was unaware that the hecaeterid was 
made up of two octaeterids. It was thus very probably older than ; 
certainly, written without cognisance of, I. and II. 

IV. Divided by 2, the calculations here given agree with those set 
forth in the Introduction.* The section proves there was a third writer. 
Who would be at pains to draw up rules for a system that he had shown 
was erroneous and stated was rejected? 

The dates would seem to have been posterior to the lapse of the 
Hippolytan 112 years. Had the computists lived before 333, rules to 
identify the cfiven year in the Canon would have sufficed. This is 
confirmed by the objection of ante-equinoctial Paschal incidence, — an 
objection not likely to be made until the Anatolian or Alexandrine 
system prevailed. Furthermore, on the assumption that the Alex- 
andrine A.M., on which e of Table Z is based, was originated by 
Panodorus,+ the computistic sections (I., II., III.) of the tract cannot 
have been drawn up before the final decade of the fourth century. 

* P. xxxvi.-vii., sujjra. f P. Ixi., supra 



clxxviii APPENDIX 



B 



MUNICH COMPUTUS. 
1 

GRAPHIC FORMS ARISING FROM IRISH 
PHONETIC. 
(;i) Vocalic. 
a /'>'' O, Pampiliu.s ; u, revelatione [revolu-] ; ineta,thesiS 

0"f, Abarche [Ahrahae], Bardoa*, Bardua [Bradiia]. 

SLQj 26| Q are used indiscriminately to represent the \on^ e-sound. 

Ofor a,, e(iuiperando8, itHjuiperari, Tliesserescedecaditie; i, accederit 
[-ideret], adieciunt. Aprelio, Aprelis ; ebdomades, elegunt, exegitur ; 
intellegantur, intellegas, intellegimus, intellegitur, oieretiir, possedebant, 
resedent, -denti ; O, revelatione [revolu-] ; omitted, cliimales 
[liicnialesl. 

i for e, accederit [-cideret], augit, censiri, conticiscere, difinitio, 
-oneni, dirivationem, discensionem, dispicientes, fulgit, inciperat, inno- 
tescerit [-ceret], Isperia, liicisciljant (second i is a correction over e), 
Munitae [IMonetaef], Septiinber, -timbrio ; 0| Octimber,-brio; y, p'tssim ; 
Singfled, Aegypti, isdem, Proteri ; dOUblcd, bii ; omitted, 
abicitur, chenie [hieme]. 

O /'-"' a, eloborant [elal)or-] ; U, Baidoa [Bradua]. compotus 
[computus], comulati, fal)olis,Grecos[-us], liomore, inmacolatum, iocundus, 
moto [motu] ; Omitted, dudecies. 

U for O, epistulam, geumetrici, Munitae [Monetae!]; doubled, 
fruguuni. 

y and y = i-sound, passim. 

* It occurs in the first of two cal- scribe, accordingly, not for the tir-t 

culations [iov the second, see p. Ixx., time, bhindered. The multiplier is 

.snjH'd) made in 6S9, the recurrent /iii. The total is thus 5840 ; so that 

(}reat Paschal year of the Victorian tour years were fi(U, with 50 over, 

130th, A.D. 157. in 5890, the AM. of 689. 

(De Bissexto.) The Consuls, needless to add, are 

Annus plenus de bissextis in mille of 160(Almeloveen, /'rt-9^< ' 'o/í5. 139). 

cccctislx. continetur. Bissexti to- As the author's original, the Vic- 

tius libri Victorii c. xxx. iii. [sunt]. toriau Cycle, lias Vero, the question 

Ab initio mundi iii. anni de bissextis does not arise whether the name was 

pleni sunt, usipie in praesentem Barus {ojy. cit. 222). 
annum, sub consulibus Bero et 

Bardoa fol. 23a, 1.8-12). f The original is the first of the 

The (apparently Hibernian) full prose notanda appended to the Cal- 
?/car— 1460 is .365x4. Next, A.M. j endar in the Bedan Dubioous ct- 

5358 (A.D. 157)-4380 (1460 x 3)= Spurious Didascalics. Comparison 

978, — a computation that docs not will sufficiently indicate the capacity 

err on the side of jirecision. The of the scribe. 



APPENDIX B. Clxxix 

(b) Consonantal. 

b/o?' m, numbi [numrai] ; p, ebta ; V, adiiibi [adiuvi], Bero* 
[Yero], replebit [-evit] ; non-aSSimilated, subputatio. 

C for g", Creci [Graeci] ; C|U, relicum ; inSGrtedi Abarche 
[Abrahae], auctumnale, -nus ; prefixed, cheme [hieme], chimales. 

d/'o?- 1^ Edrusca; non-a,SSÍinÍla.ted, adcommodat, adfigun- 
tur, adfinnat, -ant, adlaborant, adiiiimeratione, adprehendi, adseruit. 

f for ph, Fetontem, fisici, Foebe, philosofis, Theofilus ; SÍng^led^ 
indiferentur. 

g for C, Gignus [Cinciiis] ; metSlthesiS Of, id., signulari. 

h, assimilated, decennovenalem ; inserted, Danihel, 
ethimologia, lohannis, Israhelite, Tliesserescedecaditse ; omitted, 
ebdoma, -mada, -madem, -mades, -madis, -matis, -matibus, ebta, emera, 
endecas, -ade, -adem, -ades, -adi, -adis, Espero, Isperia, Pampilius, 
Pasca, pascalis, Pitagoras. 

m, by assimilation, temptaverimt ; singled, consum- 

atur, -antur, -avit: doubled, Numma ; inserted, Octimber, -brio. 

n, assimilated, temptavenmt; non-assimilated, 

conpar, conparatur, conperiat, conponatur, conpositione, conposuit, 
conposuerunt, conprobet, conputationem, -atos, -tet, inluminati, inlustrat, 
-ationem, -atur, inmaculati, -colatum, inminentis, inmutatas, inponi, -itur, 
inposuit, -uerunt ; inserted, quadragensimum ; metatheSÍS Of, 

Gignus [Cincius], signulari. 

p for b, puplice; doubled, luppiter, repperies, repperiet, 
repperierunt, repperiri, repperit, repperitur ; inserted, hiemps, temp- 
taverunt. 

q u for C, Quirillus, -Hi, quur. 

r, metathesis of, Bardoa, Bardua [Bradua], Abirche 
[Abrahae]. 

t/ord, ebdomatis, ebdoraatibus, quot ; doubled, Scotti. 

V for b, lavi [labi], Macrovius [-crobius], monstravimus [-stra 
bimus], savinorura [Sabinoruin] : Omitted, dilu[v]ium, translati[v]us, 
[V]ulcani, [VJulculane. 



Bed AN Calendar' June Munich Comittus. 

NOTANDUM. De MeNSE IuNIO. 

Junius, a jvuiioribus populi Romaiii lunius aiuin[i]oribus [a iun-] gignus 

appellatur : sive (ut Cyngius arbitratur) ait. Quod iunonius prius apud latinos 

Junonius ante vocabatur a Junone : j vocatus est. Inde postea detritis 

et post, detritis quibusdam litteris, I aliis litteris iunius vocatur. Inedes 

Junius dictus est. Nam et sedes ' [In edes] ravmitae iunonio deo Kl. 

Junonis Monetae calendis Junii dedi- Í iunii dedicate (fol. 14a, 1. 4-8). 
catse sunt (^Migne, P.L., XC. 772;. 



CIXXX APPENDIX B. 



PASSAGES CONTAINING AN IRISH WORD. 

The bilingual term, diei-C eteiie, for Wednesday in the following 
excerpts (relative to the three immovable years of the world, in the 
Section De Mundo) proves that the Comj^uCus was composed by a native 
for native readers, most probably resident in Ireland. 

Cetene is genitive singular of cét-aiii (second e = ai), first-fast. Wednes- 
day was called Dia-cétaine {Day of first-fast), or Cétairi, to distinguish 
it from Friday, named Dia-haine {Day of [chief] ^a.sí), or Ain. In the 
Section Deferiis (fol. lib, 1. 3-17), the planetary and ferial names of 
the week-days are given and explained. The only apparent reason, 
accordingly, that presents itself for the use of the native vocable here is 
that the similarity between (the oblique cases) Diei-Lunae and Dé- 
Luain, Diei-Martis and Dé-Mairt suggested Diei-Cetene as the equivalent 
of Dé-Cétaine, the third item of the Irish jingle. 

Introduction of the vernacular is a feature of Hiberno-Latin amply 
authenticated otherwise. The origin of the Wednesday and Friday 
fasts is immaterial to the present purpose. 

[De Mundo.] 

Prima enim creatio in Vere facta est, in xii. Kl. Apr. : id est, vi. 
horai restabant de xii., die Dominico. A vi. hora Dominici usque in 
vi. horam diei Lunes [sic], xi. Kl. Apr. A vi. hora diei Lunis [sic] usque 
in vi. horam diei Martis, x. Kl. Apr. A vi, hora [diei] Martis utque 
in vi. horam diei Cetene. viiii. Kl. Apr. In initio diei sol in caelo positus 
est (Fol. 23b, 1. 16-22.) . . . A vi. hora in iiii. feria a[d] vi. horam in 
V. feria, viii. Kl. Apr. et luna xiiii. . . (Fol. 24a, 1. 7-8.) 

Veni ad annum egressionis de Aegypto : xii. Kl. Apr. usque in vi. 
horam, ante egressionem populi. A vi. hora diei Dominici in vi. horam 
diei Lunis, xi. Kl. Apr. A vi. hora diei Lunis in vi. horam diei Martis, 
X. Kl. Apr. est. A vi. hora diei Martis in vi. horam diei Cetene, viii[i]. 
Kl. Apr. est, A vi. hora iiii. ferie in vi. horam vi. feriae, viii. Kl. Apr. 
est, et luna xiiii (Fol. 24a, 1. 13-19.) 

Veni ad annum resurrectionis Christi : xii. Kl. Apr. usque in vi. 
lioram Dominici. . . A vi. hora diei Dominici in vi. horam diei Lunis, 
xi. Kl. Apr. est. . A vi. hora diei Lunis in vi. horam diei Martis, x. 
Kl. Apr. est. . A vi. hora diei Martis in vi. horam diei Cetene, viiii. 
Kl. Apr. est. A vi. hora iiii. feriae in vi. horam v. feriae, viii. Kl. 
Apr. est, et luna xiiii. (Fol. 24b. 1. 6-15.) 



APPENDIX, clxXXÍ 



c 



DURATION OF PONTIFICATES. 



LIBER PONFIFICALIS, 




AMNALS OF 


ULSTER, 


ed, Duchesne, Paris 


1886. 






Vol. I 




Tahle Chrmi 


I. ccl 


xi. — ii. 




L 


\..1>. 444- 


-608. 




Y. 


M. 


D. 


Y. 


M. 


D. 


Agapitus 





11 


18 





11 


18 


Anastasius 


1 


11 


24 


2 








Benedict 


4 


1 


28 


4 


1 


29 


Boniface (II.) 


) 





26 


2 





26 


Felix (III.) 


8 


11 


18 


12 
13 






OlA 
OJB 


Felix (IV.) 


4 


2 


12 


4 


9 


14 


Oelasius 


4 


8 


18 


3 








Gregory 


13 


6 


10 


13 


6 


10 


Hilary 


6 


3 


10 


6 
7 


3 
3 


10\A 
lO/B 


Hormisdas 


9 





17 


9 








John 


2 


9 


16 


2 
2 


9 
9 


171A 
14/B 


— 


[IL] 


2 


4 


6 


2 


4 


6 





tn.l 


12 


11 


26 


12 


11 


26 


Leo 


21 


1 


13 


21 
24 


1 

1 


13\A 
13ÍB 


Pelagius 


4 


10 


18 


11 





18 


[IL] 


10 


2 


10 


10 


-J 


10 


Sabinian 


2 


5 


9 


1 


5 


9 


Silverius 





9 





1 


2 


11 


Simplicius 


15 





7 


12 
10 


1 
2 


[2?hA 
1 ]1B. 


Symmachus 


15 


17 


27 


15 
12 






0\A 
0/B 


Vigilius 


18 


2 


9 


17 


6 


22 


Xist 


us 


8 





19 


8 





27 



ADDENDA 



P. xxxiii., 1. 3. (A.D. 222).— The in- 
scription relied upon by Vignolius 
{Hippolyti Opera, ed. Fabricio, vol. I. 
Hamburgi, 1716, p. 157), to prove that 
Alexander was not emperor on April 
13, 222, was manifestly fabricated after 
the discovery of tlie Hippolytan statue. 
(Cf. ih., p. 155.) 

P. xxxvi., 1. 13, sodit in retro. — The 
expression occurs in the section de 
origine epactarum of the De argumentis 
hmae in the Bedan Dubious & Spurious 
Didascalics. In fine xix. anni habebis 
epactas xviii, Adde xi. super xviii., 
fiunt xxix. Addesaltum lunae, fiunt xxx. 
Hi[n]c apparet quod non addit, sed 
salit in retro, unum diem (P. L. XC. 724). 

P. xl., 1, 4, defect. — Blanchini's fan- 
tastic Dissertation [Hippolyti 0pp., 
I. 93-136), with its twelve portentous 
Tables {ib. 137-40), embodying, inter- 
alia, the lesser, greater and greatest 
Periods of 112, 784 and 3248 years [ih. 
99), respectively, and the Nundinals, to 
prove the retrospective and prospective 
accuracy of the Hippolytan Canon, 
hardly deserved the paragraph of 
refutation given to it bj^ Ideler {Hand- 
buch, II. 223-4). Ex una disce. Accord- 
ing to the second rule (p. 107), I. 6 of 
the Table is to be followed by VII. 7 
(p. clxiv.) ! 

P. xliv., 1. 22. — See p. xxxiv., n. 2. 

„ li., 1. 7— Cf. Todd Lect. Ser. III. 347. 



P. Ixi., 1. 20.— 8ee p. xxv.-vi. 

,, Ixxi., 1. 1. — For the first calculation,, 
see p. clxxviii. 

P. Ixxiii. , 1. 1.— The 100-year List was 
known to Ussher {Brit. Ec. Antiq. 
c. xvii. Wks. vi. 497) in the edition of 
Bucherius [De doc. tern. 252-7). 

,, 1. 9. — After intended insert : A. D. 
370 had Easter on the 14th of the 
moon, and is excluded accordingly. 

P. Ixxix., 11. 5-7.— For A. U. C. 461 
(B. C. 293), Curgis (Gurges) and Scae- 
vola (Scaeva are given instead of Cur- 
sor and Maximus ; the Consuls of 462 
are omitted. Accordingly, from 461 to 
the beginning, the (proleptic) week-day 
names and the epacts of the Fasti are 
erroneous. By scribal oversight, the 
two series are left out A. U. C. 706 — 14 
(B.C. 48—40), inclusive. 

Partial and necessarily futile at- 
tempts to explain the first seven years 
were made by Petavius {De doc. tern. 
1. X. c. XX. Vol. II. 105-6) and Ussher 
{uhi sup., p. 495). 

P. XC, n. 1.— Cf. p. cxlvi. 

,, cviii., 1. 15, Tablets.— ll\\e use of 
these by clerics is shown in the lines 
quoted from an old Glossary in Donati 
{De Dittici, etc., p. 22). 

Clerice, diptjxha lateri sit semper 
arnica, 
Nam sine diptycha non retinebis 
ea. 



CORRIGENDA. 



5, 1. 1, read (A.D. 1528). 

xix., n. 1,1. 5, for aliquante, read 

aliquanto. 
XXXV., 1. 5, for e.pisimon read episemon. 
1, 1. 5, read (A.D. 380). 
, Iv,, n. 3, 1. 5, for dilecticam read dia- 

lecticam. 
Iviii., n. 5, 1. 6, for verteribus read 

veteribus. 
Ixii., n. 4, 1. 11, for 813 read 213. 
Ixvi., n. 6, 1. 1,/or 160 read 26. 

„ n. 9, 1. 6, for 16 read 17. 
Ixx., n. 2, 1. 1,/or ebdo read ebdo-. 
,, ,, \. Q, for ann] read a,nni. 
,, ,, 1. 7, /or -abimusi rcac? -abi- 

mus.] 
Ixxiv., n. 1,1. 5, for superflu read 

superflui. 
Ixxx., *^*, 1. 16,/orVII.]rmi^[VII.]. 
Ixxxii., U.3, 1.5, insert 2077 before fol. 



P. Ixxxii., n. 3, 1. 6, for /. C. Iviii. read 
Krusch, ubi sup. p. 44 ; M. G. H. 
SS. Antiqss. IX. 740. 

,, xci., n. 4, 1. 4, read 3735 — 7. 

,, xciii., 1. 12 is to be read after 1. 13. 

,, ,, 1. 22, insert o/C/iris^ after /i/ - 
carnation. 

,, xcv., 1. 15, read the Codex. 

„ ,, I. 29, for 15^ read 1^3. 

,, cxx., n. 2, 1. 2, for Wictheda read 
Wichreda. 

,, cxxvii. , 1. 5, dele the 1 The emen- 
dation is rendered certain by Gal- 
licanos rimarios in the Letter of 
St. Columbanus (p. cxxviii., n. 1). 

,, cxlviii., n. 4, 1. 4, for xclv. read 
cxlv. 

,, clxxv., 11. 6, 7. Version f should be 
ordinamus . . . per xvi. et xvi. 



i 



INDEX 



REFERENCES ARE TO YEARS. 



From 487 to 1013, the verified dates are a year 
behind the textual : e.gr., 487, 1013 of Index = 486, 1012 
of Annals. 

From 1057 to 1378 (Vol. II.) and from 1379 to end 
(Vol. III.), the years denoted are the margrinal. 



INDEX. 



ab., abbot, 
abp., archbishop, 
b., brother, 
bar., barony, 
barr., baronies, 
bb., brothers, 
btl., battle, 
cas., castle, 
d., daughter, 
f., father, 
gf., grandfather. 



CONTRACTIONS. 

gs., grandson. 

^ss., grandsons. 

.l.-k., joint-king. 

k., king. 

kk., kings. 

k. C, king of Connaught. 

k. I., king of Ireland. 

k. L., king of Leinster. 

k. M., king of Munster. 

k. U., king of Ulidia. 

m., mother. 



mk., monk. 

mon., monastery. 

ob., died. 

par., parish. 

q., queen. 

r., river. 

s., son. 

ss., sons. 

si., slain. 

v.-ab., vice-abbot, 

w., wife. 



A. 



Aag (Hay ?), lord, 1490. 

Aaron, sage, ob., 783, 

Aban, s. of Cinaedh, royal heir of Con- 
naught, burned by Sochlachan, 867. 

Abbacy of Armagh taken by Mael-Isu 
after Dubdaleithi, 1064 ; war respect- 
ing, 1060. 

of Assaroe, disputed, 1502. 

Abbess of Ealdare, house of, seized by Ui- 
Cennselaigh, 1132. 

Abbey of Boyle founded, 1162. 

Abbot [of Armagh], Eochaidh, 1030 ; s. 
of, 1038. 

[Mael-Muireof Armagh] f. of Aillbe, 

1077 ; f. of Cathusach, 1070 ; Conaing, 
s. of, 1061. 

of Assaroe, house of, 1488, 

- — of Donaghpatrick, Eicnech, sL, 993. 

of Dromiskin, house of ignited, 913. 

[Mael-Ciarain] of lona, si. by Danes, 

986. 

jun. [Maguire], mother of children 

of, 1502. 

of Little Island in Suir, ob., 781. 

of Roscarbery, pillaged, 1102. 

of Trim, ob., 1488. 



Abbots, change of in Armagh [Diarmait 
vice Forindan], 839, 848 ; [Dubdalethe 
vice IVTuiredach] 965 ; [Forindan vice 
Diarmait] 835 ; [Mael-Muire vice 
IVIuirecan] 1001. 

many, in Cloenad sjTiod, 1162. 

and priors, 800, at Lateran Council, 

1215. 

Abduction, forcible from (church of) Kil- 
dare, 1041. 

Abel, ab. of Emlagh, ob., 947. 

[mk.] of Ath-omna, ob., 754. 

Aberration, Summer of, 1433. 

Aberte (Dunaverty Castle, Cantyre), siege 
of, by Selbach, 712. 

Abhann-mor (Ulster Blackwater), 1505, 
1531. 

Ablaze, sky, on New Year's eve, 890 ; 
with comets, 917. 

Abnier, ab. of Killeigh, ob., 827. 

Abraham,abp.ofArmagh,gotpallium,1258 

Abundance, of acorns, see Acorn-crop ; 
of corn and fruit, 1108 ; of fruit, 1249, 
1253 ; great in Autumn, 879. See also 
Crop. 

Acceptance of proffered abbacy of lona de- 
nied to FlaithbertachO'Brolchain,1164. 

Accused, Anglo-Irish by abp. of Armagh 
at English Court, 1207. 

2a 



INDEX 



Acliadh-abla (in Corran bar., co. Sligo), 
Le}Tiy massacred by Tirerrill in, 789. 
Achadh-Aldai (Newgrange, Meath), cave 
of searched by Foreigners, 863. 

-beithi (Aghaveagli, Magheraste- 

phanabar., CO. Fermanagh), 1458, 1487; 
herenagh of, 1532. 
Achadh-bo (Aghaboe, Upper Ossory bar.. 
Queen's co.), abbots of : — 
Ailill, 855. 
Cainnech, born, 521, or 527 ; ob., 

599, or 600. 
Cellach (coarb of Cainnech), 1108. 
Ciaran, 928. 
Cinaedh, 876. 
Cormac, 935. 

Dubthach (coarb of Cainnech), 1050. 
Feradach, 813. 
Fergil, 789. 
Forbasach, 822. 
Liber, 619. 

Mael-Samna (coarb of Cainnech), 971. 
Minnbairenn, 695. 

Muiredach (coarb of Cainnech), 968. 
Oengns (coarb of Cainnech), 1004. 
Robartach, 845. 
Scannal, 782. 
Suairlech, 859. 

burned, 1116. 

priest of, Feradhach, 813. 

scribe of, Feradhach, 813. 

Achadh-cille-moire (Aghakilmore, Clon- 
mahon bar., co. Cavan), defeat of, 
1429. 
Achadh-Chrimtain, ab. of, Cellach, 830. 
Achadh-cinn, 555. 

Achadh-Conaire (Achonry), bp. of, ob. 
1344. 

bishops of : — 

Clement, 1219. 

Benedict O'Bragan, 1312. 

Gilla-Isu O'Clery, 1230. 

Thomas O'Macken, 1265. 

Gilla-na-naem 0' Rowan, 1214. 

O'Tarpa, 1226. 

Acngus Ua Clumain, 1263. 



Achadh-Conaire. — cont. 

one likely to be bp. of, Murchadh 

O'Hara, 1344. 

canon choral of, 1328. 

Achadh-inbhir (Aghinver, Lough Erne, 

CO. Fermanagh), 1469. 
Achadh-liag (Achadh-leaga, on the Suck, 

Athlone bar., co. Roscommon), btl. of, 

775. 
Achadh-lurchaire ( = Achadh-iu"chaire, q. 

v.), parson of, 1518 ; vicar of, 1394. 
Achadh-mor (Aghamore, Magheraste- 

phana bar., co. Fermanagh), town of 

O'Flanagan, chapel of, 1498 ; church 

of, 1538. 
Achadh-urchaire (Aghalurcher par., in 

Clogher bar. , co. Tyrone and Maghera 

Stephana bar., co. Fermanagh), roof 

and gable of erected, 1447 ; church of, 

1448; parson of, 1423, 1478, 1529; 

parson and herenagh of, 1501. 
other references : 1450, 1483, 1484, 

1486 ; .see also Achadh-lurchaire. 
Accidan, f. of Gartnat, 649. 
Achonry, see Achadh-Conaire. 
Acithaen, f. of Talorg, 686. 
Acolb, commander of fleet of Foreigners, 

921 
Acorii-crop, abundant, 769, 773, 806, 836, 

935, 1108; abundant; streams closed 

by, 836. 
Acursius, Friar Minor, 1219, 1220. 
A.D., reckoned from Jan. 1, 1008, 1095 ; 

not from Jan. 1, 1496 ; from after Feb., 

1491 ; from Lady Day, 1500, 15:W. 
Adamnan, ab. of lona, born 624 ; brought 

60 captives back to Ireland, 687 : came 

to Ireland, 692, 697 ; gave Law of 

Innocents, 697 ; ob., 704. 
coarb of, 938 ; feast of [Sep. 23], 

1105 ; Lain of renewed, 727 ; relics of 

carried (from lona) to Ireland, 727 ; 

carried back from Ireland, 730 ; shrine 

of carried off' from Donaghmoyne by 

Gentiles, 832 ; well of, 1204. 
bp. of Rath (co. Donegal), ob., 731. 



INDEX. 



Adjutus, Friar Minor, 1219, 1220. 

Adla, gf. of Anmere, 948. 

Adnioer, d. of Aedh of Leiiister, died at 
great age (90), 811. 

Adomnan, s, of Alddailedh, fell in btl. of 
Drung, 836. 

Adulf (Aethelwulf), k. of Saxons, ob., 
858. 

Advent of Dominicans in England, 1221; 
in Ireland, 1224. 

of Patrick, 568 years from to 1000 ; 

582 years from to 1014. 

of relics (to I.), 784. 

of Saxons to Ireland, 1171. 

Advisers, chief : of Bregia : — Cernacli, 
992, Muiredach, 924 ; of N. Cenel- 
Conaill, Cinaedh, 921. 

Aedh, 477. 

ob., 616. 

ob., 621. 

fought Cinaedli in Pictland, 768. 

ab. of Monasterboice, ob. , 866. 

anchorite of Sletty, ob. , 900. 

bp., ob., 589, or 595. 

of Ard, k. of Dalaraide, si. in btl. 

of Fern-magh, 698. 

of Deceit, the Helper, 1214. 

the Furious, drowned at Limerick, 

1083. 

herenagh of Duleek, ob., 1093. 

(k. I.) led hosting into and divided 

Meath between two sons of Donnchad, 
802 ; led hosting to Rathcore, and 
divided Leinster between two Muire- 
dachs, 805 ; led hosting against Cenel- 
Conaill to avenge killing of Colman, 
815 ; family of Columba went to Tara 
to curse, 817 ; Cathalan, j.-k. of 
Ulidia, si. by counsel of, 871. 

k. U., made peace with Niall, k. 

of Ailech, at Tullyhog, Nov. 1, 914. 

(mk.) of Trevet, eminent in wisdom 

and piety, died in Armagh, 1005. 

of Tara, 1021. 

of the onsets, s. of, 1159. 

Aithgin, k. of Ui-Maine, si., 772. 



Aedh. — co)U. 

Aldain or Allain, s. of Fergal (k. I.), 

began reign, 734 ; fought Flaithbertacli 
in Magh-Itha, 734; won btl. of Faugh - 
ard, CO. Louth, 735 ; conferred with 
Cathal, 737; slew Aedh, s. of Colgu, 
k. of (South) Leinster, and was 
wounded at btl. of Ballyshannon, co. 
Kildare, 738 ; fell at btl. of Sered- 
magh, 743 ; verse of, 743 ; slaying of 
by Domnall avenged in btl. of Drum- 
ree, 797 ; death of avenged by death 
of Oengus, royal-heir of Tara, 915. 

Aldan, s. of Domnall, k. of Tara, 

ob., 612. 

(= A. Uaridnach), f. of Doir, 

624 ; of Maelfithrich, 636. 

Alddan, f . of Maelduin, 787, 788. 

Balb, s. of Indrechtach, k. of Con- 

naclit, ob., 742. 

Bee, gs. of Mael-Sechlainn, f. of 

Domnall, 1023. 

Bedri, si., 654. 

Bennain, k. of West Munster, ob., 

619 ; f. of Maelduin, 640, 690, 786 ; of 
Mor-Mumhan, 632. 

Bole, Rath of, 623. 

Brecc, 563 : gf. of Cennfaeladh, 

705. 

Dubh, bp.-ab. of Kildare, ob., 639. 

k. of Ui-Fidhgente, ob., 715. 

s. of Cathal, si., 747. 

s. of Crimthann, f. of Fingin, 

662. 

• s. of Suibhne, 565 ; si. , 588. 

s. of Toichlech, fell at btl. of 

Shrule, 766. 

Finn, s. of Echaidh, k. of (Irish) 

Dalriata, ob., 778. 

Fortobol, si., 550. 

Gustan, slew Aedh Roin, 604. 

Laigen, 611. 

s. of Fithcellach, k. of Ui- 
Maine, si. in btl. of Allen, 722. 

of Leinster, f. of Admoer, 811 ; of 

Domnall, 759. 



6 



INDEX. 



Aedh. — cont. 

Ningor defeated and pursued by 

Donnchad (k. I.) from Teltown to 
Carn-Mic-Cairthin, 791. 

of Odbha, si., 701. 

Oirdnidhe (k. I.) exempted clerg}' 

of Ireland from war, 804 ; hosting into 
Leinster by ; submission of Finsnechta, 
k. L., to, 804 ; f. of Maelduin, 867 ; 
f . of Niall, see Aedh (1), f . of Niall. 

Red-neck, f . of Domnall, 779, 784, 

787, 804. 

Roan, f. of Fiachna, 789. 

Roen, f. of Ailill, 639. 

k. of Corco-Baiscinn, ob., 812. 

Roin, 604 (si.) ; 611 ; gf. of Diar- 

mait, 825. 

Roin, k. U., si. inbtl. (of Faughard, 

CO. Louth), 735. 

s. of Maelcobha, ob., 654. 

Ron, f . of Bresal, 750 ; of Fiachna, 

753, 759, 784. 

royal-heir of Ailech, si., 1021. 

Slaine, began to reign, 598 ; slew 

Suibhne, 600 ; reigned with Colman 
Rimidh, 604 ; s. of Diarmaid Derg, 
si., 604 ; bp. of race of (bp. of Inan), 
922 ; clan of, fought Donnchad (k. I.) 
at Liac-find, 786 ; descendants of, 
fought each other, 737 ; two descend- 
ants of, fought btl., 712 ; f. of Ailill, 
695 ; of Elathmac, 651, 675 ; of Conall, 
612 ; of Congal, 695, 696; of Congalach, 
728, 856 ; of Diarmait, 635, 649, 662, 
664, 665, 724 ; of Domnall, 663 ; of Dun- 
chadh, 659, 675 ; race of, went with 
Diarmait and gave hostages to Mur- 
chadh at Druim-Fergusso, 822 ; two 
sons of, si., 634. 

of the gapped spear ^ 1067. 

Uaridnach, k. of Ui-Neill, won btl., 

605 ; f . of Maelfithrich, 722. 

f. of Anfidh, 864, 882, 883. 

f . of Bruatar, 853. 

f . of Cathal, 737. 

f. of Cellach, 1105 



Aedh. — cont. 

f. of Cumascach, 597. 

f. of Custantin, 952. 

f. of Domnall, 628, 629, 641, 642; 

(2) 838; (3) 889, 911, 928, 933; (4) 

1024 ; (5) 1042. 

(3) f. of Domnall and Niall, 905. 

f. of Dubghall, 925. 

f . of Dubslanga, 1004. 

f. of Eiremhon, 886. 

f. of Eochoccan, 883. 

f . of Eruman, 914. 

f. of Flann, 770. 

f . of Geibennach, 973. 

f. of Maelduin, 924. 

f. of Matudhan, 933, 949, 950. 

f . of Murchadh, 840. 

(1) f . of Niall, 814, 823, 827, 835, 

840, 845, 846 ; (2) 910, 912, 913, 914, 

915, 916,917, 918, 919; (3) 971. 

f . of Tigernach, 838. 

f . of Uata, 602. 

gs. of Atedh, k. of Iveagh, si. by 

his own sept, 968 . 
gs . of Branan, k . of East Leinster, 

sL, 1119. 
gs, of Fergal, replaced Mac Loch- 

lainn as k. of Tullyhog, 1051; si. by 

men of Farney, 1054. 

gs. of Maeldoraidh, k. of Cenel- 

Conaill, ob., 990. 

gs. of Mael-Sechlainn, slew his b., 

Domnall, 1068. 

gs. of Mael-Sechnaill, blinded by his 

b., Donnchad, 918. 

gs. of Mothra, coarb of Da-Sinchill 

(ab. of Killeigh), ob., 983. 

gs. of Niall, slew Domnall, 1000. 

gs . of Ruarc, si . in btl . of Slane, 

947. 

gs. of Ruarc, royal-heir of Con- 
naught, si. by Cenel-Eogain, 991. 

gs. of Ualgarg, steward of Ui- 

Duibinnrecht, ob, 1067. 

s. of ab. Mael-Muire (of Armagh) 

and of Setach, died in Cork, 1042. 



INDEX. 



Aedh, — cont. 

s. of Aicid, k. of Teffia, si. with 

Congalach, k. I., 956. 

s. of Ailill, si. in btl. of Druim- 

Corcrain, 728. 

s. of Ailill, ab. of Clonfer't, ob., 916. 

s. of Ainmire, won. btl. of Druim- 

mic-Erca, 580 ; of Daethe, or Bealach- 
Dhaithe, 587, or 593 ; attended Con- 
vention of Driiim-ceta, 575 ; began to 
reign 592; si., 598: f. of Conall Cu, 
602, 604 ; of Domnall, 628, Qm, 703, 
710, 732 ; of Maelcoba, 643. 

s. of Boant, si. in btl. by Gentiles, 

839. 

s. of Brecc, bp. (of Kildare, West- 

meatli), ob., 589. 

s. of Brenan (Brendan), k. of Teffia, 

562 ; gave Durrow to Columba, 589 ; 
ob., 589 or 595. 

s. of Cairbre, f. of Cathal, 665. 

s. of Cathrannach, si. by foreigners, 

846. 

s. of Cellach, ab., of Kildare, ob,, 

829. 

s. of Cellach (k. L.), si. in btl. of 

Fennor, 719. 

s. of Cennetigh, steward of Clan of 

Torlogh, si. by Connacians, 1054. 

s. of Cinad, k. of Picts, si. by his 

associates, 878. 

s. of Coirpre, ab. , of Rathlin island, 

ob., 773. 

s. of Colggene, f. of Etirscel, 778. 

s. of Colgu, (k. of S. Leinster), de- 
feated Munstermen, 732 ; si. by Aedh 
Allain, at btl. of Ballyshannon, co. 
Kildare, 738 ; f. of Etirscel, 770. 

s. of Colgu, k. of Oriors, ob., 610. 

s. of Conang, k. of Ir-Luachair, si., 

733. 

s. of Concobar, fell in defeat of 

Flann (k. I.), 888. 

s. of Cormac, j.-k. of Keenaght, ob., 

758. 

s. of Crichan, f . of Mael-Bresail, 792. 



Aedh. — cont. 

s. of Cumuscach, k. of Oneilland, 

ob., 863. 

s. of Dall, ob., 608. 

s. of Diarmait, si. in btl., 714. 

s. of Dluthach, slew Finsnechta and 

Bresal, 695 ; ob., 701 ; f. of Curoi, 711 ; 
of Flann, 712, 714 ; of Gormgal, 718. 

s. of Domnall, regal ordination-rite 

read over as (k. of Ailech) by coarb 
of Patrick, 993 ; defeated Louth, Cre- 
morne, and North Bregia in vale of 
Newry river, 996 ; pillaged Iveagh and 
took large cattle-spoil, 999 ; led hosting 
to Teltown and returned in peace ; pil- 
laged Connaught ; gave pledge to keep 
peace with Eochaid to Brian and Mael- 
Sechlainn at Dundalk, 1002 ; fell in 
or si. by Cenel-Eogain after, btl. of 
Crew Mount, 1004. 

s. of Dubdabairenn, k. of Ui-Fidh- 

gente, ob., 860. 

s. of Dubdacrich, ab. of Terryglass 

and Clonenagh, si. by Gentiles in Duna- 
mase, 845. 

s. of Dubdaleithi, deputy- her enagh 

of Armagh and future coarb of Patrick, 
ob., 1108. 

s. of Dubgall, v.-ab. of Clonfeacle, 

died in penance, 1069. 

s. of Dubgal, royal-heir of Ailech, 

si., 994. 

s. of Dunchad, si. in treachery by 

associates of Conang, s. of Fland, in his 
presence, 841. 

s. of Eocha Dry-flesh, si., 577. See 

also Connachta, kings of. 

s. of Echaidh, slew his b., Muiredach, 

839. 

s. of Eochocan, k. of Ulidia, defeated 

at Carnearny ; slew some of Niall's men 
in his retreat, resisting most vigorously 
with a few, 914 ; si. in btl. of Dublin, 
919. 

s. of Echtigern, si. in Ferns ora- 
tory, 1003. 



INDEX. 



Aedh. — cont. 

s. of Fedhlimidh, f. of Muiredach, 605, 

s. of Fergal, defeated Flaithbertach, 

732 ; fought Cenel-Conaill in Magh- 
Itha, 733. 

s. of Fiangus, best scribe, bp. -ab. of 

Roscommon, ob., 874. 

s. of Flann, royal-heir of Tara, si., 

1021. 

s. of Fogertach, si. in btl. of Fennor, 

824. 

s. of Garbhan, ob. , 739. 

s. of Geno, si., 579. 

s. of Loingsech, k. U., si. in btl. 

with Dalaraide, 972. 

s. of Mael-Isu, ob., 1095 ; f. of Cel- 

lach, 1105. 

s. of Mael-Patraicc, k. of Tireragh, 

si. by Niall, s. of Aedh, 910. 

s. of Maelruanaigh, ob., 951. 

s. of Mathgamain, royal-heir of 

Cashel, ob., 1011. 

s. of Niall Frasach, wasted Cre- 

morne, 794 ; won btl. of Drumree, 
quatrain respecting his avenging the 
slaying of Aedh (AUain) thereby, 797 ; 
wasted Meath and began reign (as k. 
I.), 797 ; promulgated Laio of Patrick, 
806 ; put Connaughtmen to flight and 
burned borders of Meath, 808 ; wasted 
Ulidia to avenge profanation of Patrick's 
shrine in killing of Dunchu, 809 : went 
to assembly of Teltown unattended by 
horse or chariot, 811 ; went with host- 
ings to Rathcore, and divided Leinster 
between two gss. of Bran, 818 ; wasted 
Leinster to Glendalough, 819; ob. near 
Ath-da-ferta, in Magh-Conaille, 819. 

s. of Niall (k. I.), led foray to 

Ulidia and lost Connecan, Flaithbert- 
ach and others, 855 ; defeated Galloway 
with great slaughter in Glenelly, 856 ; 
attacked camp of Mael-8cchnaill in 
Magh-dumai by night, and slew persons ; 
defeated afterwards with great loss, 860 ; 
pillaged Meath with Foreigners, 861 ; 



Aedh. — cont. 

began reign (as k. I. ) ; went, with kk. 
of Foreigners and Flann, to pillage 
Meath, 862 ; f. of Domnall, 863 ; blinded 
Lor can, k. of Meath ; defeated Anfidli 
and Ulidians, 864; sacked all Foreign 
forts (on North coast) between Cenel- 
Eoghain and Dalaraide, took their chat- 
tels, flocks and herds to his camp, de- 
feated them at Lough Foyle, with loss of 
240, 866 ; defeated Ui-Neill of Bregia, 
Leinstermen and Foreigners (300, or 
more), at Killineer, where fell Flann, k. 
of all Bregia, Diarmait, k. of Lagore, very 
many Gentiles, Fachtna, roj^al-heir of N. 
of I., and many more, 868 ; pillaged 
Leinster from Dublin to Gowran, 870 ; 
hosting by to Leinster ; Killishy pro- 
faned; other churches and their ora- 
tories burned, 874 ; ob. , Nov. 20 ; two 
quatrains relative thereto, 879. 

s. of Ruaidhri, k. W. C, s. of ob., 

1091 ; ss. of injured k. C., 1115. 

s. of Senach, f. of Crimthann, 633. 

s. of Suibne, King of Maenmagh, ob,, 

585. 

s. of Tadhg, sole exception to ex- 
clusion of race of Tadhg from kingsliip 
of Connaught, because of Tadhg vio- 
lating protection of Jesus-crozier in 
slaying Aedh O'Rourke, 1015. 

s. of Tomaltach, si, in Kilclonfert, 

789. 

s. of Tomaltach, si. by Flaithbertach, 

1005. 

Aedha-Mic-Bric, Rath-, 859. 

Aedhacan, f. of Flann, 957. 

f. of Morecan, 866. 

f, of Mael-Brighti, 914. 

gf. of Rumann, 980. 

gf. of Scolaighe, 947. 

Aedhaccan, s. of Concobar, f, of Donn- 
chad, 877. 

Aedan and Aedhan, Lam of, established 
secondly over all Connaught, 772 ; pro- 
mulgated thirdly, 780. 



INDEX. 



9 



Aedan — cont. 

ab. of Clonard, ob., 882. 

ab. of Roscommon, ob. , 782. 

ab. of Roscrea, ob. , 839. 

ab. of Tallaght, ob., 825. 

anchorite of Bangor, ob., 610. 

bp. of Mayo, ob., 773. 

bp. of Saxons, ob., 651. 

bp. -mk. of Rahan, ob. , 792. 

f. of Bran and Domangart, 596. 

f. of Conall, 807. 

f. of Eochaidh Buidhe, 629. 

f. of Fergus, 692, 701. 

gs. of CucumbiT, bp.-nik., ob., 792. 

(mk.) of Tuam, ob. , 949. 

s. of Cumuscach, ob., 625. 

s. of Fiachra, ob,, 563. 

s. of Gabhran (k. of Scottish Dal- 

riata), 504; invaded Orkneys, 580; Mon 
btl. of Manonn, 582, or 583 ; of Leith- 
reid, 590 ; defeated by Saxons, 600 ; 
ob. , 606 ; f . of Conaing, 622 ; grandsons 
of, 629 ; descendants of, 649. 

s. of Mongan, k. of Dalaraide, ob., 

616. 

s. of Oengus, Cell-mor (Kilmore, co. 

Monaghan) of, 749. 
Aedhgal, f. of Maelfothartaigh, 810. 

f. of Scannlan, 764. 

k. of Owles, ob., 784. 

Aedgen Britt, bp., scribe, anchorite, of 
Kildare, ob., aged nearly 116 years, 
864. 

(mk.) of Fore, ob., 771. 

Aedlug, s. of Caman, ab. of Clonmac- 

noise, ob., 652. 
Aelchu, ab. of Clonard, ob., 727. 

(mk. ) of Monasterboice, ob. , 723. 

Aella, see Alii. 

Aenach (Enagh, Boyle bar., co. Roscom- 
mon), 1291, 1397. 
Aenach-Macha {Fair\_-green'\ of Madia: 
around Navan fort, near Armagh), 
victory of s. of Aedh in, 1021 ; Muir- 
certach went to, 1103. 
Aendruira, see Oendruim, 



Aenghus, f. of Conghalach, 800. 

• f. of Cumuscach, 635. 

f. of Loingsech, 696. 

Liathdana, won btl. of Cathair- 

Cinncon, 640. 

s. of Amalgaid, ob., 593. 

s. of Colman Mor, k. of Southern 

Ui-Neill, si., 621. 

s. of Domnall, f. of Loingsech, 732. 

s. of Nadfraech, k. M., si., 490, or 

491 ; f. of Fedhlimidh, 662. 
Aentruim ( = Oendruim, q.v.), herenagh 

of, Flann, 1096. 
Aethelwulf, see Adulf. 
Aííiath, ab. of Moville, ob. , 743. 

bp. of Armagh, ob., 794. 

Affraic, abbess of Kildare, ob. , 834. 
AfFrica, abbess of Kildare, ob. , 743. 
Agapitus, pope, ob., 538. 
Agda, s. of Dubcenn, slew Donnchad 
Finn, 974. 

f. of Gilla-Enain, 999. 

Age of Moon, see Criteria, lunar. 
Aged people, plague of, in I. , 825. 
Aghaboe, see Achadh-bo. 
Aghakilmore, see Achadh-cille-moire. 
Aghalurcher, see Achadh-lurchaire and 

Achadh-urchaire. 
Aghamore, see Achadh-mor. 
Aghavea, see Achadh-beithi. 
Aghinver, see Achadh-inbhir. 
Agonn (chief of Foreigners), defeated by 

Cerball, k. of Ossory, 847. 
Ahascragh, see Ath-escrach-Cuan. 
Aibhlinne (perhaps = Sliabh - Aiblinne, 

q.v.), btl. of, 535. 
Aicid, f. of Aedh, 956. 
Aichlech, gs. of Cendfiach, ob., 771. 
Aidan, ab. of Lismore, ob., 768. 
Aidded,s.of Laighne,slewMuiredach,j.-k. 
of Ulidia, 895 ; escaped wounded from 
defeat of Ulidians and Dalaraide, 897 ; 
si. by strategem by his associates, 898. 
Aidhne (Kiltartan bar., co. Galway), btl. 
of, 533; Broccan, si. in, 834; Carn- 
Conaill in, 784 ; Fergal of, 696. 



10 



INDEX. 



Aidhne — cont, 

kings of : — 

Anion, 810. 
Art, 772. 
Conchobur, 769. 
Maelfabhuill, 891. 
Maelruanaidh, 1014. 

Ui-Fiachrach of, 743, 873, 919, 980, 

1004, 1048. 

Aighle, Flann, 741. 

Aighnecha (Lower Dundalk bar., co. 
Louth), btl. of, 831. 

Aignert, s. of Murchadh, with Muircer- 
tach in defeating Foreign army, 921. 

Ailbe (patron) of Emly, ob. , 534, or 542 ; 
coarb of (bp. of Emly), 1074, 1114; 
feast of (Sep. 12), 1107; Law of pro- 
mulgated over Munster, 793 ; protected 
noble persons in Emly outrage ; Gapped 
bell of burned ; outraged in his coarb, 
1123. 

Ailbe (Magh- Ailbe : Moynalvey, Meath), 
Stone of, 999. 

Aillbe, d. of ab. (Mael-Muire of Armagh), 
w. of k. of Oriors, died in penance, 
1077. 

Ailbran, gs. of Lugadu, ab. of Clondalkin, 
ob., 781. 

Ailbrenn, s. of Maichtech, ab. of Clonard, 
died after long suffering, 884. 

Ail-Cluathe, Al-Cluathe (Dumbarton), 
besieged for four months, razed and 
pillaged by Amhlaim and Imar, Norse 
kk., 870; burned, 780- 

kings of : — 

Bile, 722. 
Domnall, 694. 
Guret, 658. 

Ailce, f. of Cathusach, 947. 

Ailche, Carn — , 747. 

Aildobur, ab. of Muccert, ob., 757. 

(ab. of Roscommon) promulgated 

Law of (St.) Coman over all Con- 
naught, 793; ob., 800. 

Aileb, f. of Uathmaran, 914. 

Ailech, s. of, see Son of Ailech. 



Ailech (Greenan-Ely, co. Donegal : resi- 
dence of kk. of Northern Ui-Neill), 
Aedh (k. L) of, 879. 

cavalry leader of k. of, 1170. 

kings of : — 

Aedh, 1004; (IL) 1033; (IIL) 1083. 

Ardgar, 1061. 

Domnall, 915 ; (II.) 1068 ; (IIL) 
see jSIac Lochlainn, Domnall. 

Donnchad, 1083. 

Fergal, 988, 1001. 

Flaithbertach, 962; (IL) 1011, 
1013, 1036. 

Maelduin, 867. 

Muircertach, 938, 943. 

Niall, 914,915; (IL) 1044, 1061. 

O'Neill, 1215. 
royal-heirs of : — 

Aedh, 994; (IL) 1021. 

Archu, 1019. 

Ardgar, 1019; (IL) 1124. 

Concobar, 935. 

Congalach, 1123. 

Domnall, 1024. 

Dubghall, 980. 

Fergal, 1017. 

Maelruanaigh, 941. 

Mael-Sechlainn, 997 ; (IL) 1063. 

Muircertach, 1095: (II.) 1114. 

Muiredach, 1046. 

Niall, 1119. 

O'Laverty, 1251. 

Ragnall, 1074. 

queen of, Flann, 940. 

razed, 939 ; razed by Muircertach 

and South of L, 1101. 
Ailech-Frigrenn (near Lough Swilly), 676. 
Ailen-daberrach, btl. of, 744. 

-daingen, built, 703 ; demolished, 

714. 

Mic Craich, built, 725. 

Ailene, f. of Fiachra, 750. 
Ailenn (Allen, co. Kildare), btl. of, 728. 
Aileran the Wise, ob., 665. 
Ail-finn (Elphin, co. Roscommon), 1269, 
1416. 



INDEX. 



11 



Ail-finn. — conf. 

archdeacon of, 1255, 1287. 

bishops of : — 

Mael-Sechlainn Mac Brieii, 1297, 

1303. 
Thomas Mac Dermot, 1265, 
Malachy Mac Hugh, 1312. 
Donnchadh 0' Conor, 1244. 
Gilla-Isu O'Conor, 1296. 
Mael-Sechlainn O'Conor, 1262. 
Maurice O'Conor, 1284. 
Tomaltach O'Conor, 1246. 
Marian O'Donnobuir, 1297. 
John O'Finaghty, 1326, 1350, 

1354. 
Donnchad O'Flannagan, 1303, 

1307. 
Lawrence O'Laghtnan, 1326. 
Amlaim O'Tomalty, 1284. 
John O'Ughroin, 1246. 

bp. -elect of, Cathal O'Conor, 1309. 

canon choral of, 1328, 1343 ; church 

of, 1342 ; herenagh of, O'Finaghty, 
1289. 
Ailgal, anchorite of Cluain-Cormaic, ob., 
756. 

aided Murchad, s. of Dornnall, and 

fled at btl of Cam, 765. 

• f. of Fergus, 791. 

Ailgenan, s, of Donngal, k. of Cashel, 

ob., 853. 
Ailgus, f. of Blathmac, 814. 
Ailill, ab. of Aghaboe, ob., 855. 

Banbaine, ab. of Birr, ob. , 859. 

bp. of Fore, ob., 871. 

of Brig-leith, burned in banquet 

house, 739. 

of Cohba, f. of Mael-Bresail, 825. 

Corrach, s. of Flann, k. of Oflaly, 

si., 741. 

the Harper, s. of Aedh Slaine, si. , 

634. 

Flanessa, s. of Dornnall, ob., 666. 

herenagh of Glendalough, ob., 973. 

Inbanna, see Connachta, kings of. 

Molt, s. of Nathi (Dathi), 463, 543 ; 



Ailill — conf. 

held Assembly of Tara, 467, 469, 470 : 
defeated, 468, 473, 474, 475, 476, 478 ; 
slain, 482. 

of Mucknoe, head of Cologne Irish 

monks, ob., 1042. 

Red-neck, s. of Flaithbertach, k. of 

North Ulster, ob., 747. 

scribe, bp.-ab, of Clogher, ob., 869. 

f. of Aedh, 728 ; (2) 916. 

f. of Artri, 802. 

f. of Augaire, 917. 

f. of Cathal, 816 ; (2) 846. 

f. of Cathusach, 749. 

f. of Cellach, 865. 

f. of Colman, 825. 

f. of Concobar, 834. 

f. of Condalach, 781. 

f. of Cormac, 713 ; (3) 764. 

of Crunnmael, 819 

f. of Cumascach, 656. 

f. of Cumuscach, 909. 

f. of Diarmait, 937. 

f. of Echu, 801. 

f. of Gormgal, 768. 

f. of Labraidh, 845. 

f. of Mael-Poil, 922. 

f. of Oengus, 737. 

gs. of Cellach Cualann, sL, 744, 

gs. of Dunchadh (of Muiresc), won 

btl. of Druim-robaigh, 758 ; k. of Con- 
naught, ob., 764, 

gs, of Tipraite, ob., 783. 

s. of Aedh Roen, ob., 639, 

s, of Aedh Slaine, f, of Dluthach, 

695, 

s, of Bodbchadh of Meath, si. 726. 

s, of Baetan, si., 620 ; f, of Cenn- 

faelad, 679, 

s, of Cellach, si., 622, 

s, of Cennfaeladh, k. of Ciannachta, 

ob., 702. 
s. of Colgu, captured by Gentiles, 

832, 
s. of Colman, k. of Cenel-Loeghaire, 

si., 642, 



12 



INDEX. 



Ailill. — cont. 

s. of Corinac, sage and most excel- 
lent judge, ab. of Slane, ob., 802. 

s. of Cu-cen-matliair,k. M., ob., 701. 

s, of Cumuscach, k. of Loiighgall, 

ob., 849. 
■ s. of Donnchad, got moiety of Meatli 

from Aedh (k. I.), 802 ; felf in btl. of 

Rathconnell against his b., Concobar, 

803. 
s. of Dubdacrich, k. of Ard-Ua- 

Cinnfaeladh, si. in btl. of Ard-Cian- 

nachta, 749. 
s. of Dungal of Eilen (k. of Dala- 

raide), si, 690. 

s. of Dunlang, 495, 

s. of Dunlang, k. L., si. by Norse- 
men, 871. 
s. of Eughan, ab. of third of Cork, si. 

in btl. of Ballaghmoon, 908. 
s.of Feidhelmedh, fell in btl. of Ath- 

duma, 761. 
s, of Fergus, k. of S. Bregia, died of 

fall from horse, 800. 

s. of Finsnechta, si., 718. 

— — s. of Indrechtach, k. of Ui-Maine of 

Connaught, ob., 799. 

s.of Robartach, ab. of Lusk, ob., 853. 

s. of Tuathal, k. of Ui-Cremthainn, 

ob., 739. 
Ailither, ab. of Clonmacnoise,'ob., 599. 
Ailmedhair, steward of Clonmacnoise, ob., 

797. 
Ailmine = Elf wine, q.v. 
Ailngnadh, bp. of Ardbraccan, ob., 781. 
Aimergin, f. of Muiredach, 805. 
(Aindiarraidh)s. of Mael-mocherghi, k. of 

Lecale, si., 897. 
Aine and Aine-Cliach (Small County bar., 

CO. Limerick) btl. of, 667 ; castle of, 

1515 ; kings of :— Gilla-Ailbe, 1109, s. 

of Cerball, 1123, Murtagh, 1115. 

O^Kirby of, 1124. 

Ainfchellach, ab. of Connor and Lynally, 

ob., 778. 
s. of Ferchar the Tall (k. of Scottish 



AinfcheUach. — cont. 

Dalriata), dethroned and taken in chains 
to I., 698 : si. in btl. of Finn-glenn, 
719 ; f. of Muiredach, 733 ; s. of, pur- 
sued by Talorgan, 736. 
Ainftech, si, 693. 

f. of Sneidgus, 770. 

Ainngid, f. Coscrach, 1040. 

Ainmeri,>ab. of Armagh for 9 months, ob., 

879. 

ab. of Rathnew, ob., 779. 

Ainmire, k. I., 563 ; began to reign, 566, 

or 573 ; si, 569, or 576 ; f. of Aedh, 

580, 587, 592, 593, 598, 602, 604, 628, 

643, 666, 703, 710, 732 ; f. of Ciaran, 

020 ; s. of Setna, 543, 547, 561, 620, 

710. 
Air, quivering of, 1538. 
AiraiiKj (a plague), 1470. 
Airard, s. of Coisse, chief poet of I., ob., 

990. 
Airbertach, s. of Cosdubran, herenagh of 

Roscarber}', ob., 1016. 
Airech (Derrybrusk or Derryvullen), 

church of, 1413. 
Airech-Brosga (Derrybrusk, in Maghera- 

stephana and Tirkennedybarr., co. Fer- 
managh), 1384, 14S2, 1484 : herenagh 

and \-icar of, 1487. 
Airech-Maelain (=Daire-Maelain, q.v.), 

herenagh of, 1441, 1447 ; parson of 

1441. 
Airechtach, gs. of Caran, most learned of 

I, ob., 979. 
gs. of Cathal, si in battle of Ard- 

Maic-Rime, 792. 
gs. of Dunchad, k. of Ui-Fiachrach, 

ob. , 735. 
gs. of Faelan, ab. of Armagh, ob., 

794. 

s. of Cuaiui, ab. of Ferns, ob., 742. 

Airecul- Dochiaroic ( Chamhe r ofDocli ia roc: 

Errigal-Kerogue par., Clogher bar., co. 

Tyrone), ab. of, Maelfothartaigh, 810. 

See cUao Aricul-Dosenchiaroicc. 
Airennan, f. of Finan, 676. 



INDEX. 



13 



Airer-Gaidhel (Argyle, ScotLand), k. of, 
Mac Donnell, 1318 ; Men of advised 
offer of lona abbacy to Flaithbertach 
O'Brolchaiii, 1164. 
Airfhinnan, ab. of Tallaglit, o))., 803. 
Airghialla (Oriel : Armagh, Louth, and 
Monaghan cos., and part of co. Fer- 
managh),aided by Muircertach,won btl. 
near Ardee, 1159 ; aided O'Neill, 1522. 

archdeacon of : — see 2inrler Clochar. 

bishops of : — see under Clochar. 

constable of, 1394, 1424. 

Dartry of, 1505 ; defeated, 1086, 

1177, 1358; defeated Cenel-Conaill, 
978 ; defeated Ulidians, 1032 ; defeated 
Muircertiich at Ard-Monann, 1075 ; 
defeated and slaughtered at the Fews 
by Niall, 1022. 

Foreigners of, 1423, 1430 ; Gilla- 

Crist and many more si. by, 999. 

hostages of, 1171 ; on Domnall's 

hostings, 1113; with Concobar on host- 
ing in Iveagh and Bregia, 1128 ; with 
Muircertach on Ossory hosting, 1156 ; 
with Muircertach on Connaught host- 
ing, 1159 ; on Muircertach's hosting to 
Magh-dula, 1160; joined Muircertach's 
hosting at Well of Messan, 1161. 

invaded, 1368; invaded, and defeated 

in, Louth, 1431 ; invaded Tyrone, 1166. 

kings of : — 

Caipri Daimargit, 514. 
Congalach, 827. 
Cumuscach, 827. 
Eicnech, 963. 
Son of Eicnech, 999. 
Fogartach, 852; (II.) 949. 
Macleighinn, 1022. 

of MacMahon sept:— 1362,1369. 

Aedh, 1344. 

Aedh jun., 1485, 1495, 1496, 1497. 

Aedh the Red, 1453. 

Ardghal, 1403, 1416. 

Brian, 1365, 1370, 1372, 1416. 

Brian, 1419, 1442. 

Brian, 1497. 



Airghialla. — covf. 

Eoghan, 1467. 

Feidhlimid, 1453, 1462, 1466. 

Maghnus, 1344, 1357. 

Murchadh, 1344. 

Niall (j.-k,), 1365. 

Philip, 1403. 

Redmond, 1467, 1475, 1484. 

Rosa, 1497, 1513. 

Rughraidhe, 1446. 

kings of : — 

Maelcraibi, 919. 
Maelfothartaigh, 697. 
Mael-Patraicc, 885. 
DonnchadhO'Carroll, 1155, 1163, 

1165, 1166. 
Murchadh O'Carroll, 1178, 1189. 
O'Donnell, 1241. 
O'Hanlon, 1247. 
O'Heney, 1201. 
Gilla-Coluim O'Heney (arch-k.), 

1048. 
Gilla-Crist O'Heney (arch-k.), 

1127. 
O'Muldory, 1197. 
O'Neill, 1212. 

Lethlobur Ua Laidhgnen (arch- 
k.), 1078. 

E., k. of, Ruaidhri, 1099. 

S., k. of, Flann, 1096. 

lord of : — 

Aedh O'Neill the Tawny, 1264. 

Cumuscach, Congalach and many 

other kk. of, si. in btl., 827. 

Mac Ward of, 1488, 1498. 

jNIen of :— 1537 ; fled from O'Neill, 

1476 ; peace made between, 1496 ; some 
of si. in btl., 727 ; Book of Dubdaleithi 
omits that force of s. of Aedh was sur- 
rounded by, 1021 ; had skirmish with 
Magh-Itha, 1050 ; slaughtered, 1164 ; 
slew Domnall, 1075. 

nobles of, 1522; Plain of, 1430, 1433, 

1434, 1452, 1466, 1475, 1476, 1485, 1486, 
1496. 
queen of, 1171; made raid, 1165; 



14 



INDEX. 



Airghialla. — cont. 

raided from, and aided in razing, Slane 
castle, 1176; raided, 1381, 1476, 1487. 

roj-al heirs of :— Cu-Uladh, 1096, 

MacMahon, 1375 ; war in, 1501. 

other references: — 955, 1171, 1201, 

1211, 1251, 1252, 1281, 1337, 1341, 1431, 
1432, 1439, 1443, 1452, 1502, 1534, 1539. 

Airindan, ab. of Bangor, ob., 849. 

Airlid (mk. ) of Clonard, ob. , 772. 

Airmedach, ob., 683. 

ab. of Bangor, ob., 800. 

ab. of Coleraine, si. by Gentiles, 932, 

ab. of Moville, drowned, 831. 

ab. of Moville, ob. , 890. 

Blind-eye, f. of Diarmait of Meath, 

689, 715, 763, 862 ; son of Conall Sweet- 
voice, 763, 862. 

gs. of Guaire, si. 675. 

s. of Coscrach, bp. and scribe of 

Armagh, ob., 1006. 

s. of Sechnasach, 681. 

s. of Tadhg, 719. 

Airtech (in Tibohine par., Frenchpark 
bar., CO. Roscommon), kings of : — Mac- 
Dermots,-1297, 1343; Tibohine of, 1201. 

other references : — 1340, 1349. 

Airther-Bregh {E. of Bregia), Inis-na- 
righ in, 784. 

Emhna (£'. of Meath), Donaghmore 

of, 1105. 

— Liphi (Kildare co. Eafit of Liffty), 

kings of : — 
Diarmait, 832. 
Maelmordha, 917. 
Murecan, 863. 
Tuathal, 816. 

Maighe ( Armoy,co. Antrim\ burned, 

1177; raided, 1247. 

Airthir (Oriors barr., co. Armagh), btl. 
amongst, 800 ; chief of, 1181 ; defeated 
1380 ; by Colgu, 780 ; with Ruaidhri 
in defeat of Gilla-Crist, 1057 ; defeated 
Iveagh, 1086; devastated to Navan fort, 
821 ; fought Ui-Echach-Cobha, 776 ; 
fought Ui-Tuirtri, 745 ; invaded, 1196. 



Airthir. — cont. 

kings of : — 
Aedh, 610. 

Colgu, son of Cluaeth, 520. 
Congal, 748. 
Cumuscach, 743. 
Ceilacan, 933. 
Donnghal, 791. 
Echmilidh, 989. 
Eicnech, 722. 

Maelodhar Blind-eye, 641. 
Muiredhach, 863. 
Murchadh, 1159. 
0'Hanlons,1246, 1268,1297, 1321, 

1380, 1484. 
Ronan, s. of Tuathal, 625. 

raided by Mael-Sechlainn, 1059 ; by 

Ruaidhri : overtook and slaughtered 
raiders and beheaded Ruaidhri, 1126. 

royal heirs of : — Cernachan, 912 ; 

Mael-Muire, 914. 

seized Flann's house, in Saxon 

Third, Armagh, against Raghnall, and 
s. of Raghnall, 1127; slew MacQuillin, 
1355. 

Ui-Cruinn of the, 807 ; wives of kk. 

of :— Aillbe, 1077, Dubesa, 1078 ; wor- 
thies of si. by Ulidians, 1094. 
Ait-tighi-Mic-Coise (in Boyle bar., co. 

Roscommon), 1367. 
Aitechde, f. of Artru, 742. 

f. of Flann Cuirrigh, 732. 

Alba (Hill of Allen? co. Kildare), 

462. 
Alba (Scotland), Amhlaiph and Imar came 
to Dublin from 871 ; chief bp. of, 
Fothud, 1093 ; Clan-Donnell of, 1495 ; 
coarb of Columba in (ab. of lona), 
980 ; chief confessor of, Dubthach, 
1065 ; devastations done by Gen- 
tiles in, 798 ; Dunkeld in, 1027 ; 
Foreigners of plundered all Pict- 
land and took off its hostages, 866 ; 
Franks went to and took s. of k. as 
hostage, 1072; invaded, 1296, 1.301, 
1303. 



INDEX. 



15 



Alba — cont, 

kings of : — 

Aedhan, 606. 
Ainfchellach, 719. 
Alexander, 1124 ; (11.) 1215. 
Amlaim, 977. 
Robert Bruce, 1306, 1317. 
Cinaedh, 995, 1005. 
Culen, 971. 
Custantin, 952. 
Domnall, 900; (II.) 1085. 
Donnchad, 1040, 1116; (II.) 1094. 
Dub, 967. 
Etgair, 1106. 
Finnloech, 1020. 
(James I.), 1425. 
(James III.), 1488. 
James Stewart (James IV.), 
visited by O'Donnell, 1495 ; 
hung Mac Donnells, 1499 ; in- 
vaded England ; defeated and 
si. ; body of taken to London, 
1513. 
Lulach, 1058. 

Mac-beathadh (arch-k.), 1058. 
Mael-Coluim, 954 ; Mael-Coluim, 
1029, 1034 ; Mael-Coluim (arch- 
k.), 1093, 1118; (IV.) 1165. 
William, 1214, 1215. 

Mac Donnell of, 1433, 1490, 1532, 

1536 ; Mar in, 1014. 
Men of :— btl. among, 965, 1045 ; de- 
feated, with great slaughter, on bank 
of Tyne, three battalions of Waterford 
Foreigners ; had their rear defeated by 
ambushed battalion ; lost many, but no 
k. or great steward, till night saved 
them, 918 ; defeated by Foreigners, 
952 ; defeated, and worthies of slaugh- 
tered, by Saxons, 1006 ; 1,000, or 100, 
of fell in btl. with Moray, 1130 ; fought 
Saxons and lost, 3, 000, 1054; slaughtered 
with Bruce, 1318 ; slew k. Dub., 967. 

nobles of si. by Balliol, 1332 ; si. 

1488 ; presidency of Columban Order 
taken by counsel of Men of, 989 ; 



Alba — cont, 
prince of, 1425 ; reliquaries of Columba 
taken to by ab. of lona, 829 ; schools of 
poetry of, 1448, 1476, 1502 ; ship from, 
1490 ; town of k. of, 1523 ; woman 
cast ashore on, see Woman cast ashore. 

other references :— 1034, 1218, 1413, 

1451, 1480, 1482, 1523. 

Alband (and Albann), chief of Black 
Gentiles, slew Oistin, Norse k., in 
treachery, 875 ; fell in btl. of Strang- 
ford Lough, 877. 

Alberic, abp. of Armagh, 1240 ; went to 
England, 1242 ; went to Hungary, 
1246. 

Albran, s. of Foidmed, ab. of Trevet, ob., 
Easter Friday, 774. 

Al-Cluathe, see Ail-Cluathe. 

Aldcu, anchorite of Rath-oenbo, ob., 787. 

Aldchu (mk.) of Duleek, ob., 725. 

Alddailedh, f. of Adomnan, 836. 

Aldan ( = Allain), 738. 

Alddan (^Allain), Aedh, 737, 787 ; f. of 
Maelduin, 788. 

Aldfrith the Wise, s. of Oswy (k. of 
Northumbria) ob., 704 ; f. of Osrid, 
716. 

Aldniadh, f. of Curoi, 871. 

Alen, f. of Maelduin, 611. 

Alen-daingen, see Ailen-daingen. 

Alene, f. of Oengus, 779. 

k. of Cremorne and Mughdoirn of 

Bregia, fell in expedition of Congalach 
in Connaught, 955, 

s. of Osene, k. of Cremorne, si. by 

Morgallion, 1019. 

Alexander, s. of Mael-Coluim, k. of Scot- 
land, died in penance, 1124. 

made k. of Scotland, 1215. 

de Villedieu, Doctrinal of, 1209. 

Alia, cave of, see Cave of Alia. 

Allacan, s. of, si. in defeat of Carnearny, 
914. 

Allan, Aedh, 915. 

Allcellach (mk.) of Telach-Olaind, ob. 
771. 



16 



INDEX. 



Allegiance made with N. of I. hy Osso- 
rians and k. of M. at Rahugli Confer- 
ence, 859. 

Allen, Hill of, ^ee Alba, Alnihu, and 
Alniuin. 

Alii [.Ella] (Eadw in, k. of Nortlmmbria), 
s. of, sL, 631. 

k. of N. Saxons, si. in btl. of York 

by Black Foreigners, 867. 

Almhu (=:Almuin, q.v.), btl. of 533. 

Almsgiver, generous, Mael-Muire, 1117. 

Almuin (Hill of Allen, co. Kildarc), btl. 
of, 722. 

Alp, earthquake at, 1118. 

Alpliin, s. of Nechtin, ob. , 093. 

Alpin, Cinaedh Mac, 858, 913. 

Domnall Mac, 862. 

Alpthann, s. of Gothbrith, brought 
Foreign fleet to Annagassan ; defeated 
and si. with great slaughter by 
Muircertach at Cluain-na-cruimther, 
926. 

Alt-na-heillti {Height of the doe : in 
Leitrim), 1256. 

Alt-ruadhin (in Termon-Magrath, co. 
Donegal), 1471. 

Altar of Armagh, see Gold, 8 oz. 

of Patrick, see Gold, 22 oz. 

in Armagh, shrine of 

Peter and Paul dripped blood on, 
1033. 

Alumnus of Armagh, lector of every 
Irish church to be, decreed by Cloenad 
synod, 1162. 

Anaili, ab. of Clonmacnoise, ob., 799. 

A.M. see Mundane Reckonings. 

Amalgaid, in coarbship of Patrick by 
direction of laity and clergy, 1020 ; 
great circuit of Munster by for first 
time, 1021 ; ab. for 29 years, ob., 1049 ; 
f. of Domnall, 1047, 1091, 1092 ; f. of 
Dubcsa, 1078 ; f. of Mael-Lsu, 1064. 

f. of Aengus, 593. 

f . of Cathal, 1035. 

f . of Conaing, 737, 742, 

f . of Finnchadh, 1082. 



Amalgaid. — cont. 

gs. of Conang, si. in btl. of Kells, 

718. 

k. of Conaille, ob. 741. 

k. of Ui-Maine, ob., 791, 

s. of Cathal, k. of West Connaught, 

blinded by Aedh, 1051. 

s. of Congalach, royal-heir of Bregia, 

beheaded by Louth, 909. 

Amand, f. of Paul, 1103. 

Amlaibh, gs. of Imar, razed Lagore 
crannog and, Knowth cave, 935. 

of the sandal, slew some people of 

Ruaidhri, 945 ; led Dublin Foreigners 
in btl. of Slane, 947 ; pillaged Kells, 
970 ; replaced Blacair in Dublin, 
945. 

s. of Sitriuc, i.e., s. of k. of Foreign- 
ers, f. of Dubgilla, si. in massacre of 
Foreigners, 1013. 

Amlaim, f. of Aralt, 999. 

f. of Dubgall, 1014. 

f. of Gofraidh, 963. 

f. of Iron-knee, 983. 

k. of Foreigners, f. of Ragnall, 980. 

f. of Sitriuc, 994, 999, 1018, 1021, 

1035, 1073. 

fort of, at Clondalkin, burned, 867 ; 

pillaged and burned Armagh and its 
oratories, took or slew 1,000, and did 
great damage besides, 869. 

gf. of Sitriuc, 1028. 

gs. of Imar, fell in massacre of 

Foreigners, 896. 

pillaged Old Kilcullen, 938. 

gs. of Maelan, k. of Morgallion, si. 

by Mael-Sechlainn, 1077. 

Norse k., besieged, razed and pil- 
laged Dumbarton, 870. 

s. of Moville ab. , deposed ab. of 

Saul, expelled Saul Canons Regular, in 
revenge, 1170 ; died bp. of Down, 
1175. 

s. of Gothfrith, f. of Camman, 960. 

s. of Illulb (Indulf), k. of Scotland, 

si. by Cinaedh, 977. 



INDEX. 



17 



Amlaim. — conf. 

s. of k. of Lathlann, came to I. ; 

submitted to by Foreigners of I., 

given tribute by Irish, 853. 

s. of Lagmann, Foreigner, fell in 

btl. of Dublin, 1014. 

s. of Mac Senain, k. of Morgallion, 

si. by Brefnians at Slievegorey, 1 1 .30. 
s. of Ragnall, f. of Godfrey, 1075. 

s. of Sitriuc, slew Congalach and 

Muircertach, 97,7 ; k. of Foreigners, made 
captive by, ana paid ransom (g.r. ) to 
Mathgamain, 1029 ; si. by 8axons on 
way to Rome, 1034. 

vv^on btl, of Kilmona, 970. 

Amiaiph, defeated Caittel Finn andGallo- 
way in Munster, 857 ; great hosting by 
into Meath, 859 ; k. of Foreigners, 
aided by k. of Meath, pillaged land 
of Flann, 863 ; drowned Concobar, 
j,-k. of Meath, at Clonard, 864 ; with 
Auisle, and Foreigners of I. and Scot- 
land, went to Pictland, pillaged it all, 
and took away its hostages, 866 ; with 
Imar came again to Dublin from 
Scotland, with 200 ships and very 
many captive Angles, Britons (Welsh) 
and Picts, 871. 

f. of Oistin, 875. 

k. of Norsemen, escaped with a few 

from btl. (of Brunanburh), 937. 
t::; — s. of Gothfrith, again in Dublin, 

938. 
Anastasius, emperor, 491 ; ob., 518. 

pope, ob., 497. 

Anchorite, cell of, 1464. 
Anchorites : — 

Aedh of Bangor, 1610. 
Aedh of Sletty, 700. 
Aedgen Britt of Kildare, 864. 
Ailgal of Cluain-Cormaic, 756. 
Aldchu of Rath-oenbo, 787. 
Ceile, ab. of Bangor, 929. 
Cele, 952. 

Cellach of Armagh, 903. 
Cennfaelad of Trim. 821. 



Anchorites. — cont. 

Cilleine of lona, 752. 

Clothcu of Clonard, 796. 

Colgu, 843. 

Coign, ab. of Cloncurry, 871. 

Colman Finn, 776. 

Comgan of Tallaght, 870. 

Condla of Drumcar, 870. 

Conghus of Clontivrin, 745. 

Cormac, ab. of Dromore, 908. 

Coscrach of Tehelly, 8G7. 

Cuan of Lilcach, 748. 

Cuidghal, 757. 

Cumsuth of Clonard, 858. 

Dathal, 817. 

Diarmait, 825. 

Dimman of Ara, 811, 

Dinertac, 791. 

Dochume of Armagh, 733. 

Docutu of Slane, 838. 

Dodimóc, ab. of Clonard and 

Kildare, 748. 
Donnacan, 843. 
Drostan of Ardbraccan, 719. 
Dublittir of Inishbofin, 736. 
Ecliaid of Armagh, 731. 
Echaidh of Tallaght, 812. 
Euchu of Louth, 822. 
Elarius of Monahincha, 807. 
Feidilmidh of Kilmoone, 814. 
Feidhlimidh, k. M., 847. 
Ferchair,bp.-mk.ofClonkeen,881. 
Fidmhuine Ua Suanaigh of Ra- 

han, 757. 
Flann of Finglas, 812. 
Flann, bp.-mk. of Fore, 930. 
Flaithroa of Monasterboice, 837. 
Forbusach of Lusk, 836. 
Gnia of Duleek, 872. 
Joseph, bp.-ab. of Armagh, 936. 
Joseph of Clones, 840. 
Mael-Cannaigh of Louth, 815. 
Mael-Eoin, bp. of Trim, 931. 
Maelodhor, ab. of Devenish, 870. 
Mochta of Armagh, 893. 
Muirges of Armagh, 862. 
B 



18 



INDEX. 



Anchorite!?. — cont. 

Nindidh, 801. 
Nuadha of Armagh, 812. 
O'Elgiiisain, 1230. 
O'Howen of Inishkeen, 1490. 
Osbran of ClooncrafiF, 752. 
Sechnusach of Lough-Kinn, 823 
Suairlech of Lismore, 783. 
Suibne of Clonmacnoise, 891. 
Siiibne of Lismore, 856. 
Temhnu of Ferrard, 828. 

f<ee also Bishop-anchorites. 

died, 796. 

man\' at Tara assembly of monastic I 

seniors, 780. ! 

Andiaridh, s. of Mael-muire, k. of Tur- 

vey, ob., 903. 
Andola, gf. of Rectabhra, 818. 
Andreae, John, doctor of Canon Law, 

ob., 1348. 
Andrews, apb. of St., si., 1513. 
Anfadhan, ab. of Linn-duachail, ob., 763. 
Anfartach Ua Mescain, slew Fergus, 618. 
Anfith, f. of Fiachna, 886. 

s. of Aedh, k- U., defeated by Aedh 

and Flann, 864 ; defeated and si. b\' 
Louth, 882 : ss. of slew Eochoccan, j.-k. 
U., 883. 
s. of (iairbeth, slew Braen ; quat- 
rain relative thereto, 883. 

s. of Mughran, cliief of Mughdoirn 

of Bregia, si., 883. 
Anfrith (k. of Bcrnicia), si., 632. 

(Enfret), f. of Tolargan, 657. 

Anghaile (Annal}^ co. Longford), chiefs of 
O'Farrell sept," 1318, 1322, 1383, 1488. 
Cetach, 1496. 
Conmac, 1494. 
Domnall, 1400; (IL) 1435; 

(IIL) 1467. 
John, 1377, 1400. 
Rughraidhe, 1496. 
William, 1445; (IL) 1496. 

Mac Egan of, 1487 ; raided, 1376. 

other references : — 137ó, 14.30, 1431, 

1475. 



Angel, Gospel of, 553. 

Angles, came to England, 464 ; brought 

captive to I., 871. 

(Mercians), Offa, k. of, 796. 

Animals, went over frozen lakes and 

rivers, 822 ; lungs of, blood became 

like, round border of Lough Lene, 866 ; 

many marine perished in snow, 1047 ; 

tame and wild, destroj'ed by frost and 

snow, 1111. 
Anion, s. of Concobar, k. of Aidhne, ob., 

810. 
Anluan, f. of Echu, 957. 

gf. of Flaithbertach, 984. 

f. of Muirgis, 744. 

Anmchad, f. of Cinaeth, 790. 

f. ot Fergal, 802. 

s. of Maelcuraich, f. of Fiangalach, 

755. 
Anniere, gs. of Adla, coarb of Ciaran, «. of 

the icriglit (ab. of Clonmacnoise), ob., 948. 
Anna (k. of E. Angles), fought btl., 656. 
Annagassan, see Linn-Duachaill. 
Annals of Ulster, B copy, 1528. 
Annaly, see Anghaile. 
Annie, s. of Cathan, k. of Owncj'beg, sL 

by Foreigners of Waterford, 916. 
Annseman, f. of Maceitigh, 937. 
Annsene, f. of Tipraiti, 931. 
Anointing of Domnall at Donaghmore, 

1105. 
Antiquar}', O'Sgingin, 1364. 
Anthony, St., body of recovered, 531. 
Apple, ripe, size of liail-stonc, 1358. 
Applecross, see Aporcrossan. 
Apples, abundant, 1486. 
Aporcrossan (Applecross, Ross-shirc), 

church of, founded by Maelruba, 673. 

abbots of : — 

Faelbe, 737. 
Maelruba, 722. 

Macoigi (mk.) of, 802. 

Apostolic doctor of all I., 928, 929. 
Apostolic See, 1261. 
April, great snow-fall in, 780. 
Apud = lY\ú\ la, by, 804, 



INDEX. 



19 



Ara (and Ara of Enna : Aranmore Island, 
(ralway Bay), abbots of : — 

Flann (coarb of Enna of Ara), 

1110. 
Gaimdibail, 760. 
Mael-Coluim (coarb of Enna of 
Ara), 1114. 

Enna of, 1110 ; other references, 

1186, 1396. 
Ara-airthir {Ara of the Easf : Inislicer, 
Gal way Bay), in Mimster, 858. 

abbots of : — 

Eicnech, 918. 
Maeltuile, 867. 
Ara (and Aradh, and Aradh-tir : Owney 
and Arra bar., co. Tipperary), Dimman 
of, 811. 

kings of : — 

Ruaidhri, 1014. 
O'Donegans, 1031, 1043. 
Ruaidhri O'Donegan, 1094. 
Arada (Coonagh bar., co. Limerick), 667. 
Aralt, f. of Gofraidh, 989. 

f. of Imar, 1054. 

(Harold) k. of Gevissae Saxons, ob., 

1040. 
s. of Amlaim, si. in defeat of Glen- 
mama, 999. 

s. of Gofraidh, won btl. of Man, 987. 

Aran, Domnall of, 1494. 
Aranmore, see Ara. 

Arascach, ab. of Riagail's island, in Shan- 
non Lough Derg, ob., 748. 
Archaill, Ui-Briuinof (Lower Dungannon 

bar., CO. Tyrone), 1107. 
Archbishops, 71, at Lateran Council, 1215. 
Archdeacon of Clogher, 1541. 

— ■_ Edmond Maguire, 1471. 

Malachy Maguire, 1439. 
Maurice Maguire, 1423. 

great, Conor O'Howen, 1416, 1417, 

1419. 
Archer of Connaught, slew O'Hanlon, 

1243. 
Archu, s. of Mael-Sechlainn, royal-heir 
of Ailech, si. by his sept, 1019. 



Archu. — conf. 

s. of Niall, si. in stratagem b3' ss. of 

Ardgar, 982. 
Ard, of Iveagh (and of Ulidia : Ards bar., 
CO. Down), 703, 1470. 

Bangor in, 824. 

Concobar of, 737. 

hosting to, pillaged of captives and 

cattle, by Flaithbertach, 1012; pillaged 
to East of by Concobar, 1130; raided, 
1540. 

of O'Luinin (and of Muintir-Luinin: 

in Tirkennedy bar., co. Fermanagh), 
1448, 1512, 1540; herenagh of, O'Luinin, 
1396, 1477. 
Ard-abla (Lissardowlin, co. Longford), 

btl. of, 791. 
Ard-achadh (Ardagh) : bishops of : — 
John Mac Eoaigh, 1343. 
Mac Craitli Magairy, 1230. 
Joseph Mag Theichidhain, 1230. 
Mel (founder), 488. 
Miles, 1289. 
O'Farrell, 1367. 
John O'Farrell, 1497. 
Matthew O'Hoey, 1322. 
O'Tormey, 1237. 
[Robert] the Foreign bp., 1224. 

defeat of Ulidians at, 1095; monk 

of, Beochall, 746 ; Mael-Scchlainn, si. 
at, 1087. 

of the Fews, hosting to by Concobar 

(k. I.), 821. 
Ardagh, see Ard-achadh. 
Ard-aidhin (Artane, co. Dublin), 15-34. 
Ard-ailen {High Is/and : of N.W. of Gal- 
way), Gormgal of, 1018. 
Ard bo (in Ardboe par., Longhinsholin 
and Dungannon barr., co. Tyrone), 
burned, 1166 ; herenagh of, Murchadh, 
1103. 
Ardbraccan, see Ard-Breccain. 
Ard-Breccain (Ardbraccan, Meath), ab- 
bots of : — 

Cormac, 782. 
Daniel, 736. 

b2 



20 



INDEX. 



Ardbreccain. — conf. 

Mael-Finnen (coarb of Ultan), 

969. 
Maelfuataigh, 849. 
Mael-Muire, 920. 
Suairlech, 884. 

anchorite of, Drostan, 719 ; bp. of, 

Ailngnadh, 781 ; 200 burned in church 
of 1031 ; church of full of people 
burned, 1115 ; 200 made captive in, 
1031 ; herenagh of, Cormac, 1064 ; 
hosting by Murchadh to, 822 : monk of, 
Tola, 76Ó ; pillaged by (iothfrith, 951 ; 
pillaged, 200 burned in church, 200 
made captive, by Dublin Foreigners, 
1031; pillaged by Sitriuc, 1035. 
Ard-in-caillin (Ardakillin, Killukin par., 

Roscommon bar. and co.), 1388. 
Ard-carna (Ardcarne, Boj'le bar., co. Ros- 
common), 524, 1225, 1229 ; dean of, 
1271 ; herenagh of, 0"Dreain, 1240. 
Ard-cenn (Jiigh-liead), Brann, 795. 
Ard-Ciannachta (Ferrr/rd bar. and N.E. 
part of Ardee-bar., co. Louth), Aedh of, 
698 ; btl. of, 749 ; chief of, Oengus, 
879 ; Clonmore of (in Ferrard bar.), 
828 ; Drumcar of (in Ardee bar), 870. 

kings of : — 

Cellach, 786. 
Cinaedh, 828. 
Cumuscach, 822. 
Donngal, 817. 
Dubhdainbher, 688. 
Muiredach, 779 ; (II.) 855. 
Oeugus, 737. 

Men of, defeated with great loss b}- 

Cumuscach, 822 ; shower of blood in, 
898. 
Ard-Corann (probably in Leinster), btl. of, 

464, 507 or 508, 511, 627. 
Ardee, stt Ath-Fhirdeidh. 
Ard-Eolairg (apparently the northern 
part of Half Coleraine bar., co. London- 
derry), 563. 
Ard-esbi (perhaps in Scotland), marine 
btl. of, 719. 



Ardferta (Ardfert, co. KerrjO, bishops 
of :— [Oilla Maic Aiblen, 1166.] 
Anmchadh, 1117. 
Diarmait (coarb of Brenai n), 1074. 
Ard-glas (Ardglass, co. Do\vn), burned, 

1433. 
Ard-Lathrann, k. of, Colgu, 722. 
Ard-Macha (Armagh), ab. of presided 
over Rathcore assembly, 804. 

abbots of : — 

Ainmiri, 879. 

Airectach, 794. 

Amalgaidh (coarb of Patrick), 

1049, 1078. 
Artri, 833. 
Cathasach, 883. 
Cele-Petair, 758. 
Condmach, 804, 807. 
Cudinaisc, 791. 
Diarmait, 848. 
Domnall (coarb of Patrick), (born) 

1047 ; (made coarb) 1091 ; 1092, 

1094, 1097, 1099, 1102 ; (ob.) 

1105. 
Dubdaleitlii, 793. 
Dubdaleithi (coarb of Patrick), 

965, 973, 989, (coarb of Patrick 

and Columba ; ob.) 998. 
Dubdaleithi, 1049, 1055, 1060; 

ob., 1064. 
Dubtach or Duach, 548. 
Eocho, 598. 
Eogan of Monasterboice, 827, 

831, 834. 
Feidilmidh Finn, 578. 
Ferdacrich, 768. 
Flann Febla, 715. 
Faindelach, 793, 795. 
Forindan, 836, 845, 846. 
Gormgal, 793, 799, 806. 
Mac Laisrc, 623. 
Mael-Brighte, 927. 
Maelcoba, 879, 888. 
Mael-Isu, 1064, 1068, 1091, (coarb 

of Patrick) 1095. 
Mael-Muire, :006, 1042. 



INDEX. 



^l 



Ard-Macha. — cont. 

Mael-Patraic, 93G. 

Muirecan (coarb of Patrick), 
993, 1005. 

Muiredach, 965, (coarb of Pat- 
rick), 966. 

Gilla-Patraic 0' Donnelly, 1540. 

Senacli, ob., 610. 

Son of Loingsech, 826. 

Suibne, 830. 

Toichtech, 809. 

Torbach, 808. 
bishop-abbots of, Joseph, 936. 

Nuadha, 811, 812. 
future abbots of : — 

Aedh, 1108. 

Flaunacan, 1113. 
vice-abbots of : — 

Cathusach, 897. 

Cennfaelad, 931. 

Gilla-patraic, 1052. 

Maeltuile,945. 

Muiredhach,863: (2)924; (3)983. 

Gilla-Patraic O'Callaghan, 1089. 

Motadan O'Callaghan, 1063. 

Son of Gilla-Digde O'Lorcan, 
1079. 

Trenfer, 1002. 

change of abbots in, see Abbots, 

change of, in Armagh. 

■ alumnus of, see Alumnus of Armagh. 

anchorites of: — 

Dochume Bolggan, 733. 

Echaid, 731. 

Joseph (bp.-ab.), 936. 

Muirges, 862. 

Nnadha, (bp.-ab.), 812. 
bishop-anchorites of : — 

Cellach, 903. 

Mochta, 893. 
archbishops of : — 

Alberic, 1240, 1242, 1246. 

Cellach (coarb of Patrick), 1080, 
1103, 1105, 1106, 1107, 1108, 



1109, 1110, 
1120, 1125. 



11, 1116, 1118, 



Ard-Macha. — conf. 

(Fitz Ralph) primate of, 1360. 
Echdonn Mac Gillc-uidhir, 1207, 
1216, (coarb of Patrick), 1220. 
Gilla Mac Liach (coarb of 

Patrick), 1162, 1172. 
Nicholas Mac Mail-Isu, 1293. 

1303. 
David i^Iageraghty, 1346. 
John Mey (coarb of Patrick), 

1455. 
Mael-Isu O'CarrolI, 1184. 
Abraham O'Conallan, 1257,1258, 

1260. 
Tomaltach O'Conor (coarb of 

Patrick), 1181, 1184, 1201. 
Mael-Padraig O'Scannell, 1262, 

1264, 1265, 1266, 1270. 
Raighned, 1247, 1248, 1251, 1256. 
Octavian de Spinellis, 1486, 1513. 
Ua Carain, 1180. 

vicar of abp. of, 1253. 

bp. of Derry elected abp. of, 1246. 

archiepiscopal court of, 1266. 

attacked, 1539. 

belfry-cover of blown off, 1121 ; 

Btll of Testament given to, 553 ; 
(church) bells of burned, 1074. 

bishops of : — 

AiHll. 526. 

Ailill (second). 536. 

Artri, 823, 825. 

Carlaen, 588. 

Cathusach (coarb of Patrick), 957. 

Congus, 750. 

Cormac, 497. 

David, 553. 

Dubthach, 513. 

Fethgna (coarb of), 874. 

larlathi, third bp. of, 481. 

Mael-Ciarain, 915. 

Mael-Muire, 963. 

Muiredach, 960. 

bp. -suffragans of : — Amlaim O'Mur- 

ray, 1185. 

Caincomrac O'Boyle, 1099, 1106. 



n 



INDEX. 



Ard-Macha. — cont. 

bishop-monks of : — 

Atiiath, 794. 

Cathusach, 9(36. 

Mael-Muire, 994. 

Mael-Patraic, 1096. 

Maeltuile, 1032. 

Mael-Coluim, O'Brolcliain, 1107, 

1122. 
Segene, 688. 
8uibhne, 730 
Tommene, 661. 
Aedh Ua Forreidli, 1032. 

brawl at, 789, 986 ; great brawl at 

on Pentecost, 781 ; brawl, with homi- 
cide, at on Pentecost, 819 ; brawl, 
with great loss of life, between Cenel- 
Eogain and Ulidians at on Pentecost, 
893. 

burned, 672, 690, 775, 783 ; burned, 

with oratories and cathedral, 840 ; part 
of burned, 1164; much of burned, 1179; 
700 carried captive from by Dul)lin 
Foreigners, 895. 

canon choral of, 1498. 

Cell-na-conraire in Plain of, 1103. 

Cellach absent 13 months from ; 

church of Paul and Peter of consecrated 
by Cellach, 1126; cemetery of Friars 
Minor of, 1266 ; cemetery of kk. of, 
935 ; chaplain of Brigit's church in, 
Gormgal, 1085 ; chariot of abbots of 
burned by lightning, 1020 ; Columba's 
church at, 1011 ; Patrick's church at,- 
1266 ; church of relics and 100 houses 
burned at, 1090; stone church of, 1125; 
S. church of, 1196; churches of burned, 
1074; Close of burned, 1074; Close and 
its church burned, 1092, 1112; Close 
and its churches burned, 1166; great 
part of Close burned, 1196 ; W. half of 
Close burned, 1091; Close and Third = 
all Armagh, 1074; colic-plague in, 1012; 
community of Friars Minor of, 1495 ; 
royal conference (between k. I. and k.U.) 
at, 851 ; confessor of, Cennfaelad, 1012. 



Ard-Macha. — cont. 

Uomnall died at, 980 ; Domnall's 

body brought to from Duleek, 1 105 ; 
Donnchad set free in church of, 1101 ; 
Dubthach died at, 1065 ; Dun-droma 
close to, 1007. 

all sacred edifices and church-groves 

of burned by lightning, 996. 

family of defeated, and very many 

made captive, by Gentiles, 831 ; Fort 
of, many houses burned in through 
carelessness, 912. 

founded, 444. 

8 oz. of gold put on altar of, and 

160 cows promised to, by Muircertach 
O'Brien, 1103. 

S. half of, with Toi, Saball, kitchen, 

and abbot's house, all burned by light- 
ning Ap. 27, 916 ; half of burned, 998 ; 
head of O'Gormley taken to, 1160 ; 
herenagh of, Artri, 818. 

deput^'-herenaghs of: — 

Aedh, 1108. 
Conaing, 1061. 
Flannacan, 1069. 
Mael-Brighte, 1070. 

vice-herenagh of, Muiredach, 1039. 

homicide at doorway of stone ora- 
tory of, 789 ; b}' the Ui-Cremthaimi, 
793 ; man si. before door of house of 
Aedh (k. I.) at, 870 ; O'Conor's hosting 
at, 1167 ; house of abbots burned by 
lightning, 916 ; great house of abbots 
and 20 houses around burned, 1116. 

■ Lachtnan died in, 1022 ; Laidgnen 

si. in, 988 ; leaguer against, 1103. 

Lectors of : — 

Bresal, 899. 

Dubdaleithi, 1049. 

Duncliad, 1040. 

Mael-Michil Mac Doithechain, 

1167. 
Mael-Brighte, 1012. 
Mael-Patraic, 953. 
Mael-Petair, 1042. 
Mochta (bp. -anchorite), 879. 



INDEX. 



23 



Ard-Macha. —cont. 

Mocnach, 950. 

Muiredach, 984; (2) 1011. 

(TÍlla-Crist Ua Clothecain, 1071. 

Colman Ua Cricliaiii, 10o8. 

Mael-Patraic Ua Driicain, 1107. 

bishop-lector of, Aedli Ua Forrcidh 

(bp.-mk.), 1056. 
chief lectors of : — 

Mael-Patraic Ua Bileoce, 1046. 

Ua Brolaigh, 1188. 

Aedh Ua Forreidh (bp.-nik.), 
1049, 1056. 

Mughron Ua Morghair, 1102. 

lectorship of, 1046. 

Magh-dumai near, 860 ; Ardgar bu- 
ried ill mausoleum of kk. at, 1064. 
monastery of Friars of, 1433 ; mon- 
astery of Peter and Paul at, 1174, 1204, 
1255, 1264 ; Muircertach si. at, 1047 ; 
O'Loughlin (k. I.) buried at, 1166. 

Official of, 1268; chief ollam of, 

Macbeathad, 1041; O'Loughlin (k. I.) 
there, 1165 ; oratory of broken down by 
Dublin Foreigners ; quatrain relative 
thereto, 895 ; oratory of, 1009. 

part of burned, 1 189 ; part of burned; 

Plain and S. church of, 1196; Patrick's 
altar at, seeAltar of Patrick ; Pentecost 
without celebration, without elevation of 
shrine (of Patrick) at, 819; persecutors 
of, 1080 ; dying in pilgrimage at, 1004, 
1030, 1043, 1063, 1073, 1103; going on 
pilgrimage to, 1138 ; Plain of, 1432, 
1433 ; pillaged, 793 ; pillaged first time 
thrice in a month by Gentiles, 832; pil- 
laged by Magheralin Foreigners, 852 ; 
pillaged, burned, with its oratories, 1 ,000 
made captive or si. and much damaged 
besides, by Amhlaim, 869 ; pillaged by 
Flann (k. I.), 882 ; pillaged by Dublin 
Foreigners under Iron-knee ; 710 carried 
captive ; quatrain relative thereto, 895 ; 
pillaged, except oratories, Culdees, sick 
and church enclosure, by Dublin 
Foreigners, 921 ; pillaged by Foreign- 



Ard-Macha. — cont. 

ers, 943 ; head of poor of, Colcu, 1077 ; 
lines respecting prices at, 1030. 

priests of : — 

Cernach, 831. 
Doilgeii, 1053. 
Dublitir, 923. 
(iilla-Crist, 1028. 
Gilla-Crone, 1081. 
Mael-Michil (lector), 1167. 
Mochta, 924, 
Scolaighi, 1012. 
primate of (Fitz Ralph), 1360 ; pro- 
fanation of, by slaying s. of ab. of, 
avenged by slaying the slayer in, 1038. 

relics of Peter, Paul and Patrick 

carried from, 734; relics of, swearing 
by, 1101. 

sages of : — 

Cernach (priest), 831. 
Ferdomnach, 846. 
Joseph (bp.-ab.), 936. 

school at, 1462. 

scribes of : — 

Cernach (priest), 831. 
Colman Uamach, 725. 
Ferdomnach, 732. 
Ferdomnach (sage), 846. 
Mochta (bp. -anchorite), 893. 
Torbach (ab.), 808. 
seat of abbots of, burned by lightn- 
ing, 823. 

stewards of : — 

Cumuscach, 817. 
Cumuscach, 909. 
Echu, 796. 
Ferrdalach, 838. 
Flann, 869. 
Maelduin,810. 
Muiredach, 842. 

street of Great Third, and street of 

Saxon Third burned, 1092 ; seven streets 
of Great Third burned, 1112 ; two 
streets of Masan-TIiird burned, 1112, 
1 121 ; four streets of burned , 1 166 ; chief 
of students of, 1042 ; iSuibhne of, 719. 



24 



IXDEX, 



Ard-Macha. — cont. 

Third, Close and — all Armagh, 107-4 ; 

Great Third of, 1009, 1170, 1173. 

new tomb at, ■■<ee Tomb, new. 

valuables of churches of burned, 

1432. 

other references : — 1188, 1252, 1450, 

1494, 1505. 
Ard-Maic-Rime (probably in Connaught), 

btl. of, 792. 
Ard (-Magilligan, CO. Londonderry), 1189, 

1441. 
Armagh, see Ard-Macha. 
Ard-Midhair (Ardmire, a district in 
Raphoe bar., co. Donegal) chief of, 
1252, 1292; chiefs of (O'Domiells), 
1342, 1359; chief of (0"Dogherty), 
1413. 
Ardmire, see Ard-Midhair. 
Ard-Monain (near Ardee, co. Louth), 

defeat of, 1075. 
Ardneeskan, see Ard-Xoiscan. 
Ard-Noiscan (Ardneeskan, co. Sligo), btl. 

of, 754. 
Ard-Patraic (Ardpatrick, co. Limerick), 

Cellach, died at, 1129. 
Ardpatrick, see Ard-Patraic. 
Ardnaree, see Ard-na-riag. 
Ard-na-riag (Ardnaree, Tireragh bar., 

CO. Sligo), 1512. 
Ard-Sendaim, btl. of, 596. 
Ard-sratha (Ardstraw, co. T^Tone), abbots 
of :— 

Mael-Patraic, 923. 
Moenghal, 852. 
Oengus, 881. 

v.-ab. of, Mael-Muire, 1179. 

bishops of : — 

Coibdenach, 707. 
Maelfothartaigh, 680. 

. bridge of, 1514; burned, 1069; 1095; 

church of, 1199; church of burned, 
1095 ; church of burned b}' (^len) of) 
Craib, 1099 ; church and reliquaries of, 
1179 ; church of burned and profaned 
by Muircertach and S. of I,, 1101. 



Ard-sratha. — cont . 

herenaghs of : — 

Dolghen, 1064. 
Gilla-Doranaigh, 1179. 
Mael-Brighte, 1127. 

k. of, Ua Aedha, 1069. 

Ui-Fiachrach of, 1069, 1076, 1102, 

1118, 1129, 1193 ; wasted, 1179. 

other reference, 1197. 

Ard-Trea (Artrea par., Dungannon bar., 

CO Tyrone and Longhiusholin bar., co. 

Londonderry), herenagh of, ]SIael- 

Brighte, 1127. 

Ard-Ua-Cinnfaelad ( = Ard-Ciannachta ?), 

k. of, Ailill, 749. 
Ard-Uilinne (in Innishowen), 764. 
Ardgal, s. of Conall Cremthainn, si, 520, 

or 524. 
Ardgar, f. of Eochaid, 989 ; f. of Dub- 
tuinne and Eochaid, 1004. 

s. of Madadhan, f. of Gilla-Comgaill 

and Maelruanaidh, 1006. 
Ardstraw, ^ee Ard-sratha. 
Aricul-Dosenchiaroicc {alias of Airecul- 

Dochiaroic q.v.), ab. of, Cellach, 838. 
ArmaJa of 140 ships of Foreigners came 
to subdue Foreigners in I., and dis- 
tiu'bed I., 849. 
Armarium, shrine, 811. 
Armenia, k. of, defeated Saracens, 1299. 
Armour, suits of, 1498, 1499. 
Armo}', see Airther-Maighe. 
Army of Barid, almost all lost in naval 
btl. of Isle of Man, 914. 

Foreign, defeated ; half of rescued, 

after being beset for week near Anna- 
gassan, by Gothbrith, 926. 

of Leinstermen with Muiredach 

wasted to Sliab-Monduirnn, 875. 

of N. of I., led b}- Niall against ss. 

of Flann (k. I.), 915. 

Ulidian, slaughtered in btl. of Crew 

Mount, 1004. 
Arna (Arnej' river, co. Fermanagh), 1475. 
Arrow, fiery, 6ee Fiery arrow. 
Art, herenagh of Mungret, ob., 1028. 



J 



INDEX. 



25 



Art. — coiit. 

s. of Dicirmait, k. of Teffia, si. in 

treachery, 826. 

s. of Flaithniadh, k. of Aidhiie, si, 772. 

Artablar, s. of, fell in btl. against Orkneys, 
709. 

Artagan, ab. of Cork, ob. 899. 

Artan, f. of Muircertach, 1012. 

royal heir of Iveagh, fell in defeat of 

Loughbrickland, 1005. 

Artbran, gs. of Cellach, fell in btl. of 
Druim-robaigh, 758. 

s. of Maelduin, ob. 716. 

Artane, vee Ard-aidhin. 

Artgal, ab. of Clogher, ob. 770. 

f. of Cniaedh, 792. 

f. of Connlae, 800. 

f. of Dubinnrecht, 799. 

k. of Strathclyde Britons, si. by 

counsel of Conbtantine (k. of iScots),872. 

(k. C.) s. of Cathal, massacred Ui- 

Maine in Magh-Dairben, 778 ; took 
pilgrim's staff, 782 ; made pilgrimage 
to lona, 783 ; ob. in lona, 791. 

s. of Cathusach, k. of Inch Island, 

si, 803. 

s. of Cathusach, k. of Ui-Cruinn of 

Oriors, si, 807. 

Artgar, s. of Matudhan, k. U., led hosting 
and destroyed Connor, massacring and 
beheading ; fell in btl. of Kilmona, 970. 

Artgus, f. of Tuathal, 865. 

Artrach, s. of Cathal, made k. M., 793. 

Artrea, see Ard-Trea. 

Artri, f. of Cathal, 816. 

f. of Cinaedh, 832. 

f. of Donne] ochair, 804. 

f. of Maelfothartaich, 791. 

f. of 8uibne, 834. 

herenagh of Armagh, went to Con- 
naught with shrine of Patrick, 818. 

s. of Ailill, k. of Cremorne, ob., 802. 

s. of Aitechde, k. of Ui-Cremthainn, 

si, 742. 

s. of Concobar, bp. of Armagh, pro- 
mulgated Law of Patrick over Munster, 



Artri. — conf, 

823 ; over Connaught, 825 ; outraged 
Eogan in Armagh, 827 ; ob., 833. 

s. of Faelan, si, 794. 

s. of Muirghes, k. of Teffia, si, 82(). 

Arttagan, s. of Domnall, si in treachery 
by Ruarc, s. of Bran, 843. 

Atuir, s. of Muiredach, k. of Kildare W. 
of Liifey, ob., 847- 

Ascall, s. of Torcall, k.of Dublin, si, 1171. 

A.^hts, Defeat of, 1171. 

Assal (N. of Kells, Meath), 714. 

Assembly, f<ee Tara, Assembly of. 

of Carman held by Donnchad, 1033. 

of Ciannachta disturbed by Donn- 
chad, 777. 

of Colman, S. Leinstermen dispersed 

in by Muiredhach (k. I.), 827. 

of Concobar, Ulidian nobles came 

into, 1130. 

disturbed by Donnchad (k. L ), 774. 

of Foreigners, 1023. 

of men of I., at Killarvey, 1161. 

of monastic seniors of Ui-Neill, and 

Leinster, at Tara, 780. 

of monastic seniors of Ui-Neill, in 

Rathcore, 804. 

of Domnall O'Kelly, 1026. 

of Oristown, 789. 

of Teltown prevented by family of 

Tallaght, because of violation of their 
right of asylum by Ui-Neill, 811 ; 
Gailenga dispersed in by Concobar (k.L), 
827 ; disturbed, 831 ; not held, without 
just cause — a thing unprecedented, 873 ; 
not held, without just cause, 876, 878, 
888, 889 ; held after many years, 916 ; 
disturbed without bloodshed, 927 ; 
renewed by Mael-Sechnaill ; Fer- 
domnach put in presidency of Columban 
Order by counsel of Men of I. in, 1007. 

tribal, 1181. 

Assid, f. of Mael-Martin, 1055. 

Associates of Conang, s. of Fland, slew 
Aedh, s. of Dunchad, in his presence, 
841. 



26 



INDEX. 



Associates, the folloAviiig were slain by 
their respective : — 

Ciiiad, k. of Picts, 878 ; Domimll, 
884; Fiachna, 886; Finn- 
guine, k. of Cashel, by strata- 
gem, 902 ; Mael-Mocherghi, 
896 ; Mael - Patraicc, 885 ; 
Tigernach, 887 ; Uathmaran, 
by stratagem, 897. 
Assumption of pilgrim's staff, by Artgal, 
k. C, 782; by Dunchadh, k. of Ui- 
Maine, 784. 
Asylum, violator of right of cursed, 1162; 
right of violated and eric therefor, 1413. 
Assylyn, see Es-mic-nEric. 
Atedh, gf. of Aedh, 968. 
Ath-abla (Ballyhooly, co Cork ?), btl. of, 

632. 
Athbo (in Connaught), Torlogli O'Conor 

attacked and injured at, lllo. 
Athboy, -see Ath-buidhe. 
Ath-na-boirne (in Cavan), 1486. 
Ath-buidhe (Athboy, Meath), 1504. 
Ath-in-chairtinn {foixl of quicken tree: 
perhaps on Erkin river, near Durrow, 
Queen's co.), hosting to, and stay of 
three months at, by Brian, 1013. 
Ath-na-caisberna (near Ardee), btl. of, 

1159. 
Ath-in-chip {ford of the beam: near Car- 
rick-on- IS hannon, CO. Leitrim), 1270. 
Ath-cliath (Dublin city), Amhlaiijh and 
Imar came from Scotland to, 871 ; abp. 
of Foreigners of, Dunan, 1074 ; abp. 
of (Allen), murdered, 1534 ; fiery arrow 
at, 961. 

bishops of : 

Cellach, 1121. 
Donngus, 1095. 
Gilla-Patraic, 1084. 
Grene, 1162. 
Samuel, 1121. 

left by Blacair, 945 ; Bran lilinded 

in, 1018. 

devastation from to MuUaghmast, 

938; Diarmait buried in, 1071); Doni- 



Ath-cliath. — cont. 

nail went to, to make peace between 
Muircertach and Domnall, and fell ill 
at, 1105; entered and pillaged by 
Brian, 999; fleet of 1100. 

Foreigners of : — encamped at Cluain- 

andobuir, pillaged and took 710 captives 
from Armagh, 895 ; fort of Gentiles 
expelled from, 902 ; pillaged Armagh 
and surrounding country, 921 ; pillaged 
Clonmacnoise, 936, 946 ; pillaged Old 
Kilcullen, 939 ; burned belfry, patron's 
crozier, bell and lector of Slane, 950 ; 
great leprosy and bloody tlux on, 951 ; 
again in, 1000 ; slew Flann, 1013 ; de- 
feated at sea, 1022 ; slaughtered by 
Munster Iveagh, 1088 ; other refer- 
ences to, 893, 930, 942, 946, 947, 951, 
956, 978, 980, 995, 999, 1031, 1064, 1103, 
1115, 1162, 1164, 1165, 1171, 1358, 1431, 
1457. 
fort of, 1172 ; Gentiles of, 942 ; ad- 
vent of Black Gentiles to, 851 ; Goith- 
brith came to, 921, Green of, 1171, 
1356. 

Hemy II, came to, 1171 ; hosting 

against Foreigners of, 938 ; hosting to, 
and defeat of Foreigners at (Clontarf), 
by Brian and Mael-Sechlainn, 1014 ; 
hosting by Muircertach to, 1094 ; host- 
ing of Torlogh Q- Conor against 
Foreigners of, 1118; Justiciary of, 1356. 
kings of : — 

Ascall, 1171. 

Brodur, 1160. 

Diarmaid, 1052, 

Domnall, 1075. 

Echmarcach, 1052. 

Geottrey, 1094, 1095. 

Godfi'ey, 1075. 

Sitriuc, 1021. 

Sitriuc, 1073. 

Leinster pillaged from to Gowran by 

Aedh (k. I.), 870; Leinster pillaged 
from Slievemargy to, by Brian, 1013 ; 
massacre of Leinstcrmen at, 770 ; 



INDEX. 



27 



Ath-cliath — conf. 

O'Conor at, 11G6; O'Conor at, fort 
of burned by lightning, taken, and 
Foreigners of massacred and expelled 
by MacMurrough, 1170 ; pillaged, 944; 
Ragncdl si. in, 1035 ; raid by Torlogh 
to, 1128; royal progress to and king- 
ship of given to his s. by Torlogh, 
1126; Sitriuc, gs. of Imar, came to 
(from Confey, co. Kildare), 917 ; left 
by Sitriuc, 920 ; Sitriuc expelled from, 
994 ; synod of, 1202 ; town of, 1503. 

other references :— 924, 926, 938, 

960, 1117, 1218, 1306, 1368, 1369, 1412, 
1457, 1473, 1487, 1495, 1513, 1516, 
1525, 1532. 8ee also Dub-linn. 
Ath-in-coleir {Quarry-forcl\, near Monag- 

han [town], defeat of, 1501. 
Ath-in-Chomair, defeat of, 1168. 
Ath-na-croise, in Corran (bar., co. Sligo), 

defeat of O'Rourke at, 1024. 
Ath-cruithne (near Annagassan,co. Louth) 

Foreign army beset at for week, 926. 
Ath-cuma-ind-seisir, read athcumai ind 
seisir — III cutting off {slaying) the six 
(persons named), 627. 
Ath-da-ferta, in Magh-Conailie, death of 

Aedh (k. I.) near, 819. 
Ath-da-larc (near Boyle town), monastery 

of, 1197. 
Ath-da-loarc {Ford of two forks : on Black- 
water, near Kells), defeat of Morgal- 
lion and Gailenga-becca at, 939. 
Ath-dara (on river Barrow, co. Kildare), 

btl. of, 458, or 459 ; 461. 

Ath na-dairbrighe (Killarvey, Lower 

Slanebar. , Meath), assembly of Men 

of L at, 1161. 

Ath-na-darach-caime {Ford of the crooked 

Oak : old name of Ath-na-fadbcun, q.v). 

Ath-diLma{Ford of Mound : inUlidia) btl. 

of 761, 776. 
Athenry, see Ath-na-righ. 
Ath-Ergail, near Clogher, btl. of, 1080. 
Ath-escrach-Cuan (Ahascragh, co. Gal- 
way), 1307. 



Ath-na-fadbcun {Ford of the Falcons, 
ordnance so called : • jNIount Falcon, 
Lower Ormond bar., co. Tipperary), 
defeat of, 1532. 

Ath-fen( probably in co. Roscommon), btl. 
of, 796. 

Ath-Fhirdeidh (Ardee, co. Louth), 1540; 
btl. near, 1159 ; defeat of Tigernan by 
Farney at, 1128 ; hosting of ^. of I. to, 
1075. 

Ath-foithle (Athol, Perth), k. of, Talor- 
gan, 739. 

Athleague, see Ath-liag. 

Ath-lethan (Ballylahan, Gallen bar. , co. 
Mayo), 1316, 1317 ; defeat of, 1470 ; 14 
si. at, 1317 ; town of, 1394. 

Ath-liag (Athleague, co. Roscommon), 
castle of, 1271, 1499. 

Ath-lighen (in Clanrickard), btl. of, 1419. 

Athlone, see Ath-luain. 

Ath-luain (Athlone), caslle of, 1129, 1337, 
1381 ; causeway of made by Mael- 
Sechlainn and Cathal, 1001 ; hosting 
by Brian to, 1002 ; Domnall's hosting 
passed, 1114 ; hosting of Domnall to, 
1120 ; passed by O'Conor's host, 1168 ; 
synod of Connaught at, 1202; wood 
of, 1225 ; other references, 1175, 1368, 
1374, 1433, 1512. 

Athol. see Ath-foithle. 

Ath-omna, mk. of, Abel, 754. 

Ath-orc (in Leinster), btl. of, 770. 

Ath-na-pucan (near Castlcfiini, co. Done- 
gal), 1522. 

Ath-na-riadh, defeat of, 1486. 

Ath-na-righ (Athenry, co. Galway), 1316, 
1375 ; btl. of, 1249. 

Ath-rois (in co. Sligo), btl. of, 790. 

Ath-Senaigh (Ballyshannon, co. Done- 
gal), castle of, 1423, 1435, 1490, 
1496. 

See also Bel-atha-Senaigh. 

(Ballyshannon, co. Kildare), btl. of, 

738. 

Ath-sigho (on the Boyne), btl. of, 528, 
533. 



28 



INDEX. 



Ath-slisen (Bellaslishen, on r. Uair. near 
Elphin, CO. Roscommon), 1288, 1309. 

Set a/io Bel-atha-slisen. 

Ath-truim (Trim, Meath), abbot of, 1466, 
1488 ; abbots of :— 
Cellach, 838. 
Coirpri, 846. 
fSuibhne, 796. 

bp.-ab. of, Cennfaelad, 821. 

anchorite of, Cennfaelad (bp.-ab.), 

821 

bp.-anchorite of, Mael-Eoin, 931. 

burned, 784 ; burned, with its 

churches and persons in them, by 
Concobar O'Loughlin, 1128 ; burned 
by lightning, 1506. 

herenaghs of : — 

Domnall, 1059. 
Flann, 1100. 

monk of, Cormac, 746. 

scribe of, Cennfaelad (bp.-ab.), 821 ; 

other references, 1412, 1447, 1538. 

Ath-Truisten {Ford ofTruUtii : on Greese 
r., near Mullaghmast, co. Kildare), 
devastation from Dublin to, 938, 

Athelstan, k. of iSaxons, ob., 939. 

Attack by night on camp of Cenel-Eogain, 
1102. 

Anen ( = Hoan, q.v.), f. of Domnall, 694. 

Au-inis (Au-island), deserted, 750. 

Aughaire, f. of Tuathal, 958. 

k. L., s. of Ailill, si. in btl. of Con- 
fey, 917. 

Aughrim, .see Ech-druim. 

Aughris, 6ee Ech-ros. 

Augran, s. of Cennetigh, k. of Leix, si. in 
btJ. of Confey, 917. 

Augustine, ab. of Lisgool, ob., 1329. 

(mk.) of Bangor, ob., 780. 

arch-priest of lona, one of those sent 

to offer abbacy to Flaithbertach, 1164. 

St., ob., 440. 

(St.), came to Eugland, 598. 

Augustus of N.W. of Europe, Brian, 1014 ; 
Muircertach O'Loughlin, 1166; Aedh, 
O'Donnell the Red, 1505. 



Auisle, third k. of Foreigners, was with 
Amhlaim in pillaging land of Flann, 
863 : went with Amlaiph to Pictland, 
866 ; si. by his bb. in guile and "parri- 
cide," 867. 

Auliun, s. of Crop, besieged, 742. 

Aurchath, s. of Murchadh, k. of West 
Connaught, ob., 945. 

Aurthuile, gs. of Crunnmael (k, of Cenel- 
Eogaiu), dethroned and went to Bri- 
tain, 700. 

Aurthule, sons of, si., 676. 

Ausle, s. of, si. by (Otir) s. of lercne and 
(Muirgel) d. of Mael-Sechnaill, 883. 

Authorization, Imperial, 1385. 

Autumn, abundance in, 879 ; comet dur- 
ing fortnight in, 1018 ; fruitful, 1010 ; 
bright night in, 714 ; rainy and most 
destructive to crops, 858. 

Auxilius, sent to Ireland, 439 ; ob , 459. 

Award, full, of community and coarb of 
Patrick given by k. of Ossory in 
Rahugh conference, 859 ; his own, 
given to O'Neill, 1222. 

Axes, 1,500, engaged by O'Donnell in 
Lower Connaught, Tyrconnell and 
Fermanagh, 1512. 

B. 

Babylon, Sultan of, defeated, 1299. 

Baccach, a plague in I., 709. 

Bachaill, s. of Tuathal, ob., 791. 

Bachall {[pi i grim'. s] •s7'aj/'=: pilgrimage), of 
Becc of Bairche, 707 ; of Artgal, k. C, 
782 : of Flann, k. of Ui-Maine, 784. 

Bachall-Iau {staff {=crozitr) of Jesus), ^vo- 
faned, 789, 1166; protection of violated, 
1073, 1157, 1166 ; punishment therefor, 
1015 ; swearing by, 1101 ; with Cellach 
in making peace between Domnall and 
Muircertach, 1113; reparation to, 1167; 
burned by Saxons, 1538. See also 
Crozier of Patrick. 

Baeth, f. of Daithgus, 732. 

f. of Ectgal, 788. 



INDEX. 



29 



Baeth,,— coní. 

f. of Ectghus, 777. 

f. of Uarcridhe, 770. 

Baethal Bile, slew Aedh Roin, 604, 
Baethallacli, s. of Colmaii, ob., 756. 
Baetan, ab. of Inishbofin, ob., 713. 

family of si., 620. 

f. of Ailill, 620 ; (2) 679. 

f. of Fergus, 620. 

f. of Fiachna, 597, 602, 623. 

f. of Fiaclira, 573. 

f. of Fiachra Blind-eye, 608. 

f. of Maeluma, 610. 

f. of Ronari, 632. 

gs. of, ab. of lona, si., 1070. 

Mac-Ui-Cormaic, ab. of Clonmac- 

noise, ob., 664. 

(mk.) of Cloontuskert, ob., 809. 

(St.), Clonfad of, 799. 

s. of Cairell, k. U., ob., 581, or 587; 

f. of Fiachna, 594 ; ss. of si., 606. 

s. of Cenn, defeated (Irish) Picts,563. 

s. of Muirchertach, si , 572. 

s. of Ninnidh, sL, 586. 

Brigi, s. of Muirchertach, Mac 

Erca, f. of Colman Rimidh, 604. 
Baethbannach, f. of Laidhggen, 661. 
Baethbetri, f. of Bran, 751. 
Baile-atha-thid (Malahide, co. Dublin), 

1375. 
Baile-na-bathlach (in Kilberry par., co. 

Kildare), castle of, 1493. 
Baile-na-braghat (Braid, Omagh bar., co. 

Tyrone), 1526. 
Baile-an- britaigh (Ballybritt, King's co.), 

castle of, 1452. 
Baile-in-clair (Clare-Galway), burned 

1469. 
Baile-in-chuillin (Ballinkillin, Boyle bar., 

CO Roscommon), 1482. 
Baile-dalat, William of, 1374. 
Baile-in-duin (Ballindoon, Tirerrill bar. , 

CO. Sligo), razed, 1352. 
Baile-an-garrgha (Ballingarry of Con- 

nelloe bar., co. Limerick), burned, 

1513. 



Baile-an-garrgha (Ballingarry, Lower 

Ormond bar., co. Tipperary), burned, 

1532. 
Baile-na-gedh (in Rathconrath bar., W. 

Meath), 1496. 
Baile-Meg-Samhradhain (Ballymagauran, 

CO. Cavan), burned, 1431, 1439 
Baile-in-muta (Ballymote, co. Sligo), 

razed, 1348; castle of, 1476; Mac 

Donough of, 1516. 
Bailc-na-scrine (Ballynascreen, co. Lon- 

derry), 1497. 
Baile-tobair-Brighde (Ballintober, co. 

Roscommon), 1311, 1347; castle of, 

1375, 1393. 
Baile-Ui-Bogain (Ballyboggan, Meath), 

Holy Cross of, 1538. 
Baile-Ui-Grada (probably in Fermanagh), 

1418. 
Baile-na-huama (Cavetown, Boyle bar., 

CO. Roscommon), 1512, 1527. 
Baili, Becc-, 749. 
Bairche (Mourne bar., co. Down), 601, 

611, 674, 679; given to O'Carroll, 1165 ; 

Becc of, ate Beec of Bairch ; Goll of, 

1109; Tigernachof, 1061, 1098; whale 

cast ashore in, 753. 
Bairenn (Burren r., co. Carlow),btl.of,727. 
Baislicc (Baslick, co. Roscommon), abbots 

of: — Cormac, 805; Fiachra, 764; pil- 
laged by Gentiles, 846. 
Baithecde, s. of Blathmacc, f. of Oitechde, 

730. 
Baithenach, gf. of Tipraiti, 851. 
Baithene, coarb of Brenan (ab. ) of Birr, 

ob., 928. 
Baitheni, ab. of lona, ob., 598. 
Balb {deaf\ Aedh, 742. 
Balinclare, see Bel-in-clair. 
Balla (and Balne : Balla, co. Mayo), ab. 

of (coarb of Mochua), 1246 ; burned 

780 ; mk. of, Cronan, 694. 
Ballaghboy, nee Belach-buidhe. 
Ballaghcommon, see Belach-an-camain. 
Ballaghkeen, see under Ui-Feilme. 
Ballaghmeehin, see Belach-Ui-Mithighen. 



30 



INDEX. 



BalLaghmoon, fiee Belach-mughna. 
Ballanamallard, see Bel-atha-na-marclacli, 
BaUenio (?) in, 751. 
Ballindoon, see Baile-in-duin. 
BallingaiTV, see Baile-in-garrgha. 
Ballinkillin, see Baile-in-Chuillin, 
Ballintober, see Baile-tobair-Brighde. 
Balliol, slew Scottish nobles, 1332. 
Ballybetagh, 1177. 
Ballyboggan, see Baile-Ui-Bogain. 
Bally britt, see Baile-an-britaigh. 
Ball3^gawley, see Fir-Lemhna. 
Ballymagauran, see Baile-Meg-Samhrad- 

hain. 
Balljmiote, see Baile-in-muta. 
Bally nascreen, see Baile-na-scrine. 
Ballyshannon, see Ath-Senaigh and Bel- 

atha-Senaigh. 
Balne, see Balla. 
Balrath, see Bilratha. 
Balteagh, see Belat. 
Baltinglass, see Belach-conglais. 
Ban (white, fair) ; Domnall, 1052 ; Tip- 

raiti, 858. 
Ban, ab. of Clane, ob., 782. 

of Slieve-Baune, sage, ob., 977. 

Banada, see Ben-fhota. 
Banan, f. of Cellach, 968. 
Banbaine, Ailill, 859. 
Banban, Colman, 725. 

sage, ob,, G8G. 

Band of malefactors of Luno and Morgal- 

lion, pillaged like Gentiles, 847. 
Bangor, .see Benn-clior. 
Banishment of Coirpre, 769. 
Banishments, Cormae of the, 1372. 
Bann (r.), 921, 1475 ; (Lower), 1472 ; 

bridge of (near Coleraine), 1248. 
Banner of Miiircertach O'Brien taken in 

Magh-Coba, 1103. 
Baptism of Scoti, object of Patrick's 

advent, 1000, 1014. 
Bardene Ua, Finnbarr, s. of, 437. 
Barnabas, Apostle, relics of found, 501. 
Barrdaeni, f . of Coliimban, 628. 
Bardic bands, 1482. 



Bardic professors : — 

O'Daly of Brefny, 1490. 

Flann O'Kenny (cliief of Meath), 

1100. 
Cellach O'Rooney (chief of I.), 
1079. 

Barid, s. of Oitir, lost with almost all his 
army in naval btl. at Isle of Man, 
914. 

Barith. f. of Uathmaran, 921. 

great Norse tyrant si. (miracidousl}') 

by (St.) Cianan, 881. 

Barn {Sahall : a church in Armagh, com- 
memorative of the ham given to Patrick 
by Dichu in Saul {^Sahall^ co. Down), 
1012 ; burned, 1020. 

Barnwell of Crikstown, si, 1510. 

Barr-na-Cuile (in Fermanagh), 1447- 

Barre, coarb of (bp. of Cork), 1036. 

Barrett, bp., 1536; Black Horse, 130C ; 
Henry, taken, 1413; Richard, drowned, 
1412 ; William, si., 1281. 

Barretts, 1281, 1412. 

Barrow r., see Berbha. 

Barry, David, archdeacon of Cloyne and 
Cork, slew hisb,, Barrymore; si. there- 
for and body disinterred and burned, 
1500 ; Thomas, slew David, 1500. 

Barrymore, 1411 ; ob., 1485 ; si., 1261 ; 
David Barry, si., 1500; John Barry, 
si., 1486. 

Baslick, see Baislicc. 

Batchelor's title, Sir, 1495. 

Battalion, 3,000 men, 1222: of Foreigners 
joined Muircertach's hoFting at Well 
of Messan, 1161 ; large, of Momonians 
defeated near Ardee, 1159. 

Battalions, three of five of defeated side, 
si. in Kilmacduagh btl., 1201 ; four of 
Foreigners at btl. of Tyne : three de- 
feated, one victorious, 918 ; four of 
O'Neill and de Lacy, 1222 ; six defeated, 
two victorious, at btl. near Ardee, 1159 ; 
eight of nine, si. in Knockdoe btl , 1504 ; 
twenty-four, of Foreigners, 1222. 

Bathallach, sage, of Senchua, ob., 783. 



1 



INDEX. 



31 



Battle between : — 

Two descendants of Aedh Slain e, 

712. 
Men of S.Bregia andCiannachta, 

817. 
Brian and Maelmhuaidli, 978. 
Bruide, s. of Oengus, and Talorg, 

s. of Congus, 731. 
Cathal axid family of Ferns, 817. 
Aedh, s. of Fergal, and Cenel- 

Conaill, in Magh-Itha, 733. 
Cellach and Concobar, 818. 
Cenel-Conaill and Cenel-Eogain, 

787, 819. 
Cenel-Loighaire and Cenel Ard- 

gail, 800. 
Colgu and Oriors, 780. 
Concohars, 1180. 
Connaughtmen, 824. 
Connaught and Corca-Baiscinn, 

721. 
Family of Cork and family of 

Clonfert, 807. 
Families (communities) of Clon- 

macnoise and Birr, 760. 
Domnall, s. of Aedh Red-neck 

(k. I.), and Cenel-Boghaine, 784. 
Arranged between Domnall and 

Niall, ss. of Aedh ; prevented 

by request of Cenel- Eogain,905. 
Donnchad and Muircertach 

averted, 938. 
Finachta and Leinstermcn, 677. 
Gentiles and Dunadhach, 834. 
Two kk. of Keenaght, 824. 
Leinstermen, 814. 
Louth and Ulidians, 882. 
Midians and Bregians, 766. 
Momonians and (S.) Ui-Neill,775. 
Muircertach O'Brien and Dom- 
nall O'Loughlin, prevented, 

1097. 
Murchad and Connaught, 973. 
Ossorians, 769, 786. 
Ossory and Leinster, 693. 
Oswy and Penda, 650. 



Battle between. — conf, 

Picts (Scottish), 789. 
Saxons and Picts, 698. 
Saxons and Scots, 1054. 
Scots, 965, 1005, 1045. 
Sogen and sept of Moenmagh, 

803. 
Ui-Cennselaigh, 770, 809. 
Ui-Cremthainn, 804. 
Ui-Fidhgente andCorcomroe and 

Corco-Baiscinn, 763. 
Ui Fiachrach of Murresk and 
Diarmait, s. of Tomaltach, 
816. 
Ui-Maine and Ui-Fiachrach- 

Aidhne, 743. 
(S.) Ui-Neill and IMunstermen, 

776. 
Ui-Tuirtri, 754. 
Ui-Tuirtri and Oriors, 745. 
Ulidians, 789, 809, 1127. 
Ulidians and Dalaraide, 972. 
Ulidians and Iveagh, 801. 
Ultonians, 819. 
Battles not chronicled, 1040. 
Baune, Slieve-, see Bodbgna. 
Bealach-Dhaithe ( = Daethe, q.r.), btl. of, 

593. 
Bear, see Beirre. 
Bebinn, d. of Brian (Boruma), died in 

pilgrimage at Armagh, 1073. 
d. of Cennetigh O'Brien, w. of Dom- 
nall O'Loughlin, ob., 1110. 
Bee {small of stature) : — 
Aedh, 1023. 
Bran, 738. 
Cron, 694. 
Dunehad, 719, 721. 
Faeldobur, 731. 
Bee of the Latin, ab. of Clonard, ob., 763. 

f. of Cellach, 943. 

Mac De (or Mac Deiche), ob., 553 or 

558. 
Becc of Bairche (k. U.), slew Congal, 
674 ; iought btl. against Finachta, 679 ; 
pilgrimage of. 707 ; ob., 718 ; f. of 



32 



INDEX. 



[2 ; of Oengus, 730 ; two 



Eecc. — cont. 
Dubthach, 
sons of, 714, 

f. of Diarmait, 791. 

f. Furudi-an, 662 ; (2) 964. 

gf. of Cummene, 752. 

gf. of Dubhduin, 714. 

gs. of Lethlabar, k. of Dalaraide, ob.. 

909. 

s. of Conla, k. of Teííia, ob., 771. 

s. of Cuanu, k. of Moygoish, slew 

Aedh, 598 ; f. of Furudran, 645. 

s. of Cumuscach, ob., 783. 

s. of Dondcuan, k. of Teifia, ob., 951. 

Baili, s. of Echu, ob., 749. 

s. of Fiachra, f. of Scaiinal, 646. 

Beccan, coarb of Finnian (ab. of Clon- 

ard), ob., 973. 

gf. of Dubdabairenn, 746. 

s. of Cula, feast of (Ap. 5), 1119. 

(mk.) of Liifechair, ob,, 782. 

Rviimin, ob., 677. 

Beccfliola, bp., ob., 694. 

Bede, sage, born, 650, or 654 ; cited, 566, 

584, 606; chroaicle of, 432, 440,460; 

chronology of, see under Mundane 

Reckonings ; composed great book, 

712 ; ob., 735. 
Beef (live), cost one mark, 1497 ; cost 

groat, 1532. 
Beer, gallon of, cost Qd., 1497. 
Bees, mortality of, 951 : great mortality 

of, 993. 
Befail, d. of Cathal, q. of Donnchad (k. 

I.), ob., 807. 

d. of Sechnasach, ob., 741. 

Beginning of Lent, Sun. [Mar. 5] of, 1088 ; 

Mon. [Feb. 22] of, 1127; 8at. [Mar. 13] 

of, 1109. 
Beheading (of Garfith, k. of Conaille), 

878 ; (of Oengus by Dalaraide ; quatrain 

relative thei-eto) 883 ; (of many round 

Kells oratory) 904; 1070, 1101, 1108, 

1127. 

as penalty. 1123. 

the slain, 926,933,953,970, 1001, 1126. 



Beirre (Bear, co. Cork), Breislcn of, 
779, 799; O'Sullivan of, 1485, 1498, 
1533. 
Beithre (Delbna- : — Garry castle bar., 

King's CO.), burned by Feidhlimidh, k. 

M., 826 ; pillaged by Niall (k. I.), 840. 
Bel-atha-Conaill, 1475. 
Bel-atha-daire (on Leanan r. , co. Donegal^ 

defeat of, 1497. 
Bel-atha-na-marclach (Ballanamallard, 

Magheracross bar., co. Fermanagh), 

1500. 
Bel-atha-Senaigh (Ballyshannon, co. 

Donegal), 1247, 1359, 1398, 1420, 1522; 

■■<ee a/.^o Ath-Senaigh. 
Bel-atha-slisen ( = Ath-slisen, q.r.) de- 
feat of, 1342. 
Bel-in-clair (Balinclare, Leynej' bar., co. 

Sligo , cas. of, 1512, 
Bel-feirsdi (Belfast), 1549 ; cas. of, 1476, 

1486, 1489, 1512. 
Bel-leice (Belleek, co. Fermanagh), burned 

1522, 
Belach-na-beithighe (Pass of the birch: in 

Leitriiu), 1256. 
Belach-buidhe (Ballaghboy, Tirerrill bar,, 

CO. Sligo), 1499, 1512, 1527- 
Belach-an-camain (Ballaghcommon, Stra- 

bane bar., co. Tyrone), 1526, 
Belach-conglais (Baltinglass, co. Wick- 

low), ab. of, Mael-Isu, 1163. 
Belach-in-crinaigh {Passof irithered u-ood ; 

from Drumlane to W. Brefny), 1391. 
Balach-curdhit, defeat of, 1444. 
Belach-duin (Pass of fort: alias of Castle- 

kieran, Meath). 922 ; mk. of, Ciaran 

the Pious, 775 ; Disert-Ciarain of, 870 ; 

leached by Brian (Boruma), 1006. 
Belach-na-fadhbaiglie {Pass oftheforent; 

near Limerick), 1510, 
Belach-an-gamna (7*rts.s of the calf : near 

Limerick), 1510. 
Belach-grene (in Tyrone), 1167. 
Belach-licce (in Leinster), btl. of, 726. 
Belach-mughna (Ballaghmoon, co. Kil- 

dare), btl, of, 908. 



INDEX. 



33 



Belach-Ui-Mithighen (Ballaghmeeliin, co. 

Leitrim), defeat of, 1480. 
Belan, see Bith-lann. 
Belat (Balteagh, Keenaght, bar., co. 
Londonderry), defeat of Keenaght at, 
1076. 
Belat-Gabrain (Gowran Pass, co. Kil- 
kenny), btl. of, 761 ; in Munster, 858. 
Belfast, see Bel-feirsdi. 
Belfry of Armagh, brnd. , 1020 ; of Emly, 
burned, 1058 ; of Kells, slaying in, 
1076; of Monasterboice, brnd., 1097; of 
Slane, brnd. by Dublin Foreigners, 950 ; 
of Telach-inmuinn, Ossory, split by 
thunderbolt, 1121. 

cover, Armagh, blown off, 1121. 

Bell, best of bells, of Slane, brnd. by 

Dublin Foreigners, 920. 
Bell, Gapped, of Ailbe, brnd., 1123. 
Bell of Patrick, see Finnfaidhech. 
Bell of Testament, 553, 1356 ; profanation 
of, avenged by raid on Ui-Meith and 
Cuailgne, and raid on Cremorne, 1044. 
Belleek, see Bel-leice. 
Bellew, Richard, s. of knight, town of 

(Bellewstown, Meath), 1492. 
Belliolum, small btl., 882. 
Bellisle, see Senadh. 
Bells of Armagh, brnd., 1020, 1074. 

pledged, 1275. 

Benn-Bulbain (Binbulbin Mountain, Car- 
bury bar., CO. Sligo), 1309. 
Benn-chor (Bangor, co. Down) abbots 
of:— 

Aedan, 610. 
Airindan, 849. 
Airmedhach, 800. 
Beogna, 606. 
Berach, 664. 
Ceile, 928, 929. 

Cellach (coarb of Comgall), 968. 
Cennfaeladh, 705. 
Colman, 680. 

Colman (coarb of Comgall), 1058. 
Comgall (founder) born, 516, or 
520 ;ob., 601, or 602. 



Benn-chor. — conf. 

Critan, 669. 

Diarmait (coarb of Comgall), 

1016. 
Ferchair, 881. 
Fidbadach, 767. 
Finntan of Oentraibh, 613. 
Flann, 728. 
Indrechtach, 906. 
Lerghus (coarb of Comgall), 

1097. 
Mac-in-Becanaigh (coarb of Com- 
gall), 1068. 
Gilla-Domangairt Mac Cormaic, 

1170. 
Oengus Mac Cormaic, 1212. 
Mac Lasre, 646. 
Macoigi, 802. 

Segan Mac Ui Chuind, 663. 
Mael-Brighte (coarb of Comgall), 

1025. 
Maelcothaid (coarb of Comgall), 

953. 
Maelgaimrid, 839. 
Mael-Isu (coarb of Comgall), 

1163 
Mael-Martain (coarb of Comgall), 

1055. 
Maeltuile, 817, 820. 
Moenach, 921. 
Moengal, 871. 

Oengus (coarb of Comgall), 1030. 
Oengus (coarb of Comgall of 

Bangor), 1123. 
Rogaillnech, 884. 
Saran, 747. 
Sillan, 610. 

Sinach (coarb of Comgall), 981. 
Sirne, 791. 
Thomas, 794. 
Tanaide (coarb of), 958. 
Sitriuc Ua Laighennain, 1212. 

ab. of (coarb of Comgall), surety for 

2 Ulidian hostages to Domnall, 1099 ; 
golden tooth of whale placed on altar of, 
753; anchorite of, Mailgaimrid (ab. ), 839; 

C 



34 



INDEX. 



Benn-chor. — cont. 

bp. of, Dubinnsi, 953 ; burned, 616, 
756 ; church of founded, 555, or 559. 

community of 1170 ; doctor of, Loi- 

thaech, 806 ; k. Donnchad si. in by Bro- 
dur, 1065 ; invaded by Gentiles, 823 ; mk. 
of, Augustin, 780; pilgrim of, Moengal 
(ab.), 871 ; pillaged, its oratory des- 
troyed ; relics of Comgall cast out of 
shrine by Gentiles ; relics of Comgall 
taken thence to Antrim, 824 ; slaying in 
cemetery of, 1121 ; scribes of: — Cochul- 
odhor, 730, Maelgaimrid (ab.), 839 ; 
steward of, Ultan, 782. 

in Britain (Wales), burned, 632, 672. 

Benedict, pope, ob., 579. 

St., flor., 529. 

Benfhota (Banada, co. Sligo), cas. of, 1527. 

Benignus (bp. of Armagh), ob., 467. 

Bennachta, bp. of Lusk, ob., 875. 

Benn-echlabra (Binaghlon, co. Ferman- 
agh), 1455. 

Benn-Edair (Howth Head), 1534. See also 
Etir. 

Benn-muilt (a mountain), river with 
fishes burst from, 759. 

Benn-uama (Benvadigan, or Cave Hill, 
near Belfast), 1468. 

Bennan, Aedh, 786. 

Benvadigan, see Benn-uama. 

Beoan, f. of Donnghal, 1003. 

Beochall (mk.) of Ardagh, ob., 746. 

Beod, bp. of Ardcarne, ob., 524. 

Beogna, ab. of Bangor, 606. 

Beollan, s . of Ciar mac , k . of Lagore, ob . , 969 . 

Berach, ab. of Bangor, ob., 664. 

(of Kilberry, co. Roscommon), feast 

of (Feb. 15), 1441, 1447, 1495, 1496. 

f. of Ronan, 801. 

Beraldus, Friar Minor, 1219, 1220. 

Berbha (Barrow r.), 731, 815, 968, 1343, 
1489. 

Berna-in-mil(inConnaught),defeatof,1332 

Bernd, f. of Cernd, 915. 

Bernith, alias Brectrid (Behrt), si., 698. 

Berodergg, gf. of Ultan, 774. 



Besieging of Auliunn, 742. 
Bessan, gf. of Guana, 739. 
Betrayal, Wednesday of , Spy-Wed., 1122. 

of Maynooth cas., 1535. 

Biatach, 1179. 

Biatachs, 8, of Cenel-Moen, si., 1178. 

Biceot, s. of 'exactor'' of Nectan, si. in 

btl. of Monith-carno, 729. 
Bile, f. of Bruide, 693. 

s.of Elpin,k.of Dumbarton, ob., 722. 

Bile-thened, in Magh-Singittae (Billy- 
wood in Moynalty par., Meath), 714. 
Bilratha (Balrath, Upr. Kells bar., 

Meath), cas. of, 1488. 
Binaglilon, see Benn-ech-labra. 
Binbulbin, see Benn-Bulbain. 
Birds, many, destroyed by snow, cold and 
frost, 917 ; manj', perished in snow, 
1047, 1095, 1115. 
Birmingham (Mac Feorais), 1294, 1301 ; 
defeated, 1289, 1349 ; si. , 1356 ; lord of 
Athenry, 1316 ; Richard, his s. and 
heir, taken, 1372; ob., 1375. 

Andrew, defeated ss. of kk. of 

Oifaly, 1321 ; Sir John, Earl of Louth, 
sL, 1328 ; Sir Pierce, cas. of ( Castle - 
Carbmy, co. Kidare), 1305 ; Richard, 
baron, ob., 1322; Sifin, 1292; s. of 
Andrew, ob., 1358 ; s. of the Parson, 
si. 1373 ; William, si., 1.309 ; William, 
elected abp. of Tuam, 1288 ; became 
abp. of Tuam, 1290 ; went to Rome, 
1307 ; ob., 1312. 
Birr, see Birra. 

Birra and Birror (Birr, King's co.), 
abbots of : — 

Ailill Banbaime, 859. 

Baithene (coarb of Brenan of 

Birr), 928. 
Brenann ( founder) , ob . , 565, or 572 
Caratbran, 804. 
Folachtach, 765. 
Joseph Ua Foileni, 785. 
Mac Nemhnaill, 750. 
Moran, 896. 
Senchan, 796. 



INDEX. 



85 



Birra and Birror, — cont. 

bp.-abb. of : — Flathnia, 853 ; Mac- 

riaghoil Ua Magleni, 822. 

community of, fought community of 

Clonmacnoise, 760 ; royal conference 
at, 827 ; pillaged by Gentiles from 
Dublin, 842 ; sage of, Joseph Ua Foi- 
leni (ab.) , 785 ; scribe of, Macriaghoil Ua 
Magleni (bp.-ab.), 822 ; synod of, 1174. 
Birth: — of Brian (Boruma), s. of Cenne- 
tigh, 941 ; of Mael-Sechlainn,s. of Dom- 
nall, 948. 
Bishop, eminent, of N. of I., Mael-Isu 

O'Cuilen, 1109. 
Bishopric of Dublin, taken by Cellach, by 

choice of Foreigners and Irish, 1121. 
Bishops, died, 796 ; 26, in Cloenad synod, 
1162; of N. of I., at Drogheda synod, 
1486; 50, at Fiadh-Mic-Oengusa synod, 
1111 ; 415, at Lateran Council, 1215 ; 
1.300, at Lateran Council, 1216; of 
Louth, led captive by Gentiles, 840 ; 
of I., at consecration of Mellifont 
church, 1157. 
Bishop-abbots : — 

Aedh of Roscommon, 874. 
Aedh Dubh of Kildare, 639. 
Ailill of Clogher, 869. 
Caincomrac of Louth, 903. 
Cennfaelad of Trim, 821 
Cilleni of Ferns, 715. 
Cinaedh of Trillick, 814. 
Clemens of Clonard, 826. 
Colman of Clonard, 654, 
Colman of Clonard and Clon- 
macnoise, 926. 
Colman of Mahee Island, 873. 
Cormac of Clonard, 830. 
Cormac of Clonard, 885. 
Cormac of Seirkieran, 869. 
Crunnmael of Kilmore (co. Ar- 
magh), 770. 
Cumscuth of Castlekieran, 870. 
Cumsuth of Clonard, 858. 
Dubdatuath of Rahugh, 788. 
Dubhduin of Clonard, 718. 



Bishop-abbots. — conf. 

Echaid of Tallaght, 812. 
Euchu of Louth, 822. 
Fergil of Inan, 907. 
Finn of Newry, 1160, 
Flaithroa of Monasterboice, 837. 
Flann of Finglas, 812. 
Flann of Inishkeen, 784. 
Flathnia of Birr, 853. 
Gnia of Duleek, 872, 
Joseph of Armagh, 936 
Joseph of Clones, 840. 
Lachtnan of Ferns, 875. 
Laidgnen of Seirkieran, 744. 
Loingsech of Killishy, 872. 
Macriaghoil Ua Magleni of Birr, 

822. 
Mael-Ciarain of Clones, 915. 
Mael-Finnien of Fore, 993. 
Mael-Ioin of Roscrea, 918. 
Mael-Isu of Emly and Baltin- 

glass, 1163. 
Mael-Petair of Terryglass, 895. 
Maeltuile of Dulane, 872. 
Marcan, ab. of Terryglass and 

Inishcaltra, and bp. of Kil- 

laloe, 1010. 
Nuadha of Armagh, 812. 
Robartach of Killeigh, 875. 
Ruidhgel of Emly, 881. 
Ruthnel of Clonfert, 826. 
Siadal of Roscommon, 817. 
Thomas of Annagassan (Linn- 

duachail), 808. 
Tigernach of Dromiskin, 879. 
Torpaidh of Tallaght, 874. 
Bishop-anchorites : — 

Cellach of Armagh, 903. 
Clothcu of Clonard, 796. 
Cormac of Kilbrew, 838. 
Cormac Ua Liathain, 867. 
Cumsudh of Castledermot, 843. 
Dathal, 817. 
Docutu of Slane, «'" ^. ' 
Ferchair of Clonkeen, 881. 
Flann of Clonkeen, 862 

2c 



36 



INDEX. 



Bishop-anchorite!?. — cont, 

Flann of Fore, 930. 
Forbusach of Liisk, 836. 
Forinnan of Armagh, 852. 

Mochta of Armagh, 893. 

Moinach of Castledermot, 843. 

Onchu of Slane, 849. 
Bishop-coarb of Patrick, Fethgna, 874. 
Bishop-herenagh, Maelduin of Aughrim, 

814. 
Bishop, learned, of Irish, Mael-Muire 

O'Diman, 1117. 
Bishop-lector, Aedh of Armagh, 1056. 
Bishop-monks : — 

Aedh of Armagh, 1032. 

Aedhan, gs. of Cucumbu, 792. 

Aedhan of Rahen, 792. 

Airmedach of Armagh, 1006. 

Bran of Finglas, 8 . 

Caincomrac of Armagh, 1099. 

Cathusach of Armagh, 966. 

Coeddi of lona, 712. 

Conall of Kilskeer, 867. 

Cormac of Laraghbryan, 856. 

Echuidh of Lynally, 887. 

Feidhlimidh of Kilmore, 842. 

Flaithbertach of Clones, 1011. 

Freccmarc of Lusk, 791. 

Mael-Coluim of Armagh, 1107, 
1122. 

Mael-Muire of Armagh, 994. 

Mael-Patraic of Armagh, 1096. 

Maelruain of Tallaght, 792. 

Maeltuile of Armagh, 1032. 

Ronan Ua Lochdeirc, 814. 

Sechnusach of Lough-Kinn, 823. 

Ossene of Taghmon, co. Wex- 
ford, 687. 

Robartach of Finglas, 867. 

Segene of Armagh, 688. 

Suibhne of Armagh, 730. 

Tommene of Armagh, 661. 
Bishop-scribes : — 

>^n of Finglas, 838. 

Colniun of Duleek and Lusk, 907. 

Cormac of Clonard, 830 



Bissett (Mac Eoin), cas. of (Larne, co. 
Antrim), 1512 ; Jenkin the Fair, s. of 
John, si., 1383; John, ob., 1257 (B) ; 
John, w. of, 1387. 

Bissextile Concurrents, 1064. 

Bith, s. of Noah, mountain of (Slieve- 
Beagh, co. Tyrone), 1532. 

Bith-lann (Belan, co. Kildare),btl.of, 978. 

Bla-sliabh, btl. of, 681. 

Blacair, s. of Gofraid, k. of Black Gen- 
tiles, led Gentiles who slew Muircer- 
tach, 943 ; left Dublin ; replaced by 
Amlaibh, 945 ; si., and 1,600 of his 
force si. or taken, by Maelmithidh, 948. 

Black Foreigners, see Foreigners, Black. 

Black Gentiles, see Gentiles, Black. 

Black, Oittir the, 1014. 

Black Knight, 1369. 

Blackwater (Ulster), see Neim. 

Blathmac, ab. of Clonmacnoise, ended 
long life, 896. 

f. of Baithecde, 730. 

f. of Eochaidh, 660. 

foster-s. of Colgu, ab. of Inishbofin 

(Lough Ree), ob., 814. 

gs. of Muirdibur, ab. of Durrow, 

ob., 811. 

s. of Aedh Slaine, j.-k. I., began 

reign, 643 : f. of Conall and Dunchad, 
651 ; defeated, 662 ; died of plague, 
665, or 668 ; f . of Cennfaeladh, 672, 674 ; 
of Cernach, 664 ; f. of Sechnusach, 671. 

s. of Ailgus, ab. of Terryglass, ob. , 814. 

s. of Flann, martyred by Gentiles in 

lona, 825. 

s. of Guair, ab. of Clonfad, si. by 

sons of Donnchad, 799. 

s. of Maelcobha, ob. , 670. 

s. of Ronan, ob., 658. 

of TefSa, ob., 665. 

Blatine (probably in Leinster), 618. 

Blefed (pestile)ice), 545. 

Blessing :— of Munster by Cellach, 1120 ; 
of Patrick, btl. prevented by, 1167. 

Blind Ferdomnach the, 1110; Ua Lonain 
the, 1064. 



INDEX. 



37 



Blinding, 864, 997, 1000, 1009, 1010, 
1018, 1020, 1027, 1031, 1036, 1037, 
1044, 1092, 1093, 1094, 1113, 1118, 
1164, 1166, 1194, 1196, 1257, 1259, 
1296, 1481. 

Blood, shower of, 718, 878, 898 ; Lough 
Lene turned into, became like animals' 
lungs round border of lake, 866 ; of 
two persons in one vessel as pledge of 
amity, 1275. 

Bloody flux on Dublin Foreigners, 950. 

Boant, f. of Aedh, 839. 

Boar, The, k. U., slew Matudhan in 
Brigit's church, Downpatrick ; si. 
through power of God and Patrick by 
Muiredach to avenge his f., 1007. 

Bochaill, s. of Conchobar, si. in btl., 745. 

Bochall, f. of Donnghal, 791. 

Bodb, s. of Ronan Ua Congaile, ob. , 676. 

Bodhbcadh, f. of Fergus, 835. 

f. of Finsnechta, 830. 

of Meath, s. of Diarmait, si. in btl. 

of Clane, 704 ; f. of Ailill, 726. 

s. of Ectgus, k. of Cenel-Mic-Erca, 

ob., 774. 

Bodbgal, ab. of Mungret, si. in btl. of 
Sliabh-Riach, 757. 

Bodbgna, (Slieve Baune, co. Roscommon), 
btl. of, 680 ; Ban of, 777. 

Bodbrath, 739. 

Bodbthach, s. of Conall (iabhra, k. of 
Coirpre, ob. , 736. 

Bodoney, .see Both-Domnaigh. 

Body, of (St.) Dominic, translation of, 
1233 ; of O'Rourke, hung, feet up, in 
Dublin, 1172. 

Bodies of Brian and Murchad brought 
from Swords, waked for 12 nights and 
buired in new tomb at Armagh, 1014. 

Boeth, f. of Niallghus, 758. 

Boghaine, Cenel-, see Cenel-Boghaine. 

gf. of Maelanfaith and Maelbresail, 

644. 

s. of Finn, gf. of Finnamail, 718. 

Bogsa of Carrickfergus, si., 1374. 

Bohoe, see Botha. 



Boinn (Boyne), crossed dryshod in frost, 
818 ; Norse fleet on, 837, 842 ; a bound- 
ary, 922. 

Bolcan, gf. of Nuada, 781. 

Bole, John, ab. of Navan, 1455. 

Bolegan, (Drumlane par., co. Cavan), 
1338 ; raided, 1340. 

Boleyn, Anne, accused of adultery and 
beheaded, 1536. 

Bolg-Boinne, massacre of, 770. 

Bolg-luatha, Crunnmael, besieged by Ui- 
Neill, 626 ; defeated, 628 ; f. of Colgu, 
647. 

Bolgach (leprosy) 680, 743. 

Bolggan, Dochume, 733. 

Bologna, 1348 ; church of St. Dominic 
at, 1383, 1422. 

Bonaght, 1413, 1505. 

Boniface, pope, 534, 538. 

his request of Phocas, 606. 

VIII., published Jubilee, 1300. 

Book, another, gave obits of Blathmac 
and Diarmait at 668 (not 665) ; ob. of 
Cellach, s. of Maelcobha, at 664 (not 
658) ; birth of Ciaran, .s. of the Wright, 
at 517 (not 512) ; ob. of Donnchad, s. of 
Brian (Boruma), at 1065 (not 1064) ; 
ob. of Guaire Aidhne, at 666 (not 663) ; 
ob. of Ultan (of Ardbraccan), at 663 
(not 658). 

great, composed by Bede, 712. 

of Guana, 467, 545, 553, 611, 629. 

of Dubdaleithi, 629, 963, 1004, 1021. 

- — of Mochod, 528. 

of Monks, 512. 

cited as to mortality duiing plague, 

668. 

Books : — of Durrow, burned, 1095 ; of 
Monasterboice, burned, 1097 ; old, re- 
lating to Purgatory of Patrick, 1497. 

Border of Lough Lene, see under Blood, 
shower of. 

Boruma (cattle-cess), 695 ; exacted from 
Leinster by Fergal, s. of Maelduin, 721. 
^ee also under Brian, s. of Cennetigh. 

Bosworth, btl. of, 1485. 



38 



INDEX. 



Both-Conais {Hut of Conas: in Culdafí' 
par. , Inishowen bar. , eo. Donegal), sage 
of, Cennfaelad, 852 ; herenaghs of : — 
Dubdabairenn, 988. 
Tuathal Ua Uail, 1049. 

Both-Domnaigh (Bodoney, to. Tyrone), 
Muirecan of, 993, 1001, 1005. 

Botha (Bohoe, Clanawley bar., co. Fer- 
managh), btl. of, 628 ; herenagh of, 
1483, parson of, 1487 ; other references, 
1498. 

Boy, 2 months old, spoke, 885. 

Boyne, see Boinn. 

Braen, s. of Maelmordha, k. L. , joined 
Congalach in plundering Dublin, 944 ; 
si. on foray in Ossory, 947. 

s. of Tigernach, si. by Anfith ; (qua- 
train relative thereto, 883. 

Bragget, see Lightning, 1107. 

Braid, see Baile-na-braghat. 

Braigh-uallaighi (in Moylurg), church of 
profaned, 1487. 

Bran, f. of Cellach, 727, 833, 834. 

f. of Cennselach, 770. 

f. of Maelmhuaidli, 976. 

f. of Murchadh, 715, 721, 722, 727, 

728. 

f. of Muiredach, 805, 818, 870, 875, 

885. 

f. of Ruarc, 843. 

gf. of Dunchad, 989. 

gf. of Faelan, 738. 

gf. of Muiredach, 760. 

gs. of, si., 712. 

gs. of Faelan, k. L. , ol). , 693. 

gs. of Maelduin, si., 712. 

Leinster divided between 2 gss. of 

by Aedh(k. I.), 818. 

(mk.) of Finglas, bp. and scribe, ob., 

838. 

(mk. ) of Lynally, ob. , 740. 

the Momonian, ob. , 725. 

s. of, 688. 

s. of Aedan, si, , 596. 

s. of Baethbetri, ob., 751. 

s. of Conall the Little, ob. , 695. 



Bran. — couf. 

s. of Domnall, k. of Cenel-Loeghaire 

of Bregia, si. , 954. 

s. of Eugan, ob. , 730. 

s. of Faelan, made k. L. by Niall 

(k. L), 835; ob. 8.38. 
s. of Maelmordha, k. L. , blinded by 

Sitriuc, 1018 ; died at Cologne, 1052. 
(Ard-cenn) s. of Muiredach, taken 

in btl. of Curragh, 782 ; si. 795. 
s. of Murchad, k. L., taken and sJ. by 

Foreigners, 980. 

s.ofOengus,sl.inbtl.by Gentiles, 839. 

ss. of, defeated Ui-Cennselaigh, 814. 

the Little, s. of Murchadh, k. L. , si. 

in btl. of Ballyshannon, co. Kildare, 738. 
Branan, gf. of Aedh, 1119. 
s. of Gilla-Crist, k. of Corco-Achlann, 

ob., 1120. 
Brandubh, s. of Eocha, won btl. of Magh- 

ochtair, 590 ; sleAV Cumuscach, 597 ; 

slew Aedh, 598 ; defeated and si. , 605. 

s. of Maelcobha, si. , 630. 

Brann the Fair, s. of Maelfothartaigh, si. , 

670. 

s. of Maelochtraich, ob., 671. 

Brawl, great, in Armagh, on Pentecost, 

781. 
in Armagh, in which man was si. 

at door of stone oratory, 789. 

on Pentecost, with homicide, in 

Armagh, 819. 

with many si. (between Cenel- 

Eogain and Ulidians), in Armagh, on 
Pentecost, 893. 

great, in Armagh, 986. 

(between Ui-Dorthainn and Cenel- 

Eogain) in Great Third of Armagh, 1009. 

at Clogher, 1493. 

Brawney, see Breghmhuine. 

Bread, failure of in I., 536, 539, 765, 

773, 825. 
Breaking house, 1030, 1051. 
Brec, f. of Muircertach, 1051. 
Brecan, (St.), miracle of, 1197. 
Brecc (speckled), Domnall, 689. 



INDEX. 



39 



Brecc, f. of bp. Aedh, 589. 

of Fortrenn, ob., 725. 

of Barrow, ob., 731. 

Brecrighe [Magh-] (N.W. of W. Meath) ; 

destroyed by Cenel-Coirpri, 752. 
Brectrid (Behrt), alias of Bernith, 698. 
Bredach (N.E. part of Iiiishowen bar., 
CO. Donegal), chiefs of, 1122, 1216, 
1243 ; slew Muircertach, 1167. 
Brefny, see Breifne. 

Bregh {Bregia, plain in Meath), chief 
advisers of all : — Cernach, ab. of Dun- 
leer, 922, Muiredach, 924 ; Bresal of, 
768 ; Cenel-Loeghaire of, 954 ; Cian- 
nachta of, 839 ; Desi of, 758, 1034 ; 
Domnall of, 1169, 1173 ; Eastern parts 
of, 784 ; foray, and Dunleer destroyed, 
in by Donnchad, 940 ; foray in, and 
large cattle-spoil taken from Men of, 
1009 ; some of Concobar's force lost in, 
1128 ; hosting of Leinster by Donnchad 
into, 777 ; hosting into, 939, 1025 ; 
hosting into, and hostages of got, by 
Donnchad, 1026 ; liosting into by Muir- 
certach, 1115 ; islands E. of, 852. 
kings of : — 

Aedh, 1093. 

Ailill, 800. 

Coirpri, 771. 

Conaing, 849. 

Congal, 634. 

Domnall, 966, 967, 976. 

Donnchad, 1023, 1027. 

Gairbeidh, 1045. 

Gerrgaela, 1025 

Flann, 868. 

Flannacan, 1060. 

Lorcan, 925, 942. 

Mael-Ciarain, 1086. 

Maelcron, 1053. 

Mael-Finnia, 902, 903. 

Maelmithidh, 919. 

Maelmordha, 1073. 

Mathgamain, 1032. 

Muircertach, 1161, 

Tigernach (j.-k)., 865. 



Bregh. — cout. 

Men of :— 

fought Midians, 766 ; defeated Leinster- 
men at Righe, 781 ; went secretly and 
gave hostages to Murchadh, at Druim- 
Fergusso, 822; Feidhlimidh (k. M.) 
came to Fennor, to plunder, 831 ; 
defeated Foreigners, 837 ; defeated 
Morgallion and Carbury, 1060 ; led by 
Mael-Finnia in expelling Gentiles from 
I., 902 ; see Midhe, truce ; Mughdoirn 
of, 812, 837, 869, 883, 955; q. of, 
Ligach, 923 ; raided by Muircertach, 
1045 ; raided by Niall, 1047 ; by Muir- 
certach ; Men of overtook and slew M. 
and raiders, 1125 ; ravaged by Feidh- 
limidh, k. M., 840. 
royal-heirs of : — 

Amalgaidh, 909. 

Cellach, 895. 

Cinaedh, 896 

Congalach, 893. 

Ruaidhri, six months v/arring in, 

950 ; Patrician steward of, Feidilmidh, 
ab. of Kilmoone, 814 ; Ui-Mac-Uais 
(Moygoish bar., W. Meath), of, 838, 
839, 1017, 1020 ; Ui-Neill of, 868. 

N., aid of Gentiles vainly sought by 

(k.) Maelmithidh in defence of, 918 ; de- 
feated on foray in vale of Newry r., 
996 ; k. of Ciarchaille, 988. 

S., hosting of Muircertacli to, 1156. 

kings of : — 

Conall, 815. 

Cumuscach, 797. 

Diarmait, 826. 

Fergus, 751. 

Focarta (j.-k.), 815. 

Fogartach, 913, 916. 

Gilla-Mochonna, 1013. 

Maelcron Mac Gilla-Sechnaill, 
1171. 

Mael-Sechnaill (j.-k.), 870. 

Niall, 778. 

Ruaidhri, 1027. 

Tolarg (j-k.), 888. 



40 



INDEX. 



Bregh. — cont. 

pillaged twice, and many Bregians 

si, on second occasion by Concobar, s. 
of Niall, 822 ; pillaged the first time, 
with many si. and very many made 
captive, by Gentiles, 836 ; Men of : — 
massacred at Bolg-Boinne, 770 ; fought 
Ciannachta, 817 ; royal-heir of, Tiger- 
nach, 887 ; slew Brodur, 1160 ; slew 
Cu-Uladh and Mac Assidha, 1072 ; 
wasted by Flann (k. I. ), 914. 

Bregh-magh [Plain of Bregia, alias of 
Bregh), 868, 903. 

Bregh-mhuine (Brawney bar,,W. Meath), 
kings of : — 

Cinaedh, 840. 
O'Breen, 1188. 

O'Mey of, 1186. 

Brehon, chief, of Mac William of Clanri- 
card, Mac Egan, 1487 ; of O'Donnell, 
Mac Elsinan, 1507 ; of Magiiire, O'Bres- 
len, 1440, 1447, 1495 ; Ua Mincachain, 
1230; of the Ui-Briuin, Connmach, 806. 

Breifne [Brefny: Cavanand Leitrim cos.). 
Archdeacon of, 1296 ; bishops of, see 
under Cell-mor ; constable of, 1424, 
1447 ; invaded, 1256, 1514. 

kings of : — 

Aedh, 1015. 
Cernachan, 931. 
Cormac, 792. 
Maelduin, 822. 
Muircertach, 805. 
Tigernan, 892. 

Men of :— 

defeated by Flann (k. I.) and his ss., 
910 ; defeated by Connacians, 1009 ; 
defeated, 1317 ; massacred, with their 
k. , by Cenel-Feidilmtho, 822 ; slew 
Fergus, k. of Lurg, 926 ; slew Dom- 
nall, 1036 ; slew Amlaim and Niall and 
many nobles in Slievegorey, 1130 ; sub- 
mitted to Domnall, 1114; other refer- 
ences to, 1407, 1537. 

nobles of, si. in Slane by Cathal, 

1161 ; O'Daly of, 1493, 1496 ; ollam in 



Breifne. — cont. 
jurisprudence of, 1390 ; raided, 1256 
(D), 1261 ; night raid in, 1340 ; septs 
and chiefs of, 1306 ; ss. of kk. of sL, 
1340 ; Ui-Briuin of, 1097 ; great war 
in, 1369 ; M-asted by Domnall, 955. 

other references to, 1281, 1282, 1338, 

1342, 1357, 1407, 1412, 1422, 1480. 

of O'Reilly (E. Brefny : Cavan co. ), 

invaded, 1537. 

kings of (of O'Reilly sept) :— 1349. 

Brian, 1365. 

Cathal, 1460, 1467. 

Conor, 1436. 

Cu-Connacht, 1365. 

Eoghan, 1418, 1449 ; (II.) 1526. 

Feidhlimidh, 1367. 

Fergal, 1449, 1450 ; (II.) 1526, 

1535. 
Gilla-Isu, 1330. 
John, 1390, 1391, 1401 ; (II.) 

1449, 1450, 1460. 
Maelmordha, 1411. 
Maghnus, 1369. 
Philip, 1362; (11.) 1365,1369, 

1384, 1390. 
Richard, 1418. 
Tadhg, 1424. 
Thomas, 1390. 
Torlogh, 1467. 

lord of, Geoflfrey, 1161. 

other references : — 1447, 1496. 

of Rourke (W. Brefny: Leitrim co.), 

invaded, 1263. 

kings of (of O'Rourke sept) : — 1210, 

1272, 1274, 1275, 1311, 1316, 1318, 1330. 
Aedh, 1395. 

Aedh the TaAvny, 1418, 1419. 
Amlaim, 1258. 
Eoghan, 1500, 1528. 
Feidhlimidh, 1500. 
Lochlann (j.-k.), 1446, 1457, 

1458. 
Tadhg, 1376; (II.) 1419, 1421, 

1424, 1429, 1433, 1434. 
Tigernan, 1172; (11.) 1390, 1418. 



INDEX. 



41 



Breifne. — coiit. 

Men of, pillaged Clooncraff and slew 

man there, 815 ; raided, 1380, 1476. 
Breislen of Bear won domestic btl., 779 ; 

ob., 799. 
Brenann and Brendan (of Ardfert and 

Birr), 1117 ; coarb of (bp. of Ardfert), 

1074. 
[oi Clonfert, co. (lalway), 

founds church in Clonfert, 558 ; ob., 

577 or 583 ; Clonfert of, 749, 752, 753, 

773, 786, 795, 802, 807, 817, 826, 844. 

845, 882, 884, 885, 888, 916, 1117, 

1166, 1171, 1195, 1319, 1377. 
coarb of (ab. of Clonfert), 981, 992, 

1036, 1040 (.see Cluainferta, abbots of) ; 

coarbship of, 1205; feast of, 1452; Law 

of, established by Fergus (k. C), 

744. 
Brenann and Brendan, f. of Aedh, 562, 

589. 
Brend, ss. of, si. , 693. 

f . of Conmach, 770. 

s. of Brian, ob., 576. 

s. of Coirpre, ob., 601. 

Brene (alias of Strangford Lough, co. 

Down), 809. 
Bresal, s. of, defeated, 714. 
Conaillech, coarb of Ciaran (ab. of 

Clonmacnoise), died in Armagh, 1030. 

f . of Cormac, 782. 

f. of Echaidh Cobo, 733. 

of Bregia, f. of Eithne, 768. 

f . of Eochaid, 824. 

f . of Finsnechta, 842. 

f. of Oengus, 1004. 

f. of Robartach, 845. 

lector of Armagh, ob., 899. 

— — promulgated Law of Columba, 778. 

s. of Aedh Ron, si. , 750. 

s. of Colgu, ab. of Ferns, ob , 749. 

s. of Concobar of Ard, si. , 737. 

s. of Cormac, ab. of Kilglinn and 

other monasteries, ob. , 835. 

s. of Fergus (k. of Iveagh, co. Down), 

ob., 685. 



Bresal. — cont. 

Belach, s. of Fiaclia Baiccedha, k. L., 

ob. , 435, or 436 ; f . of Enna Cennselach, 

483; f. of Enna Niadh, 527; f. of 

Labraidh, 605. 

s. of Finsnechta, si. , 695. 

s. of Flaithri, k. of Dalaraide, ob. ,792. 

s. of Gormgal, of Cenel-Loeghaire, 

si. in treachery by his brothers, 801. 
s. of Murchad, won btl. of Argga- 

man with community of Clonmacnoise, 

against community of Durrow ; si., 764. 

s. of Sechnasach, ob., 644. 

s. of Segene, ab. of lona, ob., 801. 

Brevity, names of worthies si. in Magh- 

Coba, omitted for, 1103. 
Brian, f. of Brendan, 576. 

f. of Craumthan, 553. 

f. of Duach, s. of Eocha, 577. 

s. of Cennetigh, born, 941 ; defeated 

and slew Maelmhuaidh, 978 ; joined 

Mael-Sechlainn against Foreigners ; 

led hosting to, and wasted Leinster, 

998 ; k. of Cashel ; led hosting against, 
defeated and slaughtered Dublin 
Foreigners and Leinstermen at Glen- 
mama ; entered and pillaged Dublin, 

999 ; Foreigners of Dublin subject to ; 
led hosting, preceded by Foreign and 
Leinster cavalry foray-party, to Fear- 
tagh ; almost all si. by Mael-Sechlainn ; 
forced back without btl. or spoil by the 
Lord, 1000; led hosting and took hostages 
of Connaught and Meath ; led hosting 
with Mael-Sechlainn to Dundalk to 
demand security from Aedh and Eoch- 
aid,tokeep mutualpeace, 1002; k.I. , 1003 
(C. ); led hosting to Trawohelly, to go to 
N., — barred by Cenel-Eogain, 1004; led 
hosting, with kk. of I., to Armagh ; laid 
22 oz. of gold on altar of Patrick ; re- 
turned with hostages of I., 1005 ; led 
hosting round I., — to Connaught, over 
Assaroe to Tir-Conaill, through Cenel- 
Eogain, over Camus Ford to Ulidia, to 
Oenach-Conaille, to Castlekieran ; gave 



42 



INDEX. 



Brian. — cont. 
full demand of congregation and coarb 
of Patrick, 1006 ; slew Cu-Chonnacht ; 
led hosting to Cenel-Eogain and took 
off ab. of Moville, a Ulidian hostage in 
Cenel-Eogain, 1007 ; led hosting to 
Cloenloch of Fews and got hostages of 
N. of I., 1010 ; in fleet at Annaghdufl, 
1011 ; led hosting to jSlagh-Corainn and 
brought k. of Cenel-Conaill, as vassal, 
to Kincora, 1011 ; led hosting to Louth ; 
gave full freedom to churches of Patrick, 

1012 ; advised avenging profanation of 
bell and crozier of Patrick, 1013 ; host- 
ing to, and three months' stay at, Atli- 
in-chairtinn by ; built Kincora, King's 
Island, and Singland forts ; warred 
against by Lagenians and Foreigners, 
encamped with Momonians at iSlieve- 
margy and pillaged Leinster to Dublin, 

1013 ; k. I. ; led hosting to Dublhi ; 
defeated Foreigners and Lagenians and 
si. by Brotor (at Clontarf) ; body of 
carried to Swords, thence to Armagh, 
and buried in new tomb, 1014. 

f. of Bebinn, 1073; of Donnchad, 

1019, 1027, 1031, 1034, 1042, 1057, 
1058, 1064, 1065 ; of Muircertach, 
1214 ; of Murchad, 1013 ; of Tadhg, 
1014, 1023 ; gf. of Derbforgaill, 1080 ; 
of Domnall the Fair, 1052 ; of Domnall 
the Red, 1055; of Lorcan, 1078; of 
Muircertach, 1075 ; of Murchad, 1055, 
1068 ; of Torlogh, 1031, 1055, 1067, 1073, 
1076, 1077, 1086 ; gs. of, 1072 ; two gss. 
of si. in Man, 1073 ; w. of, ob., 1009 ; 
quatrain in praise of rule of, 1006 ; 
term Boruma {of cattlt-cess) applied to, 
1224, 1309, 1375, 1505, 1532, 1537. 

s. of Maelruanaigh, si., 1004. 

Brie, Rath-Aedha-Mic-, 859. 

Bricceni, ab. of Lorrha, ob., 844. 

Bri-dam (height of oxen : in Geashill bar. , 
King's CO.), 600. 

Bridge, of the Erne, burned, 1522 ; of 
Sligo, 1188. 



Brig-leith (Slievegolry Hill, co. Long- 
ford), Ailill of, si,, 739. 
Brigit, St., born, 452, or 456 ; Canons 
Regular of, 1179 ; church of, Armagh, 
1085, 1089 ; Downpatrick, 1007 ; coarb 
of (abbess of Kildare), 916, 979, 
1016, 1047, 1072, 1171 (-see a/.so Cell- 
dara, abbesses of) ; cross of, see Masan- 
Third; crosses of, Armagh, 1166, 1189; 
dispute respecting coarbship of at Kil- 
dare, 1127 ; great house of, Kildare, 
964 ; miracle wrought by, 1176 ; relics 
of carried off by Saxons from Down- 
patrick, 1538. 
Britain, earthquake in, 664 ; Aurthuile 
went to, 700 ; bp. of Theodore, 691 ; 
Fogartach went to, 714 ; all islands of 
wasted by Gentiles, 794 ; k. of Norse- 
men of, Imar, 873 ; Maelruba went to, 
671 ; JRidye of, 717. 
Briton (Welshman), [g. ] s.of (Henry VII. ), 

1485, 1487. 
Britons, Colnian of the, 751 ; defeated 
by (Scottish) Dalriata, 711, 717 ; by 
Foreigners, 952 ; by Ulidians, 703 ; 
fought btl. of Rathmore, 682 ; fought 
Ossa (Oswy), 642 ; fought Picts, 750 ; 
slew Culen, 971 ; slew Irgalach Ua 
Conaing, 702 ; wasted Magh-Muir 
themhne, 697. 

(AVelsh) Bangor of, 672 ; brought 

captive to I., 871 ; Doccus, ab, of, 473 ; 
Durrow of, 836 ; expelled from their 
land by Saxons, and sway held over 
them in Anglesey, 865 ; Galinne {q.r.) 
of, 823 : arch-k. of, Brian, 1014. 
kings of : — 

Cathloen, 632. 

Conan, 816. 

Domnall, 975. 

Grifin, 1064. 

[Grufud] s. of Leobelen (Llew- 
elyn), 1064. 

Hoan, 642. 

laco, 1039. 

ludris, 633. 



INDEX. 



43 



Britons. — cont. 

Oex (Howel), 950. 
Ruaidhri, 877, 878. 
Solon, 613. 

sudden mortality of people and cattle 

among, 987 ; pilgrim of, 918; si. in 
service of Cellach at btl. of Selga, 709 ; 
failure of Saxons to subdue, 1165 ; 
other ref., 1245. 

N., k. of, Mael-Coluim, 997. 

— — of Strathclyde, k. of, Artgha, 872. 

Britt, Aedgen, 864. 

Brocan, s. of Uatlimaran, k. of Aidline, 

ob., 873. 
Broccan, s. of, (mk.) of Tehelly, master 
of Gospel, ob., 725. 

s. of Cendercan, si. in Aidhne, 834. 

Brodur, enemy of Comgall, slayer of k. 
Donnchad in Bangor, si. by k. of Dala- 
raide, 1065. 

s. of Torcall, k. of Dublin, si. by S. 

Bregia, 1160. 
Broen, s. of Ruaidhri, sub-k. {■•satrapa) of 
L., ob., 814. 

s. of Ruaidhri, k. of Ui-Cremthainn, 

si. by his bb., 850. 
ss. of, premature death of, in punish- 
ment of slaying, 950. 
Brogorban, f. of Donnsleibe, 1029. 
Bron, bp., ob. , 512. 
Bron-bachal, Oengus, 649. 
Bronach, f. of (St.) Buite, 519, 523, 924. 
Brother, respective, slew : — 

Finn, royal-heir of L., 923. 
Maghnus Mac Dunlevy, 1170. 
Murchadh O'Brien, 1427- 
John O'Hanlon, 1476. 
Sicfrith, Norse k., by stratagem, 
888. 
Brothers, respective, slew : — 

Bresal, by stratagem, 801. 

Broen, k. of Ui-Cremthainn, 850. 

Bruatar, 850. 

Coirpri, 876. 

Domnall, 799. 

Domnall, k. of Meath, 950. 



Brothers. — cont, 

Donnchad O'Hanlon, by strata- 
gem ; si. therefor by Oneilland 
before twenty nights, 1111. 
Dunchad, by stratagem, 803. 
Dunlang, 1048. 
Flaithbertach, 849. 
Fogertach, 850. 
Garbshith, 937. 
Mac Rannell, 1306. 
Magennis, 1349. 

Brian Maguire,for murder, 1534. 
Gilla-epscoip-Eogain O'Henery, 

1121. 
Scannal, 886. 
Tadhg, k. of Ui-Cennselaigh, by 

stratagem, 865. 
Tuathal, by stratagem, 854. 
Uaisle, by stratagem and "parri- 
cide," 867. 

of Mac Canain, directed him to be 

si., 1167. 

of Oengus, aided him in defeating 

raiders of Niall, 914. 

half-, slewRuaidhriMacSweeney, 1527 

Brotor, slayer of Brian, leader of Loch- 

lann fleet, fell in btl. of Dublin, 1014. 
Brotudh, s. of Diarmait, si. by Mael- 

Sechlainn, 1002. 
Bruatar, b. of Broen, si. by his bb., 850. 

s. of Aedh, slew Echtigern, 853. 

s. of Dubgilla, k. of Ui-Cennselaigh, 

si., 937. 
— — s. of Tighernach, k. of Ui-Cennse- 
laigh, ob., 982. 
Bruce, Edward, landed in Ulidia, and 
defeated earl of Ulster, 1315 ; si. 1318. 

Robert, Great Steward, became k. of 

Scotland, 1306 ; came to I. to aid Ed- 
ward, 1317. 
Brude taken from Tory by Dungal, 733. 

s. of Oengus, ob., 736. 

Brudig, k. of Ui-Failgi, ob., 579. 
Brughaidh, 1489, 1498, 1531. 
Bruide, Orkneys destroyed by, 682 ; s. of 
Bile, k. of Fortrenn, ob., 693, 



44 



INDEX. 



Bruide. — cont, 

s. of Derile (k. of Scottish Picts), 

ob., 706. 

k. of (Scottish) Picts, ob., 763. 

s. of Foith (Wid), ob., 641. 

s.of Maelchon, k. of (Scottish) Picts, 

born, 505 ; expedition by, 560 ; ob., 584. 
s. of Oengus, defeated Talorg, s. of 

Congus, 731. 
Bualecc (Buolick, Slieveardagh bar., co. 

Tipperary), 1489. 
Buata, s. of Brec, f. of (Faelan), 1051. 
Buide, gf . of Moran, 896. 
Buidhe-Conaill (mortality), 556, 665, 668. 
Building: — of church of monastery of Paul 

and Peter, Armagh, by Imar, 1126; of 

Coleraine cas., 1228 ; of Derry church, 

1164 ; of Columban monastery, Kells, 

807 ; of lime-kiln, 60 feet square, in 20 

days, 1163. 
Buill (Boyle, Co. Roscommon), abbey of, 

founded, 1162. 

abbots of : — 

Muirghis O'DuflFy, 1174. 
David O'Finn, 1263. 
O'Hara, 1344. 
Cistercian church of consecrated, 

1219 ; monastery of, 1230, 1231, 1243, 

1272, 1297, 1309, 1331, 1336, 1342,1343, 

1395, 1398. 
Buite, s. of Bronach, ob., 519, or 523 ; 

coarb of (ab. of Monasterboice), 924, 

966, 1117. 
Bulby, s. of, lord of Bulby country, ob., 

1489 ; countr}^ of, by Barrow (co. 

Carlo w), 1493. 
Bun-abhami (Bunowen, Clanawley bar., 

CO. Fermanagh), townland of raided, 

1512. 
Brenoigi (mouth of Drumcliif r., co. 

Sligo), 1397. 
Drobaisi (mouth of Drowse r., Bun- 

drowes, co.Leitrim), burned, 1522; cas. 

of, 1420, 1499. 
— — duff, see Bun-Duibhe. 
Duibhe (Bunduff, co. Leitrim), 1303. 



Bun. — cont. 

Finne (Buninna, Tireragh bar., co. 

Sligo), 1308 ; cas. of, 1310. 
Gaillbi (mouth of Galway r.), cas. of, 

1232, 1233. 
Bundle of oats, cost in-calf cow, 1497. 
Buninna, see Bun-Finne. 
Buolick, see Bualecc. 
Burdens, carried over frozen lakes and 

rivers, 822. 
Burial, Christian, of delinquent, 1166. 
Butler, earl of Ormond, 1492, 1494. 

Edmund, 1307. 

Edmund, s. of James, s. of Piers, 

ob., 1499. 
ss. of Edmond, s, of Thomas, de- 
feated, 1526. 
Joan, d. of Edmond, s. of Richard, 

w. of Mac Murrough, ob. , 1489. 

John, si., 1270. 

John, s. of Edmond, s. of Richard, 

1489. 
Piers the Red, s, of James, s. of 

Edmond, s. of Rich., earl of Ormond, 

defeated, 1499 ; raided Imokilly and 

Connelloe, 1513 ; ob., 1539. 

s. of Piers, 1526. 

Richard, s. of Edmond, s. of Richard, 

si., 1478. 

Tlieobald, ob., 1300. 

Thomas the Lame, gs. of earl of 

Ormond, went to French war; ob., 

1419. 
— — Thomas, s. of Richard of Buolick. 

si., 1489. 
heir of Thomas, s. of Edmond, taken 

as hostage by earl of Kildare, 1516. 
Walter, sh, 1272. 



c. 



Cabhan (Cavan town), cas. of, 1514 ; 
Friars of, 1516 ; mon. of, 1449, 1451, 
1468, 1480, 1491, 1502, 1504; other 
references, 1401, 1495, 1496. 

(in Tyrone), 1188. 



INDEX. 



45 



Cadan, f . of Conaing, 977. 

gf. of Eogan, 981. 

Cadhasach, coarb of Coemghen (ab. of 
Glendalough ), blinded by Bomnall, 1031. 

Caech (blind-eye), Airmedach, 689, 715, 
862 ; Conghus, 752. 

Gilla-, 1123. 

scuili, scribe of Derry, ob. , 724. 

Caelfhinn, see Caill[fh]inn. 

Cael-uisce {Narroiu water : between Car- 
lingford Lough and Newry), Gentiles 
from burned Castledermot, 842. 

(narrow N.E. part of Lough 

Erne, near Castle-Caldwell, co. Fer- 
managh), cas. of, 1212, 1252, 1257. 

Caemanach, see Mac Murrough. 

Caenachair, lector, burned in Slane belfry 
by Dublin Foreigners, 950. 

Caencomrac, coarb of Tigernach (ab. of 
Clones), ob., 963. 

Caennach (in Bear bar, , co. Cork), O'Sul- 
livanof, 1498. 

Caer-Ebroc (York), defeat of Saxons at, 
867. 

Caer-legion (Chester), btl. of, 613. 

Cahir, see Cathair-duin-hiascaighe. 

Caiblein, f. of Fergna, 582, 583. 

Caill-na-crann ( Wood of [high] trees : 
Kilmore, King's co.), btl. of, 1213. 

• -Fintain (in Annally), 1406. 

an-muilinn (Killywillin, Tullyhaw 

bar., CO. Cavan), lake of, 1495. 

tuidbig (Kiltabeg, co. Longford ?), 

btl. of, 762. See also Coill. 

Caill[fh]inn and Caelfhinn (St.), coarbs 
of, see Fidhnach ; miracle of, 1225. 

Cailli, Niall, 833. 

Caimlinn (perhaps Camlin, co. Ros- 
common), de Burgh of, 1375. 

Caincomrac, bp. -ab. of Louth, ob, , 903. 

bp. of Finglas, ob., 791. 

s, of Siadal, steward of Kildare, ob,, 

835. 

Caindelban, f. of Cinaedh, 932, 

Cainnech, of Aghaboe, ob., 599, or 600 ; 
Achadh-bo of, 845, 876, 1116 : coarbs 



Cainnech. — cont. 
of, see Achadh-bo, abbots of ; coarb 
of in Keenaght (ab. of Dromachose), 
1056, 1090, 1207 ; Kilkenny of, see 
Cell-Cainnigh ; miracle of, 1197. 

• f. of Eimhen, 1014. 

Cainri, son of Niall, 524. 

Caintigernd (of Nuns' Island, Loch 
Lomond), d. of CellachCualann, ob.,9.34. 

Cairbre, s. of Crimthan, f. of Aedh, 665. 

s. of Cu-dinaisc, si. in btl. of Car- 
nelly, 747. 

s. of Niall (of the Nine Hostages), 

494, 499, 501, 535, 539. 

(Carberybar,, co. Cork), kings of : — 

Diarmait Mac Carthy, 1453, 
Donnchadh Mac Carthy the 
Swarthy, 1453. 

Caircin (Carrigans, co. Donegal), 1490, 
1536. 

Cairell, f. of Daigh, 587. 

f. of Deman, 572. 

f. of Macleighinn, 1002, 1022. 

s. of Cathal, (k. U. ) fell in btl. ; his 

army victorious, 801. 

s. of Fiachna, defeated his b., 

Echaid, 809 ; si. in domestic btl, 819. 

s. of Muiredhach Red-neck, f. of 

Baetan, 582, 587, 594, 606. 

s. of Ruaidhri, k. of Loughooney, si. 

in treachery before Clones oratory door 
by Conailli of Farney, 851. 

Cairgge {of the Bock : perhaps Carrick- 
fergus), Cinaedh, 776. 

Cairlinn (Carlingford, co. Louth), 1511. 
See also Carrlongport. 

(Cairne) d, of k. of Saxons, 1403. 

Cairnech, coarb of (ab, of Clonleigh), 969. 

Cairpre, f. of Cathusach, 1070. 

Cairpre or Cairbre and Coirpre and 
Cairpre-Ua-Ciardhai (Carbury bar., 
CO. Kildare), defeated by Brcgians, 
1060 ; kings of :— 

Gilla-Patraic, 1077. 
Maelruanaidh, 993. 
Maelruanaidh O'Bilrin, 1105. 



46 



INDEX. 



Cairpre. — cont. 

O'Careys, 1046, 1080, 1087, 1 1 15, 
1128, 1174. 

k. of si., 1070; Mac Marais of, 

1098 ; massacre of, 954 ; royal heir of, 
Muircertach, 1002; slew Sitriuc, 1165; 
O'Careyof, 954. 
Cairpre, Cairbre, Cairpre of DrumclifF, 
Coirpre and Cenel-Coirpri (Carbury 
bar., CO. Sligo), burned, 1422; churches 
of burned, 1517 ; corn of burned, 
1307 ; defeated in btl. of Moin-mor, 
756 ; defeated Leyny in btl. of Kilta- 
beg ; fought Ui-Briuin at Ardnecskan, 
754 ; given to MacDonnell tlie Gallow- 
glas, 1397 ; lordship of, 1496 ; Men of 
1420, 1432 ; raided, 1306, 1517 ; slew 
Niall Mothlach, 951 ; won btl. of 
Aughris, 603 ; other references, 703 
(note), 1103, 1187, 1257, 1291, 1296, 
1329, 1336, 1358. 

Lower (Northern), raided, 1526. 

Cairpri Daimargit see Airghialla, kings 

of. 
Cairpri, f. of Eochu, 497. 

s. of Ailill, 495. 

Caisel (Cashel), archbishops of : — 
David MacKelly, 1253. 
Stephen O'Bragan, 1.302. 
Mael-Muire O'Dunan, 1117. 
Mael-Isu O'Foley, 1131. 
Dionysius O'Lonergan, 1216. 

burned by Eli, 1102 ; Eoghanacht 

of, 848, 1045, 1052, 1057, 1092, 1093 ; 
hosting of Murchadh to, 715. 

kings of : — 

Ailgenan, 853. 
Cathal, 742. 
Cellachan, 941, 954. 
Cennfaelad, 872. 
Cormac, 901, 908. 
Cu-cen-mathair, 604. 
(Donnchadh)s. of Cellachan, 963. 
Dubdabairenn, 959. 
Dublachtna, 895. 
Dunchad, 888. 



Caisel. — cont. 

Failbhe Flann, 627. 
Feidhlimidh, 820, 833. 
Fergraidh, 961. 
Finnguine, 901, 902. 
Mael-SechlainnMacCarthy, 1 124. 
Mael-Fothartaich, 957. 
Mathgamain, 967, 976. 
Muircertach O'Brien, 1090. 

of kings, 836 ; change of kk., Cormac 

rice Finnguine, 901 ; pledges of 
MunstertakenbyMael-Sechnaill(k. I. ) 
from, 856. 

royal heirs of : — 

Aedh, 1011. 

Donnchad O'Callaghan, 1053. 
Concobar O'Donoghue, 1078. 
Cuduiligh O'Donoghue, 1038. 
Dunlang, 988. 
Caisel-Coscraigh (near Lough Scur, co. 

Leitrim), 1346. 
Caislen-in-barraigh (Castlebar, co. Mayo), 
ltl2. 

na-damcha, residence of O'Conor 

of Corcomroe, 1422. 

maol (Castle Moyle, co. Tyrone), 

defeat of Ford of, 1472, 1498. 

na-mallacht, opposite Roscommon 

cas., 1418. 

mor(CastIemore-Costello,co.Mayo), 

1247, 1336, 1527. 
riabhach (Castlerea, co. Roscom- 
mon), 1499, 1527. 
Caismidhe, steward of Mael-Sechlainn, si. 
by Fir-Cell and Eli in pursuit of 
raiders, 1018. 
Caiss (in CO. Kildare), 462. 
Caissel-Finnbair, btl. of, 684. 
Caittel Finn and his Galloway men, de- 
feated by Imar and Amlaiph in Mun- 
ster, 857. 
Caladh (Callow, on Lough (Jara, co. 

Roscommon), cas. of, 1527. 
Caladh-na-cairge (Rockingham, on S. 
marginofLough Key, co. Roscommon), 
1320. 



INDEX. 



47 



Caladruim (Galtrim, Mcath), btl. on green 
of, 777; cas. of razed, 1176; k. of, 
Maelduin, 842, 846. 

Calathross (perhaps Carse of Falkirk), 
678 ; Cnoc-Coirpri in, 736. 

Calbhach, alias of Torbach, q.v. 

Caledon, see Cenn-ard. 

Callaidh, defeat of, 1407. 

Callan, see Calland. 

Calland (Callan r., co. Armagh), Niall, 
k. I., drowned in, 846 ; quatrain rela- 
tive thereto, 846. 

Callow, see Caladh. 

Calraighe of Lurg, and of Magh-Luirg (a 
sept in Lurg bar., co. Fermanagh), 
defeated by Ui-Briuin, 752 ; massacred 
by Moygoish, 812. 

(Calry par. , Carbury bar. , co. , Sligo), 

1329 ; k. of, Cathmugh, 792 ; mas- 
sacred by Ui-Fiachrach, 777. 

( Bally loughloe par., Clonlonan bar., 

Westmeath) chiefs of (O'Carrolls), 
1265, 1475 ; pillaged Clonmacnoise, 
1050. 

Calry, see Calraighe. 

Cam (squint-eyed), Cuan, 748 ; Colman, 
1038. 

Caman, f. of Aedlug, 652. 

Cameirghe (in Tyrone), btl. of, 1241. 

Camman, s. of Amlaim, defeated at (r. ) 
Duff, 960. 

Camp, of Cerball (k. of Ossory), attacked 
without effect by Leinstermen, 870. 

of Mael-Sechnaill in Magh-dumai, 

attacked at night without effect, 860. 

of Cenel-Eogain, in Magh-Coba, 

attacked at night by Ulidians, 1102. 

of Murchadh O'Melaghlin, two 

massacres in, 1109. 

of Tigernan O'Rourke, abandoned 

to Muircertach O'Loughlin, 1161. 

Ulidian, at Crew Mount, burned by 

Cenel-Eogain, 1099. 

Camus-Ford (on Bann, nearMacosquin, co. 
Londonderry), 1006 ; passed by Muir- 
certach O'Brien and S. of I., 1101. 



Canannan, b. of k. of Conailli, carried off 

by Gentiles, 831. 

gf. of Flaithbertach, 1000. 

gf. of Gilla-Coluim, 977. 

gf. of Mael-Coluim, 957. 

gf. of Mael-Isu, 967. 

gf. of Niall, 950, 978. 

gf. of Ruaidhri, 945, 947, 949, 950. 

2 gss. of si., 993 ; 2 gss. of si, 1004. 

Cano, f. of Coblaith, 690. 

f. of Conamal, 673, 705. 

s. of Gartnaid, si., 688. 

Canon, Fathadh of the : why so called, 

804. 
of Patrick (^ook of Armagh), 1179, 

1196. 

Law, 1384, 1498. 

choral, 1328, 1343, 1479, 1484, 1498, 

1501, 1504, 1518. 
of Clogher, 1390, 1444, 1486. 

(Regular) of Lisgool, 1390, 1445, 

1466. 

Canonist, O'Corcran, 1522. 

Canonization of Francis (of Assisi), 1228. 

Canonn, f. of Nechtan, 621. 

Canons, of Clones, 1435 ; of L, 1218 ; 
Regular, 1229, 1230. 

Regular, Armagh, houses of burned, 

1179 ; house of, 1195 ; house of burned, 
1196 ; of Brigit, Armagh, house of 
saved from burning, 1179 ; atKilmore, 
(CO. Roscommon), 1232; of Saul, 1170. 

Canterbury, Thomas of, martyred, 1171. 

Cantred, 7 cows and sheep for {see Cess 
Patrician), 1106 ; chief of, 1261. 

Cantyre, see Cenn-tire. 

Captain of gallowglasses, 1501 ; of 
O'Neill's gallowglasses, MacDonnell, 
1508. 

Saxon, punished for carrying off 

image of Catherine from Downpatrick, 
1538. 

Captive, many made at Dunseverick, 923 ; 
retinue of ab. of Armagh by Conco- 
bar (k. I. ), 831 ; very many of family 
of Armagh by Gentiles, 831 ; 200 in 



48 



INDEX. 



Captive. — conf. 

Ardbraccan, 1031 ; many in defeat of 
N.C., 913 ; 3,000 by Gothfrith, 951 ; 
Taithlech made, 1090 ; or slain, 200, in 
Dalaraide raid, 1059 ; 1,000 made or si. 
by Amlaim in pillaging Armagh, 869. 

Captives, 60, brought back to I. by Adam- 
nan, 687 ; many carried by Gentiles 
from S. Bregia, 836 ; many in defeat 
of S. Bregia and Leinster by Donn- 
chad, 913 ; very many carried from 
Ards, 1012 ; 710, from Armagh by 
Foreigners of Dublin, 805 ; 300, from 
Cenel-Conaill, 1011 ; 1,000 in Con- 
naught raid, 1062; 1,000 from Con- 
naught by Domnall, 1110; 60, in 
Dalaraide raid, 1056 ; many from 
Fingal by Domnall, 1112 ; innumerable, 
from Leinster by Murchad, 1013 ; 
many, from Thomond, 1115 ; 1,200, 
rescued from Niall in Tyrone, 1031 ; 
many taken in raid of Ui-Meith, 
Cuailgne and Cremorne, 1044 ; 1000, 
from Ulidia by Concobar, 1130; set 
free by Mac Wattin, 1413. 

Capti^^ty, of Elend, 678 ; Angles, Welsh 
and Picts brought to I. in, by Amhlaiph 
and Imar, 871. 

Capture : — of Diarmait O'Brien by Muir- 
certach O'Brien, 1115 ; of Dunseverick, 
for first time, by Foreigners and Cenel- 
Eogain, 871 ; of Maelcobho, ab., and 
]\Iochta, lector, of Armagh by For- 
eigners, 879 ; of Talorg, 734 ; of Talor- 
gan, 734. 

Caradh-Chulmaile (Weir of Collooney, co. 
Sligo), 1291. 

Muintire-Banain (Carryvanan, Tir- 

kennedy bar., co., Fermanagh), 1512. 

Caran, gf., of Airechtach, 979. 

Caratbran, ab. of Birr, ob., 804. 

Carbery, see Cairbre. 

Carbury, .see Cairpre. 

Cardinal Vivian, 1177. 

Carelessness, many houses burned in 
Armagh Close through, 912. 



I Carey bar., .§ee Crotraighe. 
Carlaen, bp. of Armagh, ob., 588. 
Carlingford, -see Cairlinn and Carrlong- 

port. 
Carlus, f. of Cathal, 1009. 

s. of Conn, si. in Dublin, 960. 

sword of, see Ransom of Amlaim. 

Carman (in Kildare co.), hosting by 

Feidhlimidh (k. M.) to, 841 ; Assembly 

of held, 1233. 
Carn (near Fermoy, co. Cork), 1528. 

-ailche (probably, Carnelh', near 

Clare town), btl. of, 747. 

Conaill in Aidhne, btl. of, 649, 

784. 
Erenn (Carnearny, Ahoghill par., 

Lower Toomebar., co. Antrim,) defeat 

of Aedh, k. U., and Loingsech, k. of 

Dalaraide, at, 914. 

-Feradhaigh (Seefin Hill, Coshlea 

bar., CO. Limerick), btl. of, 627, 741. 

-Fiachach (Carn, Moycashel bar., 

Westmeath), btl. of, 765. 

fordroma {Cam of protended ridge: 

in Thomond), btl. of, 989. 

fraich (Carnfree, co. Roscommon), 

1225. 

Lughdach(^(7an?.o/ Lnghaid : appar- 
ently, in Coshbride bar., co. Water- 
ford), M. kk. def., and Maelcron, k. of 
Decies, si., at, by Mael-Sechnaill, 858. 

Mic-Cairthin(nearTeltown,Meath), 

btl. and pursuit from Teltown to, 791. 

-Siadhail (Carnteel, co. Tyrone), 

btl. of, 1239. 

Carna in Termonmagrath (co. Donegal), 

1497. 
Carnearney, see Carn-Erenn. 
Carnelly, see Carn-ailche. 
Carnfree, see Carn-fraich. 
Carnteel, see Carn-Siadhail. 
Carra, see Cera. 
Carpenter (Mac-in-tshair) Michael, bp. of 

Clogher, 1268 ; ob., 1288. 
Carrach (Scahidm), Crimthann, 719. 
f. of Oengus, 1001. 



INDEX. 



49 



Carrach. — cont. 

-calma (Donnchad, gs. of Mael 

Sechlainn), 1017 ; f. of Muircertach, 
1019 ; gf. of Coiicobar, 1023 ; of Mael- 
riianaidh, 1033 ; of Muircertach, 
1022. 
Carraic - brachaidhe (Carrickabraghy, 
Clonmany par., E. Inishowen bar., co. 
Donegal; alias of N. E. Inishowen). 
kings of : — 
Fergus, 835. 
Maelfabaill, 881. 
Sechonnan, 859. 
Tigernach, 967. 
Kings of O'Mulfoyle sept : — 
Aedh, 1166. 
Cathalan, 1199. 
Flaithbertach, 1053. 
Oilla Crist, 1082. 
Muircertach, 1065. 
Sitriuc, 1102. 

cital (Carrigkettle, co. Limerick), 

cas. of, 1510. 
Ferghusa (Carrickfergus, co. An- 
trim), burned, 1384 ; cas., mayor and 
people of, 1507 ; mon. of, taken from 
Friars Minor and given to Friars Minor 
of Stricter Observance, 1497 ; mon. 
of Friars Minor of, 1512 ; other refer- 
ences, 1303, 1376, 1425, 1524. 

na-fiacli (opposite Carrigans, in 

Tyrone), 1516. 
Carrickabraghy, see Carraic-brachaidhe. 
Carrickfergus, see Carraic-Ferghusa. 
Carrigans, see Caircin. 
Carrigkettle, see Carraic-cital. 
Carrlongport (Carlingford, co. Louth), 

burned, 1214 : see also Cairlinn. 
Carrying around relics {commotatio re- 
liquiarum : to enforce cess or Laiv of 
Saint), of Coemgen and Mochua, 790 ; 
of Ere of Slane, 776 ; of Finian of 
Clonard, 770 ; of Peter, Paul and Patrick 
to enforce Law of Patrick, 734 ; of Tole, 
793 ; of Trian, 743, 794 ; of Ultan (of 
Ardbraccan), 785. 



Carry vanan, see Caradh-Muintire-Banain. 
Carthach, flight of from Eahen, 636. 
s. of Saerbrethach, (eponymous head 

of MacCarthys) k. of Eoghannacht of 

Cashel, defeated Ossory and Ormond, 

1043 ; burned in ignited house by gs. 

of Longarcan, 1045. 
Carthusians, founded, 1186. 
Gashel, see Caisel. 
Cass, of Cobha, ob., 725. 
Cassan, scribe of Lusk, ob., 697. 
Cassan-line (perhaps, Annagassan, co. 

Louth), Muircertach fell at, 1045. 
Castile, d. of k. of, 1503. 
Castle of Donaghmoyne, roofed with 

stone, 1244. 
Castle, Foreign, at Kells, 1176. 

of Magh-Coba, 1188. 

of MacCostello, see Caislen-mor. 

of O'Gara (w. of Lough Conn, co. 

Sligo), 1538. 
of Domnall O'Neill (Dungannon), 

1504. 
of John O'Neill the Tawny (Cal- 

edon, CO. Tyrone), 1480 : of his ss. 

(same), 1487. 
of Torlogh O'Reilly (Tullymongan, 

CO. Cavan), 1387. 

of O'Rourke (Castlecar), q.v. 

Castlebar, see Caislen-in-barraigh. 
Castlecar (Killasnet par., Rosclogher bar., 

CO. Leitrim), 1452, 1487. 
Castle-Credi (Boot-hill, near Scone), btl. 

of, 728. 
Castlederg, 1497, 1505. 
Castledermot, see Disert- Diarmada. 
Castlefinn (co. Donegal), 1531. 
Castle-Forward, see Cuil-mic-in-ttrein. 
Castlehill, see Coerthannan 
Castlekieran, see Disert-Ciarain. 
Castleknock, see Cnucha, 
Castlemore-Costello, see Caislen-mor. 
Castle Moyle, see Caislen-maol. 
Castlerea, see Caislen-riabhach. 
Cat, Cathal, the, 1013. 
Cath (in Scotland), btl. of, 750. 



50 



INDEX. 



Cathach, taken from O'Donnell in btl. ; 

steward of, sL, 1497 ; restored, 1499. 
Cathair-Cinncon (near Rockbarton, co. 

Limerick), btl. of, 640. 
duin-hiaseighe (Cahir, co. Tippe- 

rary), 1516. 
Cathail, Clann-, of Magh-Ai (O'Flanagans 

of Roscommon co.), 735. 
Cathair Mor, kS3 ; f. of Fiacha 

Baicceda, 605. 
Cathal, ab. of Ferns, fought btl. with 

steward of Ferns, 783. 

f. of Aedh, the Black, 747. 

f. of Amalgaidh, 1051. 

f. of Artgal, 782, 791. 

f. of Artrach, 793. 

f. of Befail, 801. 

f. of Cairell, 801. 

f. of Cernach, 766, 788, 1015. 

f. of Coblaith, 77]. 

f. of Coirpre, 828. 

f. of Congalach and Cumuscach, 827. 

f. of Domnall, 925. 

{the Cat), f. of Domnall, 1013. 

f. of Domnall, 1014. 

i of Dubdibeirgg, 787. 

f. of Dubinnrecht, 766. 

f. of Dimchad, 760. 

f. of Echu, 804. 

f . of Fergus, 770. 

f. of Fiachra, 767, 786, 921. 

f. of Fogartach, 789. 

f. of Lorcan, 863, 864, 901. 

f. of Maelcron, 1053. 

f. of Muircertach, 746. 

f. of Muiredach, 787, 867. 

f. of Scannlan, 1014. 

f. of Tadhc, 956. 

of Tadhg, 925, 1010. 

f. of Tomaltach, 789. 

gf. of Airechtach and Concobar, 792. 

gf. of Oengus, 1033. 

gf. of Soergal, 781. 

gs. of Cellach Cualann, si , 744. 

of Maenmagh, k. of Ui-Maine, ob., 
750 ; f. of Cuthrannach, 801. 



Cathal. — cont. 

k. of Ui-Cennselaigh, ob., 758. 

s. of Aedh, f . of Cu-cen-mathair, 

665. 
s. of Aedh, si. in btl. of Lec-Ailbhe, 

737. 
s. of AilJll, k. of Ui Fiaclirach, ob., 

816. 

s. of Ailill, k. of Ui-Maine, ob., 846. 

s. of Amalgaidh, k. of W. (E.) L., 

w. & hound of, si. by Cellach, 1035. 

s. of Artri, k. of Cremorne, ob., 816. 

s. of Carlus, coarb of Cainnech, (ab. 

of Aghaboe), ob., 1009. 
s. of ConallMenn, k of Coirpre-mor, 

ob,, 771. 

■ s. of Concobar, ob., 843. 

s. of Concobar, k. C, won btl. of 

Ballaghmoon, 908 ; died in penance, 

925. 
s. of Concobar, k. C, made Athlone 

causeway, 1001 ; died in penance, 

1010 ; f. of Tadhg, 1030. 
s. of Coscrach, k, of Forth, co. 

Carlow, si. by (S.) Ui-Neill, 847. 

s. of Diarmait, sage, ob., 755. 

s. of Domnall, k. of Cenel-Ennai, 

si. by Cenel-Eogain of Inishowen, 

1078. 
s. of Domnall, k. of Munster Iveagh, 

si. by Donnchad, 1014, 

s, of Duban, k. of Odogh, ob., 852. 

s. of Dubdara, k. of Fermanagh, ob., 

1010. 
s of Dounchad, (k. of Desmond), 

massacred Foreigners, 1013. 
s. of Dunlang, fouglit family of 

Ferns, 817: k. of Ui-Cennselaigh and 

V -ab. of Ferns, ob., 819. 
s. of Echaidh, k. of Ui-Cremthainn, 

fell in btl. of Teltown, 791 
s. of Fiachra, k. of Oristown and 

Kells barr., Meath, ob., 810. 
s. of Finnguine, k. N., wasted 

Bregia, 721 ; routed at (Assembly of) 

Teltown by Domnall (k. I.) ; routed 



INDEX. 



51 



Cathal. — cont. 

Fallomun at (xlssembly of) Hill of 

Ward, 733 ; escaped from btl, 735 ; 

conferred with Aedh Allain (k. L), 

737 ; hosting of into Leinster, hostages 

and spoils of Ui-Faelain carried oif by, 

738; k. of Cashel, ob., 742. 
s. of Forindan, ab. of Kildare, ob., 

752. 
s. of Labraidh, erri of Meath, slew 

and si. by Sinach, 1003. 
s. of Maelmiiaidh, defeated and si., 

Domnall, 1014. 
s. of Miiiredach (eponymous head 

of Clann-Cathail of Magh-Ai), k. C, 

ob., 735. 
s. of Muirges (k. C), defeated Mun- 

stermen, 837. 
s. of Murchadh, k. of Ui- Maine, si. 

in btl. of Forath, 818. 

Core, s. of Niall, si., 729. 

s. of Ruaidhri, k. W.C, went on 

pilgrimage to Armagh, 1037; died in 

pilgrimage at Armagh, 1043 ; f. of 

Gormlaith, 1063. 
s. of Tadhc, k. C, fell in btl. against 

Murchad, 973. 

s. of Tigernan, k. W.C, si., 1059. 

Martyr, herenagh of Cork, ob., 1034. 

Cathalan, herenagh of Devenish, ob., 

1002. 

k. of Morgallion, si., 1006. 

s. of Cernach, k. of Fir-Cid, ob., 877. 

s. of Etroch, si. in btl. of Crew 

Mount, 1004. 
s. of Indrechtach, j.-k. U., si. in 

treachery by counsel of Aedh (k.L), 871. 
Cathan, abbess of Kildare, ob., 855. 

f. of Annie, 916 ; of Dungal, 944. 

Cathasach, f. of Cinaedh, 776. 

gs. of Domnall Brecc, ob., 689. 

s. of Domnall Brecc, ob., 650. 

s. of Maelduin, k. of (Irish) Picts, 

9l., 682. 
s. of Robartach, ab. of Armagh, 

ob., 883. 



960. 



of 



by 



Cathboth, f. of Enna, 456. 
Cathedral of Armagh, burned, 840. 
Catherine (St.), miracle of, 1513 ; image 

of ; miracles of God and, 1538. 
Cathgen, f . of Cellach, 842. 
Cathina [recte Cathnia), ab. of Duleek, 

ob., 810. 
Cathloen, k. of Britons, won btl., 632. 
Cathmal, s. of Toraaltach, j.-k. U., si. by 

Norsemen, 853. 
Cathmogh, herenagh of Lismore, ob. 
Cathmugh, f. of (St.) Cuinnidh, 498 
gs. of Cellach, fell in btl 

Druim-robaigh, 958. 

k. of Calry, ob., 792. 

s. of Duncothach, slew and si 

Dubdibeirgg, 787. 
s, of Flaithbertach, k. of Coirpre, si. 

in btl. of Ard-Maic-Rime, 792. 
GaXhma, (htl.-chaníipionjjg^. of Guaire, ab. 

of Tomgraney, ob., 794. 
(Cathina, MS.), ab. of Duleek, ob., 

810. 
Cathino, s. of Becc, si. in btl. of Ath-orc, 

770. 
Catholicon, finished, 1286. 
Catholicus, friar, precentor of mon. of 

Peter and Paul, Armagh, benediction 

of as ab. of St. Mary, Clogher, 1264. 
Cathracha { = civitates), monasteries, 845. 
Cathrae, k. of Cremorne, si. in btl. of 

Cenond, 786. 
Oathrannach, f. of Aedh, 846. 

f. of Fergal, 825. 

gs. of Cellach, fell in btl. of Druim- 
robaigh, 758. 

s. of Cathal of Moenmagh, ob., 801. 

s. of Tobath, in btl. between (S.) 

Ui-Neill and Munstermen, 766. 
Cathub, s. of Fergus, bp. of Achadh-cinn, 

ob., 555 
Cathusach, f. of Artgal, 803, 807. 

f. of Dunking, 836. 

f. of Maelruanaidh, 839. 

s. of ab. (Mael-Muire), f. of Mael- 

Brighte, 1070. 

d2 



52 



INDEX. 



Cathusach. — cont. 

s. of Ailce, bp. of Cenel-Eogain 

(Derry), ob., 947. 

s. of Ailill, k. of (Irish) Picts, si. in 

Rathbeagli, 749. 

s. of Cairpre, herenach of Mungret, 

ob., 1070. 

s.of Dulgu, (■( larb of Patrick, eniiiieut 

bp. of Irish, ob.. 9.57. 

— — - s. of Fergu.s. v.-ab. of Armagh, 
religious youth, ob. , 897. 

s. of Fergus, coarb (ab. ) of Down- 

patrick, ob., 972. 

8. of Girrgarban, coarb of Cainnech 

in Keenaght (ab. of Drumachose, co. 
Londonderry), ob., 1056. 

s. of Lurgene, si., 658. 

s. of Murchadh, bp. (-mk.) of 

Armagh, ob , 966. 

Cattle, destruction of, 1207, 1425, 1496, 
1534 ; great destruction of, in raid of 
Leinster, 1128 ; destroyed by snow, 
748 ; many destroyed b}^ snow, cold, 
and frost, 917; many perished in snow, 
1047, 1095, 1107 ; destroyed by frost 
and snow, 1115, 1339 ; plague of, 779, 
954, 987, 993 ; destroyed by storm, 
1478 ; by inclement weather, 1502 ; 
went on Lough Neagh in frost, 818 ; 
went on frozen lakes, 1434. 

spoil, very large, from Ards, 1012 ; 

from Bregians, 1009 ; from Cenel-Conaill, 
1012 ; 17 herds, from Cenol-Conaill, 
1358 ; countless, got by Cenel-Eogain 
after btl. near 'Ardee, 1159 ; many 
thousand, from Connaught, by Dom- 
nall, 1110 ; from Clan-Dermot bj" 
Cenel-Conaill, 1207 ; taken in raid on 
Cremorne, 1044 ; large, in Dalaraide 
raid, 1059 ; very large, taken on Des- 
mond hosting by Torlogh, 1121 ; count- 
less, from Desmond, 1126 ; large, 
from Fingal, by Domnall, 1112; bj' 
Hugh de Lacy, 1207 ; of Iveagh, 999 ; 
large, taken by Domnall from Leinster, 
968 ; of Leinster, 1015 ; large, taken 



Cattle. — cont. 
in Louth raid, 1083 ; large, taken from 
Thomond, 1115 ; large, in Ui-Meith 
raid, 1165 ; from Ulidians, 1027 ; large, 
taken in raid of Ulidia, 1084, 1122. 

Causeway of Athlone made, 1001. 

of Moin-Coinnedha(7'o(7Aer, Temple- 

togher par., Ballymoe bar., co. Gal- 
way), 1316. 

Cavalry of Concobar defeated cavahy of 
Tigernan, 1128 ; of Connaught, 1131 ; 
of Domnall, defeated Ulidian cavalry, 
1099. 

40 defeated raiders in Fermanagh, 

1538. 

Foreign, defeated ^luircertach'.s 

cavalry in Magh-Fitharta, 1162; de- 
feated, 1431. 

foray -jaarty of Foreign and Leinster- 

men defeated at Feartagh, 1000. 

of earl of Kildare, 1514 ; of 

Maguire, 1432; of the Black Gillie 
Maguire, 15'22 ; of 0"Conor, 1247 ; of 
O'Donnell, 1531 ; of Maghnus O'Don- 
nell, 1526 ; of O'Neill, 1538 ; of Henry 
O'Neill, 1516; Tyrawley raided by 160, 
or 180, 1536. 

leader of, 1170. 

Cavan, see Cabhan. 

Cave, smothering (by smoke) in, 1059. 

(alias of Drogheda), 1540. 

of Alia (in Carra bar., co. Mayo) 

captured bj^Connacians; 160 smothered 
in, 1063. 

of Knowth, 6-6C Cnoghbha. 

of Purgatory, of Patrick (in Lough 

Derg, CO. Donegal;, broken down, 1497. 

Caves, of Newgrange, Knowth, Dowth, 
and Droglieda searched for first time 
by Foreigners, 863. 

Ceallan, f. of Comarpach, 750. 

Ceilacan, s. of (Jaibshith, k. of Oriors, 
ob., 933. 

Ceile slew his b., Ccnneitigh, k. of Moj'^- 
goish, in treacher}', 839. 

coarb of Comgall (ab. of Bangor), 



INDEX. 



53 



Ceile. — cont. 

apostolic doctor of iill I., went on pil- 
grimage, 928 ; quatrain assigning A.D. 

927 to his ob. . 928 ; died at Rome in 

pilgrimage : styled scribe and anchorite, 

929. 
Ceilechair, coarb of Ciaran and Finnian 

(ab. of Clonmacnoise and Clonard^, ob., 

954. 
Ceilechar, f. of Flaithbertach, 849. 
s. of Donnchuan, coarb of Colum, s. 

of Cremthann, alias ab- of Terryglass- 

ob., 1008. 
Ceili-De (friends of God : Culdees), of 

Armagh, spared by Foreigners, 921 ; of 

lona, head of, Mac Forchellaigh, 1164 ; 

parson and prior of, 1479. 
Ceithernach, ab. of Glendalough, ob., 

799. 

f. of Corniac, 884. 

f . of Coscarach, 799. 

f. of Domnall, 783. 

f. of Maelumai, 829. 

gs. of Erumon, ab. of Clonfert, ob., 

773. 
s. of Cu-dinaisc, v.-ab. of Kildare- 

sl. by Gentiles in Dunamase, 845. 
s. of Dothadh, fell in btl. of Foleng, 

760. 
Cele, leper, anchorite, ob., 952. 

f. of, Fogartach, 911. 

s. of Donnacan, head of piety of 

I., ob., 1076. 
-Crist (bp. of Ui-Dunchadha?), ob., 

727. 
Dulassi (mk.) of Devenish, ob., 

751. 

-Isu, ab. of Kilmoone, ob., 815. 

Petair, ab. of Armagh, ob., 758. 

-Tigernaigh, ab. of Clones, ob,, 716. 

Celecan, f. of Trenfher, 030, 1002. 
Celechair, s. of Coman, si. in btl. of Cor- 

comroe, 705. 
Celestine, pope, Palladius consecrated and 

sent to I. by, 431. 
Cell, anchorites, 1484. 



Cell achaidh of Druim-fota ( Killaughey or 
Kiileigh, Geashill bar.. King's co.), 
abbots of : — 

Abnier, 827. 

Aedh (coarb of Da-Sinchill), 983. 

Conbrann, 767. 

Dubdacrich, 823. 

Faelgus, 808. 

Moenach, 829. 

Rechtabra, 833. 

Senchan, 79C. 

Siadhal, 799. 

Sinchell, 549. 

Tigernach, 810. 

bp.-ab. of, Robartach, 875 ; burned 

with oratory, 805 ; herenagh of, Rech- 
tabra, 954 ; mk. of, Maelanfaidh, 746. 
Cell-Aladh (Killala), bishops of :— 
(Rich.) Barrett, 1536. 
William O'Dowda, 1358. 
Donnchadh O'Flaherty, 1306. 
John O'Laitin, 1343. 
Ua Laidhig, 1275. 
John Ua Laidhig, 1280. 

canon choral of, 1328. 

Athrachta (Killaraght, Coolavin 

bar., CO. Sligo), herenagh of, 1361. 

Ausili (KilHshy, near Naas, co. Kil- 

dare), ab. of, Maeldoborchon, 829 ; bp.- 
ab, of, Loingsech, 872 ; profaned, 874, 

-Baithine(Taughboyne,Raphoe bar., 

CO. Donegal), 1456. 

Beccain (Kilbeggan, Westmeath;, 

ab. of, 1298. 

Biscighe, (Kilbixy, Westmeath), 

1430. 

-Biein (apparently near Down- 

patrick), 584. 

-Britain (Kilbrittain, co. Cork), cas. 

of, 1430. 

Cainnigh (Kilkenny town), 1478 ; 

sovereign of, 1499. 

Caisi, see Cell-can, 

can (probably an error for Cell-Caisi : 

Kilcash, Iffa and Oifa E. bar,, co. Tip- 
perary), Diarmait (mk.) of, 848, 



54 



INDEX. 



Cell. — cont. 

Cellaigh (Kilkelly, co. Mayo), 122o. 

Combair (Comber, co. Domii), 1031. 

See Niall, s. of Eochaid. 

Conduibh (Kilcoiiduif, G alien bar., 

CO. Mayo), 1385. 

na-conraire, in Armagh Plain, 1103- 

Craebhnada (Kilcreevantj', Dun- 
more bar., CO. Galway), abbess of, 1301. 

-Creidhe(Kilcrea, co, Cork), mon. of, 

1495. 

Cuilinn (Old Kilcullen, co. Kildare), 

abbots of : — 

Diarmait, 937. 
Mac-tail, 549. 
Maelochtaraigli, 785. 

mon. of, 1496 ; pillaged, 938, 939 ; 

scribe of, Maelochtaraigh (ab), 785. 

-Chule-dumai (in Leix, Queen s co.), 

Brann, k. L. and his q. Eithne, si. in, 
795. 

-Dalua (Killaloe), bishops of : — 

Coscrach, 1040. 

Marcan (coarb of), 1010. 

O'Brien, 1460. 

Donnchadh O'Brien, 1164. 

Torlogh O'Brien, 1525. 

Conor O'Heney (UaEnne), 1216. 

Maurice O'Hogan, 1299. 

burned with church, 1116;herenaghs 

of, Tadhg, 1028 ; Tadhg O'Teig, 1083 ; 
lector of, Gilla-Patraic Ua Duibhratha, 
1110 ; pillaged and burned, 1185. 

dara (Kildare), abbesses of : — 

Affrica, 834. 
Afíraic, 734. 
Brigit (foundress), ob., 524, 526, 

or 528. 
Cathan, 855. 
Coblaith, 916. 

Dubdil (coarb of Brigit), 1072. 
Eithne (coarb of Brigit), 1016. 
Fine, 805. 

Gormlaith (coarb of Brigit), 1112. 
Lann (coarb of Brigit), 1047. 
Lerthan, 773. 



Cell. — cont. 

Marthu, 758. 

Muirenn, 831. 

Muirenn, 918. 

Muirenn ^ coarb of Brigit), 979. 

8adhb (coarb of Brigit), 1171. 

Sebdann, 732. 

Tuileilaith, 885. 

abbess of house of seniors of, Condal, 

797. 

house of abbess of seized by Ui-Cenn- 

selaigh, 1132. 
abbots of : — 

Aedh, 829. 

Cathal, 752. 

Ceithernach, 845. 

Cellach, 865. 

Cobthach, 870. 

Dodimoc, 748. 

Aedh the Black, 639. 

Eudus, 798. 

Faelan, 804. 

Forannan, 698. 

Locheni Menn, 696. 

Muiredach, 787. 

Muiredhach, 885. 

v.-ab, of, Ceithernach, 845. 

bishops of : — 

Conlaedh, 520. 

Ferdomnach, 1101. 

Lachtnan, 875. 

Lergus, 888. 

Lomthuili, 787. 

Maeldoborcon, 709. 

Maelfindan, 950. 

Mael-Brighte O'Brolchain, 1097. 

Finn O'Gorman, 1160. 

Robartach, 875. 

Scannal, 885. 

fSneidbran, 787. 

Suibne, 881. 

Tuathcar, 834. 

bp.-anchorite of, Aedgen Britt, 864. 

burned, 710, 775, 779, 1040, 1071, 

1089 (thrice) ; half of church of, burned 
by Gentiles from Vartry estuary, 836 



INDEX. 



55 



Cell. — cont. 

all burned by lightning, 1019 ; burned 
with its oratory, 1020; burned l)y negli- 
gence of bad woman, 1031 ; burned, with 
its church, 1050, 1067 ; half of burned, 
1099 ; CO. and town of burned, 1493 ; dis- 
pute respecting coarbship of Brigit at, 
1127 ; community of defeated in their 
church with great loss, byCellach (k.L.), 
833 ; constable of gallov/glaKscs of, 1514 ; 
Cur,ragh near, 782. 

earl of. Justiciary, 1480. 

earls of, 1459, 1471, 1511. 

Elenor, d. of Thomas, earl of, s. of John 

the Stooped, w. of O'Neill, ob., 1497. 

Gerald, jun., s. of Gerald, earl of, 

Justiciary, raided Leix ; attacked 
O'Reilly ; invaded Munster, 1514 ; 
raided Ely O'Carroll ; took Leap castle ; 
went to Cahir and Clonmel, thence 
home, 1516 ; invaded Ulster, 1517, 
after four years' arrest in London, came 
home, 1523; invaded Tyrconnell, 1524; 
arrested by k. of England, 1528 ; raided 
Tyrone, 1531 ; made Justiciary for ten 
years, 1532 ; put in Tower of London, 
1534 ; other references, 1525, 1526- 

Gerald, s. of earl Thomas, s. of John 

the Stooped, earl of, 1485, 1486, 1487, 
1488, 1491 ; (Justiciary), 1492, 1493, 
1494 ; d. of, w. of Baron of Slane, died 
of plague, 1505; w. of, 1495, 1496; 
taken and sent to England, 1495 ; took 
Dungannon castle, 1498 ; invaded Con- 
naught, 1499 : took Caledon castle, 
1500 ; summoned to England, returned 
with English w. and his s. who was 
hostage eight years in London, 1503 ; 
defeated MacWilliam of Claniicard, 
and O'Briens, 1504 ; invaded Tyrone, 
1509 ; invaded Munster, 1510 ; invaded 
Trian-Conghail and Connaught, 1512 ; 
ob., 1513 ; said to have failed to take 
Leap cas., 1516. 

gs. of earl of, hanged and drawn, 

1431 ; s. of earl of, si., 1412. 



Cell. — conf. 

Hoiry, s. of earl, (íerald, taken to 

foster by O'Donnell, 1499. 

James, s. of earl Thomas, raided 

ss. of Glaisne O'Reilly, 1491. 

James, s. of [Gerald] earl of, taken 

and sent to England by Justiciary, 1536 ; 
beheaded, 1537. 

John, s. of [Gerald] earl of, taken and 

sent to England by Justiciary, 1536 ; 
beheaded, 1537. 

Oliver, s. of [Gerald] earl of, taken 

and sent to England by Justiciary, 1536 ; 
beheaded, 1537. 

Redmond, s. of John, s. of the earl 

of, ob., 1490. 

Richard, s. of [Gerald] earl of, taken 

and sent to England by Justiciary, 
1536; beheaded, 1537. 

Thomas [Silken], s. of earl Gerald 

jun., rebelled and murdered abp, of 
Dublin, 1534 ; lost Maynooth cas. by 
treachery,surrenderedconditionallyand 
sent to England, 1535 ; beheaded, 1537- 

Thomas, s. of earl Thomas, b. of earl 

Gerald, si., 1487. 

Thomas, s. of earl of, ob., 1532 ; ss.. 

of, 1514. 

Thomas, s. of Oliver, s. of earl 

Thomas, ob., 1564. 

Walter, s. of [Gerald] earl of, taken 

and sent to England by Justiciary, 1536 ; 
beheaded 1537. 

— — Finsnechta (k. L.) died at, 808 ; 
gallowglasses and cavalry of, 1514 ; 
house of seniors of, 797 ; lector of, Fer- 
domnach, 1110 ; mk. of, Ua Cuirc, 750 ; 
bp.-mk. of, Lomthuili, 787 ; secret 
murder' done at, 885 ; Forindan, ab. of 
Armagh, taken in oratory of by Feidh- 
limidh, k. M., 836 ; pillaged by Gen- 
tiles from Vartry estuary, 836; pillaged 
by Foreigners : clerics, who filled great 
house of Brigit and oratory, redeemed 
with his own money by Nial, 964 ; 
pillaged by Imar of Waterford, 982 ; 



56 



INDEX. 



Cell. — cont. 

pillaged by Dublin Gentiles, 942 ; priest 
of, Cobthach, 1069 ; sage of, Locheni 
Menn (ab.) 696 ; scribes of, Aedgen, 
Britt (bp. -anchorite), 864, Colman 
Banban, 725, Tiiathcar (bp. ), 834 ; bp. 
si. by priest in oratory of, 762 ; Diarmait, 
k. L. , si. in centre of, 1098; person taken 
from by force and sL, 1041 ; steward of, 
Caincomrac, 835. 

-delga (Kildalkey, Meath), abbots 

of :— Conghal, 868 ; Donnchadh, 888 : 
burned, 779. 

monks of : — 

Cuanan, 722. 
Fidhbadhach, 758. 
Suibne, 799. 

dumai glimi (Kilglinn, Meath), ab- 
bots of : — Bresal, 835 ; Finsnechta, 
842, 

-espuic-Broin (Kiliaspugbrone, co. 

Sligo), 1306. 

-Foibrigh (Kilbrew, Meath), abbots 

of :— 

Cellach, 818. 
^Maelochtrigh, 742. 
Moenach, 773. 
Orthanach, 814. 
Robartach, 787. 

bp.-anchorite of, Cormac, 838; host- 
ing of Cenel-Eogain to, 1018. 

fair (Kildare Westmeath), cas. of, 

1184. 

garadh (Kingarth, Bute), cleric of, 

Teimneu, 732. 

issel {Low Church: Killeeshill, Dun- 

gannon bar., co, Tyrone), 1257. 

Lasre (Killesher, Clanawley bar., 

CO. Fermanagh), vicar of, 1487. 

Lomat (Killumod, Boyle bar., co. 

Roscommon), 1330. 

Cell-losnaigh, see Cenn-losnado. 

Maighnen (Kilmainham, co.Dublin), 

Leinster pillaged from Glendalough to, 
1013 ; mk. and sage of, Lerghus, 787 ; 
prior of, 1438, 1534. 



Cell.— cont. 

manach (Kilmanagh, Cranagh bar., 

CO. Kilkenny), ab. and scribe of, 
Maeloehtaraigh, 785. 
Mic-Duach (Kilmacduagh, co. Gal- 
way), btl. of., 1201. 

bishops of : — 

Ailill(coarbof Mac Duach), 1093. 
Laurence O'Laghtnau, 1307. 
David Ua Sedechain, 1290. 

-mic-nEnain {church of s. of Enan; 

Kilmacrenan, co. Donegal), 1505 ; 
Columba's house in, 1129. 
Mochelloig (Kilmallock, co. Lime- 
rick), 1412. 

Moiune (Kilmoone, Meath), abbots 

of :— 

Cele-Isu, 815. 
Feidilmidh, 814. 
Maelfothartaigh, 809. 

anchorite and scribe of, Feidilmidh 

(ab.), 814. 

mona (Kilmona, Rahue ' par., 

Moycashel bar , Westmeath), btl. of, 
970*. 

mor (Kilmore, co. Cavan), 1317. 

bishops of : — 

Nicholas Brady, 1421. 
Fersithi Magiveney, 1464. 
JNIatthew Magiveney, 1314. 
Conor Mac Kinawe, 1355. 

burned, 749 ; cas. of, 1226. 

of Cinnech (probably' Kinneigh, 

CO. Cork), ab. of Forbasach, 852. 

dithribh (Kilmore, Ballintober 

N. bar., co. Roscommon), ab. of, Flann, 
735 ; burned by Ui-Cremthainn, 757 ; 
church of consecrated, canons estab- 
lished at, 1232 ; see also Cell-mor of 
Tir-Briuin. 

Enir (Kilmore, Oneilland W. 

bar., CO. Armagh), 1251. 

abbots of : — 

Comarpach, 750. 
Crunnmael, 770. 
Flaithbertach, 812. 



INDEX 



57 



Cell. — cont. 

V. -ab. of wonnded, whilst under 

protection of the hcrenagh, by Leinster- 

men, 818; hercuagli of, 1200; mk. of, 

Fergil, 770 ; bp.-mk. of, Feidhlimidh, 

842 ; pillaged by Foreigners, 874 ; 

Plain of, 1120. 
of Tir-Briuin ( = Cell-mor-dith- 

ribh, q.v.), 1330 (prior of), 1381. 
Naale (Kinawley, Clanawley bar., 

CO. Fermanagh), 1387 ; burned, 1538 ; 

vicar of, 1378. 
Oa-nDaighri (Killineer, near Drog- 

heda), btl, of, 868. 
-oiridh (Killerry, Tirerrill bar., co. 

Sligo), herenagh of, 1362. 
Ronain (Kilronan, Boyle bar., co. 

Roscommon), 1426; church of, 1347; 

vicar of, 1357. 
ruadh (Kilroot, co. Antrim), 1199 ; 

Ulidia raided to by Concobar, 1122. 
-Santain (Kilsandle, near Coleraine), 

cas. of, 1197. 

Scire (Kilskeer, Meath, abbots of : — 

Doelgus, 755. 
Dubdaleithi, 750. 

bp.-mk. of, Conall, 867. 

Sgire (Kilskeery, co.Tyrone), church 

of burned, 1537 ; herenagh, parson and 

vicar of, 1536. 
sleibhe (Killevy, co. Armagh), 1029 ; 

pillaged by Gentiles from Carlingford 

Lough, 923 ; by Gothfrith, 951. 
Srianain, in Muintir-Eolais, church 

of burned, 1492. 
Tome (Kiltoom, Westmeath), 

abbots of : — 

Cellach, 813. 
Coibdenach, 768. 
Colgu, 851. 
Robartach, 886. 

mk. of, Echaid, 751. 

Cella-becca (Killybegs, co. Donegal), 

burned, 1513- 
Cellach, quatrain of, reckoning 533 years 

from Nice Council (325) to 857. 



Cellach, — conf. 

— — ab. of lona, resigned, 814. 

ab. of lona, built mon. ; deposed, 1204. 

coarbof Patrick, s.of Aedh, s.of Mail- 

Isu,born,1080; made coarb and ordained, 
1105 ; on circuit of Cenel-Eogain and 
Munster, and got full cess {q.t\) ; got 
grade of abp. by direction of Men of I. on 
Munster circuit, 1 106 : made year's peace 
between Murchad and Domnall, 1107 ; 
onConnaught circuit, first time, and got 
full cess, 1108 ; made year's peace be- 
tween O'Brien and O'Loughlin, 1109 ; 
on Meath circuit, first time, andgotcess, 
1110 ; at Fiadh-Mic-Oengusa synod, 
1111 ; made peace twice between Dom- 
nall and Muircertach, 1113 ; on Con- 
naught circuit secondly and got full 
cess, 1116; Mass requisites of lost, and 
himself endaiigered, in Tall r. , co. 
Armagh, 1118; on Munster circuit, got 
full cess and gave blessing, 1120; made 
bp. of Dublin by Foreigners and Irisli, 
1121 : consecrated church of Paul and 
Peter, Armagh, 1126; was for thirteen 
months through I. , pacifying and ex- 
horting laics and clerics, 1126 : died at 
Ardpatrick, buried in bishop's tomb, 
Lismore ; panegyric of ; succeeded by 
Muircertach, 1129. 

Cualann, k.L, won btl. of Clane,704 ; 

ob., 715 ; Britons in his service si., 709 ; 
f. of Caintigernd, 734 ; of Cobiaith, 
731 ; of Conchenn, 743 ; of Crimthann, 
726 ; of Etirscel, 727 ; of Fiachra and 
Fiannamhail, 709 ; of Muirenn, 748 ; 
gf. of Ailill and Cathal, 744. 

of Curragh, s. of, 815. 

d. of Caintigernd, 734. 

d. of Dunchad, q., ob., 732. 

Diathraibh, si. in. btl. of Kells, 718. 

f. of Aedh, 719; r2) 829. 

f. of Ailill, 622. 

f. of Cinaedh, 814. 

f. of Colgu, 780 ; (2) 831. 

f. of Colggu, 422 ; (2) 775, 781- 



58 



N^DEX. 



Cellach. — cont. 

f. of Conang, S29. 

f. of Cuana, 670, 

f. of Donmall, 728 ; (2) 974. 

f. of Doimchad, 976. 

f. of h^tirscel, 814. 

f . of Eogan, 1003. 

f. of Faelan, 804. 

f. of Fergus, 756. 

f. of Finsnechta, 803,806, 808 ; (2)939. 

f. of Finijiiechta Double-Squint 

(Cetarderc), 79o. 

f. of Flaitheman, 8iil. 

f. ofFlann, 812. 

f. of Flaiinacaii, 896. 

f. of Lorcan, 848. 

f. of Macnio, 780. 

f. of Mael-Patraicc, 878. 

f. of Mughtliigernd, 785. 

f. of Tolarg, 8b8. 

gf. of Artbran, Cathmugh, and 

Cathrannacli, 758. 

gf. of Jjomnall, 1022. 

gs. of I>auaii, coarb of Comgall (ab. 

of Bangor), ob., 968. 

gs. of Concodach, ob. , 810. 

gs. of Xuada, si. by Foreigners in 

refectory, 971. 

slew his b., Fallomon, 825, 

s. of Aedh, see Cellach, coarb of 

Patrick. 
s. of Ailill, ab. of Kildare and lona, 

ob. in Pictland, 865. 
s. of Bee, k. of Dalaraide, si. by his 

people, through envy, 943. 
fi. of Bran, (k. L) defeated Kildare 

community in their church, and slew 

many, 833 ; ob. , 834. 
s. of Cathgen, ab. of Dromore in 

Iveagh, ob., 842. 
s of Cerball, k. of Ossory, si. in btl. 

of Ballaghnioon, 908. 

s. of Coirpre, si. by robber, 767 

s. of Coirpre, ab. of Trim, ob., 838. 

s. of Congal, ab. of lona, ob., 815, 

s. of Congalach, f. of Flannagan, 956. 



Cellach. — cont. 

s. of Cormac, k. of Ard of Cian- 

nachta, ob., 786. 
s. of Coscrach, ab. of Errigal-Kerogue 

ob., 838. 

s. of Crundmael, f. of Flann, 739 

s. of Cucathraige, ab. of Achadh- 

Chrimtain, ob., 830. 
s. of Cumuscach, ab. of Fore, a sage 

and most talented young man, ob., 868. 

s. of Diarmait, k.of Ossory, si., 1003. 

s. of Donnchad, k L., won domestic 

btl. of Ath-orc ; Ui-Ncill led against 

by Donnchad, k.1 , 770 ; ob., 77ó. 

Tosach, s. of Donngal, k. of S. 

Leinster, si. in btl., 809. 

s, of Dunchad, slew Cathal, his w. 

and hound, 1035. 

s, of Echaidh, ab. of Kiltoom, ob., 813 . 

s. of Faelchar, k. of Ossory, si. in 

btl., 735 ; ss, of put to flight in btl. , 769^ 

s. of Flannacan, beheaded Mael- 

mordha, k. of Louth, 891 ; royal-heir of 
all Bregia, si. in stratagem by Fogar- 
tach ; quatrain in praise of, 895. 

s. of Fogartach, won btl. over Con- 

cobar, s. of Muiredhach, k. L., 818. 
s. of Forbasach, ab. of Ros-cam, fell 

in btl. of Drung, 836. 

s. of Guaire, ob., 666. 

s. of Maelcoba, k. I., began reign 

643 ; Avon btl. of Dun-Cremtain, 650 ; 

ob., 658, or 664. 
s. of Mael-Patraic. vice-ab. of Fir- 

Rois 8. of r. [Lagan], ob., 847. 

s. of Maelracha, bp,, ob., 701. 

s of Moinach, ob, , 786. 

s. of .Muirgis, ab. of Drumcar, si. 

by Oertide, 816. 
of Loch-Cime, s. of RaghaUach, 

k. C, slew Loin.sech, 703 ; became 

cleric, ob., 705. 

s. of Ronan Mor, ob., 693, 

s, of Saran or Ronan, ob., 658. 

s, of Scannlan, ab, of Kilbrew, ob., 

818. 



INDEX. 



59 



Cellach. — cont. 

s. of Secnde, ab. of Clonmacnoise, 

ob., 740. 

s. of Soergus, bp. -anchorite of 

Armagh, ob., 903. 

s. of Tuathal, k. of Ui-Crimthaiiin, 

ob., 732. 

s. of Trien, great-gf. of Dubda- 

crich, 738. 
Cellachan, f. of Fiachra, 914. 

k. of Cashel (eponymous licad of 

Mimster O'Callaghans), brought by 
Muircertach to do homage to Donn- 
chad (k. I.), 941; defeated Thomond 
at Gort-Rottachain, 944 ; ob. , 954 ; 
gf. of Donnchad, 1053 ; (Donnchadh) 
s. of, k. of Cashel, ob., 963. 
Cellan, ab. of Clonfert, ob., 753. 

s. of Sechnasach, sage, ob., 706. 

Cellbil (nun) of Clonbroney, ob., 765. 
Cellcene (mk.) of Lorrlia, ob. , 657. 
Cemetery, of Aghalurcher, 1486 ; of Friars 
Minor, Armagh, 1266 ; of kk., at 
Armagh, 935 ; of Bangor, slaying in, 
1121 ; of (St.) Martin, Derry, 1204. 
Cenannas (Kells, Meath), abbots of :— 
Ferdomnach (ct)arb of), 1008. 
Loingsech (coarb of Columba), 

1055. 
Mael-Brighte MacRonain, 1117. 
Mael-Muire, 1009. 
Muiredach (coarb of Columba), 

1011. 
O'Mulmochery, 1277. 
Philip O'Reilly, 1504. 
Ferdomnach Ua Cluchain, 1114. 

btl. at, 718, 743; burned, 1016, 1040, 

1099, 1 1 1 1 , 1 166 ; burned with its church, 
1060 ; burned with its churches, 1095 ; 
canon of Eogan O'Reilly, 1504 ; Foreign 
cas. of razed, 1176; church (of Col- 
umba) of finished, 814 ; given peace- 
ably to Columba, 804 ; community of 
massacred by O'Rourke, 1117 ; Donn- 
chadh taken by Tigernan at 1155 ; Gilla- 
Crist si. in, 1017 ; Gospel of Columba 



Cenannas. — cont. 

stolen from western sacristy of great 
church of, 1007 ; hill of Ed near, 
1013. 

lectors of : — 

Mac Gormain, 1070. 
Macnia, 1034. 
Maelan, 1050. 

new mon. of Columba built in, 807 ; 

bp. -mk. of, Mael-Finnen, 969 ; pil- 
laged by Gotlifrith, 951 ; by Foreign- 
ers, 997 ; by Amlaim of the 8andal, 
970 ; profaned by Flann (k. I.) ; many 
beheaded round oratory of on that oc- 
casion, 904 ; slaying in belfry of 
1076 ; wasted, ] 176 ; other references, 
1258 ; 1296, 1355, 1489. 

Cenbuigh (Cambo, co. Roscommon), btl. 
of, 622. 

Cend-Ailbhe (co. Kildare), btl. of, 501. 

Cendercan, f. of Broccan, 834. 

Cenel-Aedha (^Ki)idea : a sept in K. of 
Kilmacduagh diocese, co. Galway), k 
of, 1222. 

Ardgail & -Artgail (a Meath sept , 

fought Cenel-Loeghaire, 800 ; kings 
of:— 

Dunlang, 747. 
Oengus, 812. 
Tuathal, 837. 

Binnigh of Glen (a sept in (Jltii of 

Foyle, probably on Donegal side), 
1181 ; chief of, Cinaedh, 1075 ; slew 
Concobar and his w., 1078 ; slew Dom- 
nall, 1076 ; slew Maelmithigh, 1081 ; 
steward of, Maelduin, 1030 ; mortally 
wounded Flaithbertach, 1068. 

Binnigh of Loch-drochait (a sept in 

adjacent parts of Loughinsholin and 
Dungannon bar., co. Tyrone) raided 
by Mac Lochlainn and Magh-Itha, 1053. 

-Boghaine (Banagh barr., co. Done- 
gal), defeated by Domnall (k. L), 784 ; 
kings of : — Forbasach, 786 ; Maelgoan, 
847. 

-Brenain, a name of Tullyhunco, q.v. 



60 



INDEX. 



Cenel. — cont. 

Ccithbotha (-^epf of Cathhofh, gs. of 

Loam, first k. of Scottish Dalriata), 

si., ;ui. 

Coirpri and Cenel-Coirpri-moir ; 

Coirpi'e-[Gabra] and Coirpri of Teffia 
(a sept in (Iranard bar., co. Longford, 
of which the sept in Carbiuy bar. , co. 
Sligo, was an offshoot), destroyed the 
Brecrighe, 752 ; kings of : — 

Bodbthach, 736. 

Cathal, 77L 

Cathniugh, 736. 

Dunadhach, 873. 

Conall Menn, 7U7, 722. 

Conang, 752. 

Conchobar, 706. 

Cugamhnae, 784. 

Dubhduin, 67 L 

Dubinnrecht, 799. 

Fergus, 683. 

Flaithbertach, 752. 

Loegaire, 813. 

Maelduin, 666. 

Muirges, 698. 

Murchad, 799. 

Oengus Bron-bachal, 649. 

Mac Ronchon of, 755 : si. in (iranard, 

742 ; Slogadach of, 759. 

-Colmain (=Clann-Colmain, i/.r.), 

618. 

Comghaill {Sf^pt of Coinyha?/, fourth. 

k.of Scottish Dalriata: GowaJI, Argyle), 
btl. fought by, 710. 

Conaill {Kin el -Con mil, Ti/rconnell : 

Donegal co.), chief of, Dalach, 870 ; 
defeated by Cenel-Eogain, 789, 967, 
1043, 1008, 1281; by Clan-Derniot, 
1207 ; by Oriel, 978 ; encamped at 
Drumclift; 1188 ; fleet of, 1201 ; foray 
of Murchad into, 974 ; fought Aedh, 
s. of Fergal, in Magh-Itha, 733 ; fought 
Cenel- P]ogain, 727, 732, 787 ; fought 
Connachtinen, 703 (note) ; host of, 1532 ; 
hosting twice into by Flail bertach, 
1012 ; hosting into by, gave hostages 



Cenel. — coni. 

to get 160 cows from, O'Conor, 116o ; on 
Domnall'sliostings, 1113; invaded, 12Si5. 
kings of : — 

Aedh, 990. 

Eicnechaii, 906. 

Flaithbertach, 1000. 

Loingsech, 754. 

ilael-Coluim, 957. 

Mael-Isu, 967. 

Murchad, 767. 

O'Canannan, 1160. 

Aedh O'Canannan, ir03. 

Aedh ,, 1156. 

Domnall ,, 1083. 

Donnchad ,, 1075. 

Flaithbertach ,, 1U45. 

Maghnus ,, 1165. 

Ruaidhri ,, 1031. 

Ruaidhri ,, 1072. 

O'Donnell, 1247. 

Torlogh O'Donnell, 1290. 

O'Heney, 1199. 

Niall O'Loughlin, 1113. 

O'Muldory, 1181. 

Donnial O'Muldory, 1032. 

Flaithbertach ,, 1197. 

Murchad ,, 1085. 

O'Neill, 1212. 

Tigernan, 980. 

I wo leaders of si. in btl. , 732 ; Men of, 

1420, 1487, 1496, 1505, 1526, 1537, 
muster of, 1349 ; nobles of, 1516, 1522, 
1524 ; pillaged by Flaithbertach ; k. of 
taken by Brian to Kincora, 1011 ; 
raided, 1479; made raid, 1165; raided 
Cenel- Eogain, 1212, 1213; royal heir of, 
Ruaidhri, 1114 ; some of si. in btl. 
of Magh-Itha, 73-1 ; some of 
si. ; some taken, 1497 ; slaughtered 
Inishowen, 1117; slew Art, 1046; 
slew Colman, s. of Niall ; hosting led 
against by Aedh (k. I.) in consequence, 
815 ; slew Mael-Sechlainn, 1063 ; slew 
Niall, 1001 ; slew Trenfher, 1007 ; 
slew Ua Coinnecen, his w., and people, 



INDEX. 



61 



Ccnel. —conf. 

1177 ; submitted to Domnall, 1114 ; 
wasted, and slaughtered people of, 
Inishowen ; defeated Cenel-Eogain, 
1172 ; won btl. of Loch-monann, 1522 : 
other references to, 5ÍÍ3, 1024, 1191, 
1199, 1211, 1232, 1247, 1252, 1524. 

N., chief adviser of, Cinaedh, ab. of 

Derry, 921. 

Dobhta {Doohy-Hanly : Kilglass, 

Termonbarry, Clontuskort parr., and 
E. part of Lisonuffy par. , Ballintober 
N., Roscommon, and Ballintober S., 
barr., co. Roscommon), chiefs of 
(O'Hanly), 1297, 1358. 

Duachain and (phonetically) — Lua- 

chain (Oughtragh par., Carrigallen bar., 
CO. Leitrim), chiefs of MacDorcys, 12S4, 
1341 ; raided 1459 ; other references, 
1272, 1357, 1457. 

Ellannalasept in Armagh co.), 1185. 

Ennai (Raphoe bar., co. Donegal, 

N. of line drawn from Lifford to 
Letterkenny), defeat and slaughter of, 
1175 ; k. of, 1036 : k. of si. by Donn- 
chad, 1083 ; kings of :— 
Cathal, 1078. 
Niall, 1057. 

Niall O'Gormley, 1177. 
Oengus Ua Lapain, 1011, 

Eogain {Kinelowen : Tyrone co.), 

Artgal of, 803; bp. of (of Derry), 
Cathusach, 947 ; barred Brian's ma: ch 
to N. of I., 1004 : liad brawl with 
Ulidians on Pentecost at Armagh, 893 ; 
burned Ulidian Camp at, and uprooted 
tree of. Crew, 1099 ; burned Drumquin 
and its church, 1213 ; chief champion 
of, Amlaim, 1155; Patrician circuit and 
cess of, 1092, 1106, 1162, 1181. 

defeated, 1172, 1177; defeated 

Cenel-Conaill, 789, 1098, 1281 ; de- 
posed Murchad (their K,), 823 ; dis- 
suaded the bb., Domnall and Niall, 
from fighting each other, 905 ; dona- 
tion by to Patrick, .see Finnfaidhech. 



Cenel. — cont. 

Flann the Fair of, 700 ; with Foreign- 
ers, took Dunseverick, 871 ; forts of 
Foreigners between and Dalaraicle, 
sacked by Aedh (k. I.), 866 ; made foray 
on, and took large cattle-spoil from, 
Ulidians, 1027 ; made foray to, and took 
large spoil from Tyrconnell, 1028 ; 
fought btl. of Lethirbhe, 630 ; fought 
Cenel-Conaill, 727, 732, 787. 

led by Domnall and Niall, ss. of 

Aedh, in hosting to, and burning. Hill 
of Ward, 908 ; hosting of Eochaidh into, 
989 ; hosting to, and Ulidian hostage 
taken off from, by Brian (Boruma), 1007; 
with Concobar on hosting in Iveagh 
and Bregia, 1128 ; led hosting to, slew 
many and lost Gilla-Crist at, Kilbrew, 
1018 ; made hosting to and camp in 
Magh-Coba, 1102 ; with Muircertach on 
Ossory hosting, 1 156 ; with Muircertach 
on Connaught hosting, 1159; on Muir- 
certach's hosting to Magh-dula, 1160 ; 
on Domnall's hostings, 1113; brokj 
house of O'Lynch in Antrim, 1030 ; 
invaded, 1196, 1238, 1286. 
kings of : — 

Aedh, 1065. 

Colman Rimidh, 602. 

Mael-Sechlainn Mac Loughlhi, 
1176. 

Aedh O'Donnell, 1290. 

Ruaidhri O'Laverty, 1186-7. 

O'Loughlin, 1232. 

Concobar O'Loughlin, 1170. 

Domnall O'Loughlin, 1083. 

Domnall O'Loughlin, 1186. 

Muircertach O'Loughlin, 1196. 

Flaithbertach O'Muldory, 1197. 

O'Neill, 1212. 

Aedh O'Neill, 1177. 

Domnall O'Neill, 1234. 

Domnall O'Neill, 1290. 

Niall Culanach O'Neill, 1290. 
kingship of, 1286 ; muster of at- 
tacked each other by mistake ; gave 



62 



INDEX. 



Cenel. — cont. 

hostages to O'Conor, 1167; nobles of, 
1164; nobles of, on Muirceitach's host- 
ing to aid Oriel, 1159 ; domestic peace 
in, 1370 ; protection of, 1205 ; with 
Ardgar in Dalaraide raid, 1059; on 
Concobar's Ulidian raid, 1122 ; made 
raid, 1165; raided, 1213; i-azed Inis- 
louglian, 1165. 

few of slain, 1166; slew: — Aedh, 

991 ; Cellech, 1021 ; Diarmait in Ulidia, 
1064 ; Donnchad, k. of Dalaraide, 1004; 
Donnchad, k. of Keennght, 1015 ; Dub- 
darach, 991 : Fergal, 1017 ; Echmi- 
ledh, 1065 ; Flannacan, k. of N. Dala- 
raide, 849 ; Furudran, k. of Bright, 
964 ; their king, 1160 : Maelan, 1009 ; 
Niall, 1001 ; Ruaidhri, unjustly, 1114. 

stated Aedh was si. by themselves not 

in btl. of Crew Mount), 1104; great 
war between and Ulidians : defeated 
Ulidians, Munster and Leinster, in 
Magh-Coba, 1103 ; won btl. of Formail 
over Cenel- Conaill, 967; Ua Duibhne of, 
1168. 

of Island (Inishowen bar., co. Don- 
egal), slaughtered by Cenel-Conaill, 
1117; slewCathal, 1078; slew Oengus, 
1011. 

of Tullyhog, 1181, 1186, 1196; de- 
feated, 1166; defeated Fermanagh at 
Mailderg, 1077 ; won btl. of Magh- 
Lughad, 1160 : other references to, 563, 
637, 1171, 1180, 1182, 1186, 1211, 1220, 
1234, 1252, 1261, 1513. 

Feidhlimtho (a sept in Brefny), 

massacred Brefniansa'id their k., Mael- 
tluin, 822. 

Feradaigh(Clogher bar., CO. Tyrone), 

629 ; bishops of, see under Clochar ; 
brawl between, 1493 ; burned, 1516 ; 
chiefs of, 1171, 1185, 1216; Echmar- 
cach, 1120; G ilia-' rist, 1129 ; chiefs 
of , of Mac Cawell sept, 1238, 1251, 1252, 
1261, 1263, 1346, 1370, 1405 ; chief of, 
Uidhrin, 1082. 



Cenel. — cont. 

raided, 1480, 1508, 1511, 1531, 1.535. 

Ferghusa (tribe-name of O'Mul- 

foyles of Carrigabragh}^ q.r.), chief of, 
O'Mulfoyle, 1216 ; steward of, Mac 
Craith, 1081. 

-Fergna (alias of Brefny), 1528. 

-Fiachaidh and Fiachaigh-Mic-Neill 

; \I 03'casliel bar., Westmeath), 1373; 
chiefs of (Mageoghegans), 1291, 1374, 
1382, 1386, 1392 ; lord of, gs. of Ailill, 
740 ; wasted by Ossory, 742. 

Fogartaigh {Kinelarty bar., co. 

Down), k. of, Mac Cartan, 1.375. 
Gab rain {dan of Gahran, k. of Scot- 
tish Dalriata), won btl. of Ard-esbi, 719. 

Loairn {c/an of Loam Mor, k. of 

Scottish Dalriata), lost btl. of Ard- 
esbi, 719; k. of, Muiredach, 733; 
massacred in Tirinn, 678. 

Loeghaire (a sept seated around 

Trim, Meath), Bresal of, 801 ; chief of, 
Cinaedh, 932; fought Cenel- Ardgail, 800. 

kings of : — 

Ailill, 642. 
Bran, 954. 
Cinaedh, 843 
Congalach, 834. 
Cumuscach, 883. 
Curoi, 797. 
Domnall, 885. 
Fcradaeh, 704 
Maelcron, 901. 
Maelduiii, 784. 
Oengus, 771. 

slaughter of, 712. 

Luachain, see Cenel-Duachain. 

Lughdach (tribe-name of O'Don- 

nells of Donegal), kings of: — Maelruan- 
aidh, 1011; O'Donnells, 1100, 1106. 

Maelche (a Ulidian sept), chief of, 

Cerran, 914. 

Maini {clan of Maine, s. of Niall 

of tlie Nine Hostages : Kilkenny W. 
and Clonlonan barr., AYcstmeath, 
Kilcoursey bar.. King's co., and Shrule 



INDEX. 



63 



Cenel — cont. 

bar., CO, Longford), k. of, Aedh Buidhe, 
604 ; steward of, Gilla-Crist, 1090. 

Mic-Erca {dan of [Muircertach] s. 

of Ere [q. r.] : a sept adjoining Clogher 
bar., CO. Tyrone, on the N. or E.), 
629. 

kings of : — 

Bodbchad, 774. 

Finsnechta, 830. 

Flann Garadh, 763, 797. 

Moen (O'Gormley's : of Raphoe 

bar., CO. Donegal and Strabane bar., co. 
Londonderry), bonaght of, 1505 ; chief 
of, 1340; chief of, Concobar, 1119; 
chiefs of (O'Gormley's), 1232, 1261, 
1280, 1281 ; lord of, O'Donnell, 1510 ; 
nobles of si., 1239; raided, 1432, 
1516; slew Niall, 1119; with Dom- 
nall in slaying Faelan, 1128 ; tumults in 
respecting chieftainry, 1178 ; won to 
Muircertach, 1159 ; other references, 
1179, 1180, 1183, 1435, 1442, 1452, L")14, 
1522. 

Oengusa (a sept in Cenel-Eogain), 

chief of, 1200 ; chief of, Mac Gilla-roid, 
1236; stewards of: — Amlaim, 1155; 
Muircertach, 1095. 

Cen-rig in Inishowen, abandoned by For- 
eigners, 921. 

Cenn, f. of Baetan, 563. 

Cennalath, k. of Picts, ob., 580. 

Cenn-ard (Caledon, co. Tyrone), cas. of, 
1500, 1531. 

caile (Galmoy bar., co. Kilkenny), 

k. of, Concobar O'Brophy, 1165. 

con (=Cathair-cinn-con, q. v.?), 

btl. of, 643. 

-coradh {Head of weir: Kincora, near 

Killaloe, residence of Brian Boruma), 
k. of Cenel-Conaill brought as vassal to 
by Brian, 1011 ; fort of built by Brian, 
1013 ; hosting to, fort of razed and well 
of choked up by Aedh O'Oonor, 1081 ; 
razed by Doranall and Ruaidhri, 1088 : 
burned by lightning, 1107; razed by 



Cenn. — cont. 

Connacians, 1119 ; Torlogh O'Brien, k. 
I., died at, 1086 ; other reference, 1343. 

cuilinn, si., 1182. 

dairc (in Down), Iveagh defeated 

and slaughtered at, 1118. 

delgden (apparently in Meath , btl. 

of, 622, 724. 

-eich (Kinneigh, co. Ivildarci. htl. 

of, 528, 533. 

eitigh (in Roscommon), Curragh of, 

1397. 

etigh (Kinnitty, King's co.), ab of, 

Colman, 908. 

Ceimetigh, f. of Augran, 917. 

f. of Congalach and Gilla-Muire, 1019. 

s. of Congalach, k. of Moygoish, si. 

by his b., Ceile, in treachery, 839. 

s. of Donncuan, f. of Aedh, 1054. 

s. of Gaithine, k. of Leix, ob., 903. 

s. of Lorcan, k. of Thomond, ob , 

951 ; f. of Brian (Boruma), 941, 1009, 
1014 ; f. of Cuduilig, 1014 ; f. of Donn- 
cuan, 1008, 1014 ; f. of Alarcan, lOlO ; 
f . of Mathgamain, 967, 976. 

Cennfaelad of the Barn {q.v.), choice con- 
fessor (of Ainiagh), died of colic, 1012. 

ab. of Drumcvillen, ob., 745. 

ab. of Fore, ob., 711. 

f. of AiliU, 782. 

f. of Dunchad, 717. 

f. of Eugan, 890. 

f. of Ferdamal, 759. 

f. of Maelduin, 817. 

f. of Mael-Sechlainn, 1050. 

f. of Mughron, 885. 

f . of Niall, 846. 

f. of Taichlech, 734. 

gs. of Aedh Brecc, ab. of Bangor, ob., 

705. 

gs. of Cuiiene, si., 754. 

herenagh of Seirkieran, ob., 953. 

s. of Ailill, ob., 679. 

• s. of Blathmac (k. I.), began to reign 

672 ; si. in btl., 675. 

s. of Colgu, k. C. si., 682. 



64 



INDEX. 



Cennfaelad. — coiit. 

s. of Flaithbertach, herenagli of De- 

venish, ob., 1025. 

s of Gerthide, si., 662. 

— — s. of Lorcan, ab. of Clones and 

Cloglier, v.-ab. of Armagh, ob., 981. 
gs. of Moclitigern, k. of Cashcl, died 

after long suffering, 872. 
s. of Ruman, scribe, anchorite, bp.- 

ab., of Trim, ob., 821. 
s. of Suibne, k. of Keenaght, burned, 

681 ; f . of Flann, 700. 
s. of Ultan, sage of Both-Conais, ob., 

852. 

verses of, 517, 669. 

Cenn-febrat (JjoWyltoiira Mountain, be- 
tween Cork and Limerick cos.), btl. of, 

757. 
-fota {long-head), Congal, 674, 7] 8 ; 

Fergus, 710 ; Nechtan, 635. 
fuait (Confey, co. Kildare), fleet of 

Sitriuc came to, and defeated Leinster 

at, 917. 
garadh (Kingarth, Bute), abbots 



of :— 



'76. 



a nickname), 
CO. Carlo w). 



Maelmanach, 
Noa, 790. 
Ronan, 737. 

bishops of : — 

Daniel, 600. 
lolan, 689. 

-gegain {goose-head : 

Finnguine, 901. 

losnado (Kellistowi 

btl. of, 490. 

maghair (Kennaweer, co. Donegal), 

Congal of, 705, 710 ; 20 Foreign ships 
came to, 921 ; other reference, 1522. 

saile (Kinsale, co. Cork), 1428, 1432, 

1498. 

selach, s. of Bran, si. in btl., 770. 

tire (Cantyre), 576, 681 ; k. of, 

Dunchad the Little, 721 ; Ruaidhri of, 
878; Conallsl.in,807; slaughter of, 1164. 

tuirc (Kanturk, co. Cork), castle of, 

1510. 



Cenond (apparently, on confines of Down 
and Louth cos.), btl. of between Iveagh 
and Conaille, 786. 

Cenred (Cuidin), k. of Saxons, ob., 718. 

Cenrighmone (St. Andrews, Scotland), 
ab. of, Tuathalan, 747. 

Centre of Derry, enclosed by stone wall and 
right of asjdum attached to, 1 1 62. 

Cenwulf, k. of Saxons (Mercians), ob., 821. 

Cera (Carra bar., co. Mayo), 550 ; Alia in, 
1063 ; raided, 1385, 1412. 

Cerbhall, descendants of, 651. 

f. of Cellach, 908. 

f. of Cerbhall, 587. 

f. of Diarmait, 928. 

f. of Illannan, 586, 622. 

f. of Laidgnen, 988. 

gs. of Faelan, slain by Offaly in 

disputing coai'bship of Brigit at Kil- 
dare, 1127. 

gs. of Macl-Sechlainn, f. of Con- 

cobar, 993. 

s. of, k. of Eli, si., 1022. 

s. of Dungal (k. of Ossory), defeated 

Agonn, with 1200 si., 847 ; slew Echti- 
gern, 853 ; gave full award of com- 
munity and coarb of Patrick in Rahue 
Conference, 859 ; great iiosting by into 
Meath, 859 ; with his full muster, 
pillaged Leinster to Dun-bolg; camp 
of attacked without effect by Leinster- 
men, many of whom were massacred, 
870 ; died suddenly, 888. 

s. of Faelan, si. by Foreigners, 1039. 

s. of Finsnechta, k. of Garrycastle, 

ob., 829. 

s. of Lorcan, roj^al heir of Leinster, 

si. by Doninall, 967. 

s. of Maelodor, ob., 694. 

s. of Murican (k. L,) and Leinster- 

men with Mael-Finnia in expelling 
Gentiles from I. , 902 ; won battle of 
Ballaghmoon, 908 ; best k. L., died of 
grief, 909. 

Cerd, Conaille (alias of Conaille-Muir- 
theimhne, q.t:), 864. 



INDEX. 



65 



Cermnai, Dun-, 858. 
Cerna the Just, 868. 
Cernach, f. of Conmal, 800. 

f. of Connniach, 847. 

f. of Cumuscach, 781, 817. 

f. of Echaidh, 829. 

f. of Echmarcach, 1057. 

f. of Echu, 796 ; (2) 851. 

f. of Fergus, 781 . 

f . of Focarta, 815. 

■ f. of Fogartach, 714, 761. 

f. of Mael-Bresail, 849. 

f. of Muiredach, 842. 

f. of Riraidh, 786. 

gf. of Forbasacli, 771. 

gf. of Joseph, 794. 

s. of Cathal, ob., 766. 

■ s. of Cathal, ob., 788. 

• s. of Cathusach, herenagli of Down- 

patrick, ob., 1015. 

s. of Congalach, k. of Knowth, ob., 

818. 

s. of Diarmait, ob., 664. 

— • — Sotal, s. of Diarmait, ob., 664, or 
667 ; Ciiiaedh of the race of, 975 ; f. of 
Niall, 688, 701, 724; gf. of Conall 
Grant, 718 ; gf. of Cumuscach and 
Niall, 777 ; gf. of Fogartach, 704, 716. 

s. of Dunchad, k. of Cremorne, ob., 

804. 

s. of Dunchu, scribe, sage, and bp. 

of Armagh, ob., 831. 

s. of Echaidh, chief of iviughdoirn 

of Bregia, ob. , 869. 

s. of Fergus, k. of Lagorc, ob., 805, 

s. of Flann, ob., 766. 

• s. of Flami, ab. of Dunleer, steward 

of Armagh community from Castle- 
kieran to sea, and from Boyne to r. 
Glyde, chief adviser of all Bregia, ob., 
922. 
s. of Flann Foirbthe, slain in mas- 
sacre of Bolg-Boinne, 770. 

s. of Flatlmia, k. of Mughdoirn of 

Bregia, ob., 812. 
s. of Fogartach, defeated {recte won 



Cerna. — cont. 
btl.) at Lsc-Ailbhe, 737; si. by wicked 
associates, 738. 

s. of Mael-Bresail, k. of Iveagh, ob., 

853. 

s. of Muiredach, ob., 791. 

s. of Suibne, steward of Armagh, 

ob., 784. 
Cernachan Got, si. by Ua Flannacain, 
1037. 

s. of Cumuscach, k. of Oristown, si. 

in treachery by Moracan, 866. 

s. of Duilgen, royal heir of Oriors, 

drowned by Niall, 912. 

s. of Flann, k. of Lune, led foray to 

Farney and slew Muircertach, 1002 ; 
si. in Morgallion defeat, 1013. 

s. of Tadhg, ss. of, of Lune, slew 

Maelruanaidh and other nobles by ig- 
niting house, 901. 

s. of Tigernan, k. of Brefny, ob., 

931. 
Cernd, s. of Bernd, quatrain in praise of 
for mortally wounding Oengus (in 914, 
at battle of Girley), 914. 
Cerpan, bp. of Fert-Cerpain at Tara, ob., 
504. 

(mk.) of Duleek, ob., 754. 

Cerran, s. of Colman, chief of Cenel- 
Maelche, si. in defeat of Carnearny, 419. 
Cerrbheoil {of the wry-moiLth), Fergus, 763. 
Cess (Patrician), got by Cellach in Cenel- 
Eogain : — cow for 6 (householders) ; in- 
calf heifer for 3 ; |^ oz. of silver for 4 ; 
in Munster : — 7 cows, 7 sheep, and 
h oz. of silver for each cantred, 1106 ; 
in Cenel-Eogain, by Domnall, 1092; 
unprecedently large, got by Gilla-Mac 
Liach in Cenel-Eogain, ]162; of Con- 
naught, got by Cellach, 1116 ; of 
Meath, got by Cellach, 1110; of 
Munster, got by Cellach, 1120 ; of 
Munster, got by Domnall, 1094 ; of 
Munster got by Mael-Isu, 1068 ; other 
reference, 1181, 
temporal, of Columban churches of 



66 



INDEX. 



Cess. — cont. 

Meath and Leinster given to Flaith- 

bertach O'Brolchain, 1161. 
Cetadbach, ab. of Clonmacnoise, ob., 850. 
Cetarderc {four eyt.^ : double-squint), 

Plnshnechta, 795. 
Cetfaid, f. of Donnacan, 869. 
Cetfaid, head of Muuster clerics, ob., 1056. 
Cetomun, si. in btl, of Farney, 730. 
Cett, s. of Flaitlibertach, k. of Corcom- 

roe, ob., 819. 
Chalice of Patrick, found and given to 

DowTipatrick, 553. 
Chalices, five (/.e., the gray son, the son of 

light, chalice of O'Muldoiy, the twisted 

chalice, and chalice of O'DoghertyS 

stolen from Derry church, 1197. 
Champion, chief, of Cenel-p]ogain, 

Amlaim Mac Cami, 1155. 
Championship of N. of I., helmsman of, 

Aedh O'Conor, k. C, 1067. 
Change of abbots in Armagh, see Abbots, 

change of, in Armagh. 

of kings, see Kings, change of. 

Chanter, 1488. 

Chaplain, of Brigit's church in Armagh, 

Gormgal, 1085. 

of Inishkeen, 1393. 

Chapter, General, of Franciscans, 1265. 

of Friars Minor, at Rome, 1517. 

of Friars Minor of Stricter Observ- 
ance, at Donegal, 1488. 
Chariot, abbots', of Armagh, burned, 1020. 
Charles, k. of Franks, or emperor of all 

Europe, ob., 813. 

VIIL, k. of France, ob., 1498. 

Charm, of druids, 561. 
Charters, of vassalage, 1514. 
Chastity, eminent in, Mael-Patraic, 1046. 
Chattel of Foreigners taken off by Aedh 

(k. L), 866. 
Chester, see Caer-legion. 
Chief of Armagh students, Mael-Petair, 

1042. 
bardic professor of I.,Cellach O'Roo- 

ney, 1079 ; of Meath, Flann, 1100. 



Chief. — cont. 

young lord of Foreigners of I., 

Torfind, 1124. 

Chiefs of Cenel-Eogain, si., 1241. 

• of Connaught, si. by ]Mael-8echnaill, 

985. 
of Foreigners other than the two 

named, si. at Glen-mam u, 999. 

15, si. in defeat of Murchad, 1055. 

Children, plague of, in I., 825. 

3 Innocent, fea.st of, 1119. 

Choking up well of Kincora, 1061. 
Choral canon, 1479, 1486, 1498, 1501, 

1504, 1518. 

of Clogher, 1390, 1444. 

College, 1490. 

Christ Church, Dublin, 1513. 

Christ, soldier of, mk., 792, 1104, 1119. 

Chronicle, of Eusebius, end of, 610; of 

Isidore, 617 ; of Marcellinus, 536. 
Church, opposed by Henr}' VIII., 1533. 

Donnchadh 0" Carroll rescued by 

favour of, 1155. 

nobles saved in Emh' outrage by 

favour of, 112-3. 

ignited, 1508, 1537. 

of Aghavea burned, 1458. 

of Ardbraccan, 200 Ijurned in, 1031 ; 

burned full of f>eople by Momonians, 

1115. 
of Ard straw burned, 1095 ; burned 

by Craib, 1099 ; peace made in, 1179. 

of Brigit in Armagh, 1085, 1189. 

of Armagh Close burned, 1092. 

of Armagh, Donnchad O'Haughey 

set free in, 1101. 

-: — of Relics, Armagh, and 100 houses 

burned, 1090 ; arclipriest of, Dubthach, 

1095. 
stone, Armagh, burned by lightning, 

996; burned, 1020; roofed with shingle 

b3'Cellach, 130 years after next previous 

complete shingle roof, 1125. 
of mon. of Paul and Peter, Armagh, 

built by Imar ; consecrated by Cellach, 

1126. 



INDEX. 



67 



Church. — cont. 

S., of Armagh, 1196. 

of St. Dominic, Bologna, 1348, 1383. 

of Derry, 1214; door of made by 

O'Brolchain, 1 155 ; pinnacle of fell, 1250, 

of Brigit, Downpatrick, 1007. 

of Patrick, Dublin, 1254. 

• stone, of Dulane, burned, 920. 

of Drumquin, burned, 1213. 

stone, of Durrow broken, Mael- 

mhuaidh taken out and si. by Muircer- 
tach, 1019. 

of Enilagh, burned, 1237. 

of Kmly, burned, 1058, 1162. 

of St. Francis, 1230. 

of Kells, burned, 1060 ; (of Columba) 

of Kells, finished, 814 ; stone, of Kells, 
broken and many martyred in it by 
Gentiles, 920. 

of Kildare, burned, 1050, 1067. 

of Killaloe, burned, 1116. 

of Leighlin, slaying at door of, 1045. 

of Lismore, s. of Buatan si. in by 

Mael-Sechlainn, 1051. 

of Lusk, burned, 1089. 

of (St.) Fainche, Rossory, founded, 

1084. 
— — of Rechra, founded, 635. 

of Sinell, founded, 1100. 

of Swordy, burned 1130. 

of Telach-inmuinn, Ossory, student 

killed in by stone that leaped from 
belfry, 1121. 

wooden, of Dromahaire, 15; 2. 

groves of Armagli, biu'ued by light- 
ning, 996. 

lands, pillaged in Ulidia, to E. of 

Ards, 1130. 
Churches (beside those named), burned, 

1095, 1166. 
— - of Ardstraw andFahan, burned and 
profaned by Muircertach OBrien and 
S. of L, 1101. 

of Ardstraw and Raphoe destroyed, 

1199. 
of Armagh, burned, 1074, 1179. 



Churches. — cont. 

of Canons Regular Armagh, burned, 

1196. 

of Close, Armagh, burned, 1166. 

stone, of Armagli, burned by light- 
ning, 996. 

many in Bregia, burned by Momoni- 

ans, 1115. 

of S. Bregia and E. Meath, 

profaned by Flann (k. I.), 914. 

of Brigit, Columba, and other saints, 

destroyed by Strongbow, 1176. 

broken down by storm, 1363, 1373, 

1478. 

Columban, of Meath and Leinster, 

temporal cess of given to Flaithber- 
tach O'Brolchain, 1161. 

of Columba, Finnian and other saints, 

destroyed by Diarmait Mac Murrough, 
1171. 

of Connaught, burned, 1188. 

70, of Desmond, destroyed by Tor- 

logh O'Conor, 1121. 
of I. , desolated by famine-pestil- 
ence, 1116. 

of IST. of I. , despoiled by Foreigners, 

839. 

pillaged in Keenaght, 1197. 

of Kells, burned, 1095. 

of Leinster, burned by Donnchad (k. 

L), 780. 
all, of Lough -Erne, razed by Gen- 
tiles, 837. 
of Magh-Liphi and Magh-Bregh, pil- 
laged by Norse fleets, 837. 

(other than those named) in Meath, 

pillaged by Goth frith, 951. 

of Meath, desti^oyed, 971. 

of Munster, pillaged by Gentiles 

from Waterford Harbour, 915. 

of W. Munster, burned by Gentiles, 

835. 

of Patrick, full freedom given to by 

Brian (Boruma), 1012. 

of Patrick, Columba, and other 

saints, destroyed by Cenel-Eogain, 1 172, 
E 2 



68 



INDEX. 



Churches. — cont. 

persecutor of, 1084. 

profanation of, punished, 1484. 

of Teifia, pillaged from Annagassan, 

841. 

of Thomond. burned, 1084. 

of Trim, burned by Concobar 

O'Loughlin, 1128. 

of Tir-Eogain (besides tMO named), 

burned and profaned by Muircertach 
O'Brien and S. of L, 1101 ; desolated by 
■Nvar and dearth, 1179. 

wasted by Saxons, 685. 

of Ui-Neill (S.), pillaged (by For- 
eigners) to Slieve Bloom, 841 ; pillaged 
by Cinaedh, 850. 

chief, of Ulidia, spared in raid, 1165. 

Ulidian, burned by De Courcy, 1177. 

unroofed Iw storm, 1487. 

Cialltrogh. ab. of Glasnevin. ob., 746. 

Cian, s. of Maelmuaidh, defeated and si. 
by Domnall, 1014. 

f. of Tadlic,868. 

Cianan (St.), ob., 489 ; coarb of (ab. of 
Duleek). 1098 ; oratory of (at Duleek), 
pillaged ; full of persons who were 
taken ofiFby Foreigners ; Barith, great 
Norse tyrant, si. after by, 881 ; Duleek 
of, 1 093, 1 123 , 11 69 : protection of saved 
Murchadh O'^SIelaghlin from being si. 
or burned, 1123. 

Ciannachta and Ciannachta of Bregh (N. 
W. part of Balrother}' bar., co. Dul>lin 
and Duleek barr., Meatli), Assembly of 
disturbed 1)}' Donnchad (k. I.), 777 ; 
defeated, 535 ; churches and lands of 
pillaged by Gentiles, 832 ; invaded, 
1197, 1207.' 

kings of : — 

Aedh (j.-k.), 758. 
Ailill, 702. 
Cinaedh, 850. 
Conaing, 737, 742. 
Cumuscach, 839. 
Doir, 674. 
Dunchad, 831. 



Ciannachta. — conf. 

Geirtide, 593. 

Flann, 812. 

Indrectach, 748. 

Tadhg, 976. 

Ultan, s. of Ernaine, 662. 

2 kk. of fought small btl. against 

each other, 824 ; massacred Ui-Teig at 
Dublin ; many of drowned in full tide 
returning on the occasion. 770 ; Men of 
defeated by S. Bregia, 817 ; Rath- 
Aldain (Rathallon) in, 852; royal-heir 
of, Conaing, 884 ; slew Saxolb. chief of 
Foreigners, 837 ; s. of k. of, 1206 ; 
wasted by Gentiles to Ochtar-Ugan, 
827 ; wasted by Flann (k. I.), 914. 

Ard-(Ferra?'(Z bar.,co. Louth), kings 

of:— 

Cellach, 78G. 

Cinaedh, 828. 

Muiredach, 779. 

of Glenn-geimhin [Ghngh'en, vale 

of r. Roe , near Dungiven ; Keenaght bar. , 
CO. Londonderr}'), coarb of Caimiech 
in (ab. of Dromachose), 1056, 1090; 
kings of : — 

Cennfaelad, 681. 

Cronan. 572. 

Domichad.gs. of Goacli, 1015. 

Donncuan, 884. 

Goach, 927. 

Dunchad O'Conor, 1100, 1104. 

Concobar, O'Henery, 1096. 

Gilla-epscoip-Eogain O'Henery, 
1121. 

Echri O'Mulmory, 1100. 

O'Kanes, 1213, 1247, 1264. 

Suibne. 616. 

Tomaltach, 757. 

O'Conor of, slew Echri O'Mulmory 

and became k., 1100. 
Ciaraidhe and Ciaraidhe-Luachra (Kerry, 
N. of line drawn E. from Tralee), 
Foreigners massacred by, 917 ; kings 
of :— 

Mac-beathadh, 1014. 



INDEX. 



69 



Ciaraidhe . — cont . 

Muiredach, 1004. 

O'Conors, 1067,1086, 1103, 1165. 

Son of Mathgamain, s. of Muire- 
dach, 1032. 

UaMuiredaigh (O'Murray), 1103. 

John (FitzGerald), knight of, 1489. 

Mac Maurice of, 1446. 

(-Ai : Clann Keherney, Kilkeevin 

par., Castlereagh bar., co. Roscom- 
mon), chief of, Duinechaidh, 796 ; king 
of, Mac Keherney, 1316 ; wasted by 
Muirgis (k. C), to avenge slaying of 
his s., Cormac, ab. of Clonmacnoise, 805. 

of Connaught (most of Clanmorris 

and Costello barr., co. Mayo and W. 
parts of Castlerea and Frenchpark barr. , 
CO. Roscommon), k of, Connmach, 847. 

(-Cuirche : Kerricurrihy bar., co. 

Kerry), k. of, Fogartach, 908. 

of Loch-na-nairne (S. half of Cos- 
tello bar. , CO. Mayo), kings of, O'Kerins, 
1224, 1264 ; raided, 1262. 

Ciaran, ab. of Devenish, ob., 921. 

ab. of Raymoghy and Tech- 

Mofinnu, ob. , 784. 

coarb of Cainnech (ab. of Aghaboe), 

ob.,928. 

most eminent sage of I., died in 

penance, 1061. 

the Pious (mk ) of Castlekieran, ob., 

975. 

f . of Cormac, 882. 

■ gf. of Cumene, 743. 

(founder) of Seirkieran, feast of. 

Sun., Mar. 5, 1088 ; Saigher (Seir- 
kieran) of, 1048. 

s. of Ainmire, f. of Fiachra, 620. 

s. of the Wright (founder of Clon- 
macnoise), born 512, or 517 ; ob., 
549 ; coarbs of, see Cluain-Mac-Nois, 
abbots of ; feast of (Sept. 9), 1038 ; 
Laio of, established by Fergus, k. C, 
744 ; promulgated over Connaught, 
788 ; over Cruachan by Muirgis (k. C. ), 
814. 



Ciarchaille, s. of Cairellan, k. of N. 

Bregia, slew, and si. by, Congalach, 

988. 
Ciardha [eponymous head of O'Careys, 

Carbury bar. , co. Kildare], gf. of Mael- 

ruanaidh, 993. 
Ciarmac, f. of Beollan, 969. 

f. of Maelduin, 1030. 

[eponymous head of O'Kirbys], k. of 

Ui-Fidhgente, ob., 906. 
Cilleine, anchorite of lona, ob. , 752. 
Cillene, s. of Congal, ob., in lona, 752. 
the Tall, succeeded ab. Faelchu in 

lona, 724. 
Cilleneni Ua Colla, ab. of Fahan, ob., 

725. 
Cilleni, ab. of Ferns, ob. ,817. 

bp.-ab. of Ferns, ob. , 715. 

(mk.) of Lough Derg (co. Donegal), 

ob., 722. 
Cilu, f. of Maeltuile, 888. 
Cinadh, f. of Aedh, 878. 

~ f. of Oengus, 879. 
Cinadu. f. of Domnall, 749. 

f. of Eithni, 778. 

k. of (Scottish) Picts, ob., 775. 

s. of si., 730. 

Cinaedh, ab. of Aghaboe, ob., 876. 

ab. of Lismore, ob., 965. 

coarb of Coemghen (bp. of Glenda- 

lough), ob., 1068. 

f. of Aban, 867. 

f. of Coirpri, 849. 

f. of Constantine, 872, 876. 

f. of Domnall, 885. 

f. of Dubscuile, 964. 

f. of Flaithnia, 806. 

f. of Gilla-Coemghin, 1035. 

f. of Mac Boete and Mael-Coluim, 

1033 ; of Mael-Coluim, 10.34. 

f. of Maelmithigh, 844. 

f. of Olcobar, 851. 

f. of Suibne, 1034. 

fought Aedh in Pictland, 768. 

gs. of Odormac, k. of Louth, died in 

penance, 1066. 



70 



INDEX 



Cinaedh. — cont. 

si. in btl. of Driiim-Corcrain, 728. 

Mac Alpin, k. of (Scottish) Picts, 

ob., 858 ; f. of Mael-Muire, 913. 

s. of Anmchacl, k. of Ui-Liathain, 

ob., 790. 

■ s. of Artgal (k. C), si. in btl. of 

Cloonargid, 792. 
s. of Artri, k. of Cualann, ob., 832. 

s. of Caindelban, chief of Cenel- 

Loeghaire, si., 932. 

Cairgge, s. of Cathasach, si. in btl. 

of Driing, 776. 

s, of Cellach, bp.-ab. of Trillick, ob., 

814. 

s. of Coirpre, chief of Ui-Cennsel- 

aigh, si, by Norsemen, 935- 

s. of Conaing, k. of (Leinster) 

Ciannachta, aided by Foreigners, op- 
posed Mael-Sechnaill, pillaged (S.) Ui- 
Neill, territory and church, from 
Shannon to sea, razed (crannog of) 
Lagore, and burned Trevet oratory 
with 260 persons therein, 850 ; drowned 
by Mael-Sechnaill and Tigernach, 
with the approval of worthy persons 
and especially the coarb of Patrick, 851. 

• s. of Conang, k. of Teffia, ob., 834. 

s. of Concobar, si. in Magh-Cobha, 

by (Irish) Ficts, 808. 
s. of Coscradh, k. of Brawney, si. in 

Teflfia, 840. 
s. of Crongall, k. of Louth, fell in 

btl. of Kilmoone, 970. 
s. of Cumuscach, ab. of Durrow, ob. 

793. 
s. of Cumuscach, k. of Ferrard, si. 

by Foreigners, 828. 
s. of Curoi, k. of Cenel-Loighaire, 

si. by Devlinians, 843. 

s. of Domnall, ab. of Derry and 

Drumhome, chief adviser of N. 
Cenel-Conaill, ob., 921. 

s. of Domnall, slew Amlaim, 977. 

s. of Dub, k. of Scotland, si. in do- 
mestic btl, 1005. 



Cinaedh. — cont. 

s. of Echaid, k. of N. Dalaraide, si. 

in treachery by his associates, 832. 
s. of Flann, si. in btl. of Ath-orc, 

770. 

s. of Flannacan, royal heir of 

Bregia, ob., 896. 

s. of Irgalach (k. I.), won btl. of 

Cenn-Delgden, 724 ; si. in btl. of 
Druim-Corcain, 728. 

s. of Mael-Coluim, k. of Scotland, 

si. by strategem, 995. 

s. of Mughron, k. of Oifalj', ob., 

829. 

s. of Niall, si. by Ulidians, 835. 

Cined, s. of Lugtren, k. of (Scottish), 

Picts, ob., 631. 
Ciniod, s. of Derile, ob., 713. 
Cinneich, Cell-mor-, 852. 
Circistown (Crikstown, iNIeath), Barnwell 

of. 1510. 
Circuit, of Ossory, by O'Brolchain, 1162. 
(Patrician), 1181 ; of Cenel-Eogain, 

1050, 1092, 1162; of C.-E. and all N. 

of I., 993; of Connaught, 960, 1108, 

1116, 1172 ; of Munster, 973, 1021, 

1068, 1094, 1120. 
Cistercian habit, death in, 1224, 1333,1342. 

monastery, Boyle, 1219. 

Cities, many shaken b}^ Alp earthquake, 

1118. 
Civil Law, s. i\ Law. 
Civitas (cai/iaiV: monastery), 716, 782,784, 

807, 825, 835, 838, 840, 882, 8S8, 901, 

1011. 
Clabach (Clabby, Tirkennedy bar., co. 

Fermanagh) island (crannog) of, 1518. 
Clabby, .see Clabach. 
Clain-inis (Cleenish Island, in r. Erne. 

Clanawley bar., co. Fermanagh), church 

of Sinell of founded, 1100 ; herenagh 

of, 1400, 1495 ; parson of, 1518 ; parson 

and lord of, 1471 ; vicar of, 1441, 1483, 

1487, 1534: other references, 1423,1427, 

1450, 1515, 1528, 1536. 
Clairchu, f. of Cu-Macha, 1053. 



INDEX. 



71 



Clanawley, sec Clann-Amhlaim. 
Clanconoo, see Clann-Conmaigh. 
Clan-Conor, see Clann-Concobair. 
Clane, see Cloenath. 
Clanelly, see Clan-Sneidhgile. 
Clan-Hugh, see Clann-Aedha. 
Clankee, see Clann-in-caich. 
Clankelly, see Clan-Cellaigh. 
Clanmaliere, see Clann-Mailiglira. 
Clanricard, see Clann-Ricaird. 
Clann-Aedha of Iveagh (Magennis sept), 
1172, 1173. 

Aedha-buidhe {Clannahoy : tavutovy 

of O'Neills, E. of Lough Neagh, in 
Antrim and Down cos.), defeated, 1470, 
1533 ; invaded, 1493; raided, 1515; 
other references, 1319, 1365, 1481, 1517. 
Aedha of Clann-Amhlaim (Clan- 
Hugh of Clanawley : a branch of the 
Maguires of Fermanagh), 1454. 

Alexandair (Mac Donnells of the 

Isles), 1366. 
Amhlaim (Clanawley bar., co. Fer- 
managh), burned, 1538 ; head of, Philip 
Macawley, 1480 ; lord of, Brian Mac- 
awley, 1466 ; other reference, 1502. 

Baighill (O'Boyle's), 1510. 

Bresail (Oneilland E. bar., co. 

Armagh), chief of, Finnchadh, 1082. 

Caba (Mac Cabes of Longford), 

1413, 1447. 

in-caich {Clankee bar., Co. Cavan), 

1377, 1431, 1471, 1500. 

Cana (a Tyrone sept), 1491 . 

Carthaigh (Mac Carthys), 1486. 

Cathail of Magh-Ai (O'Flannagans 

of Roscommon) , 735 ; chiefs of, 912, 1 189 ; 
chiefs of, O'Flannagans, 1231, 1293, 1294, 
1377 ; other references, 1260, 1313. 

Cathmhail (Mac Cawells of Clogher 

bar., CO. Tyrone), 1358. 
Cellaigh {Clankelly bar., co. Fer- 
managh), Clan-Donnell, or Mac Don- 
nells, of, 1357, 1379, 1-166, 1472, 1486, 
1487, 1499, 1501 ; raided, 1342 ; other 
reference, 1468. 



Clann. — cont. 

-Cellaigh (O'Kellys of Gal way and 

Roscommon cos.), ss, of kk. of si., 1343 ; 
other references, 1316, 1329. 

-Cinaith (Mac Kennas) of Trough 

(bar., CO Monaghan), 1436. 

Colla of Fermanagh, chief of, Mac 

Cawell, 1185. 

Colmain {Clan of Colman, si., 587 : 

O'Melaghlins of Meath), descent of, 
593 ; expelled Domnall from Meath, 
971 ; other ref., 1475. 

Concobair {Clan-Conor : in Baslick 

par., Castlereaghbar., co. Roscommon), 
1165; chiefs of, O'Mulrenins, 1165, 
1325 ; Lissalway in, 1340. 

Conghail, alias of Trian-Conghail, 

q.v. 

Conghaile (a branch of the Mac 

Cawells), chiefs of:— Mac Cawell, 1238 ; 
Mac Gille-Michil, 1310. 

-Conmaigh {Clanconoo: W. of r. Suck, 

Ballimoe bar., co. Galway), 1406 ; lord 
of, Mac David, 1419 ; Mac David of, 
1496. 

Coscraidh (a sept holding Clare 

bar., CO. Galway), slew Aedh O'Conor 
by stratagem, 1062. 

Cuilen (tribe name of Mac Namaras 

of Clare), 1362, 1369, 1416; chiefs of, 
Mac Namaras, 1379, 1428, 1432, 1444 ; 
invaded, 1377 ; raided, 1412. 

Cuinn {Clan of Conn of 100 btls.), 

bardic name of N. of I., 943, 1343. 

Diarmata {Clondermot par., Tir- 

keeran bar., co. Londonderry), chiefs 
of, O'Carolans, 1177, 1179, 1197, 1216 ; 
defeated, 1201 ; made peace with Derry 
community for slaying O'Gormley, 
1177 ; raided, 1207 ; steward of, O'Caro- 
lan, 1090. 

Domnaill (Mac Donnells of Antrim), 

1365, 1366, 1488. 

(O'Laverty's, Tyrone), 1217. 

of Clann-Cellaigh, see under 

Clann-Cellaigh. 



72 



INDEX. 



Clann. — cont. 

of Coninis (a sept in Dartree 

bar., CO. Monaghan), 1520. 

(Mac Donnells, captains of 

O'DonnelFs Gallowglasses), 1290. 

. of (O'Neill's) Gallow- 
glasses, 1368, 1493. 

(Mac Donnells), of Scotland, 

1495, 1522. 

Donnchaidh (Mac Donoughs, Tirer- 

rill bar., co. Sligo), attacked, 1399 ; 
burned Moylurg ; raided Carra ; raided, 
1385 ; at domestic war, 1416 ; other 
references, 1336, 1346, 1409, 1526. 

Duibinnrecht (a branch of the Mac 

Ca wells), 11 85. 

Dunghaile (tribe nameof O'Gradj's), 

1311. 

Eogain = Cenel-Eogain (q.v-), 1099. 

Feorais (tribe name of the Berming- 

hams), 1343, 1366, 1408, 1488. 

Fermiiighe (Glanfarne, co. Leitrim), 

1309, 1349. 

Finghin (a sept in Raphoe bar. , co. 

Donegal), chiefs of, 1179, 1213. 

Flaithbertaigh (OTlahertys of Con- 
naught), slew Concobar O'Gormle}-, 
1119. 

Fogartaigh [Kinelarty bar., co. 

Down), chief of, Mac Cartan, 1165. 

-Fogurtaigh (a branch of the Mac 

Cawells), chief of, Mac Cawell, 1185. 

Gaffraigh (Mac Caffreys), 14(38, 

1533, 1536. 

Goisdelb (Mac-Costellos, Costello 

bar., CO. «Mayo). 1412; defeated (the 
adjacent district on the N.) Leyny 
(bar., CO. Sligo), 1365 ; raided, 1336. 

-Imair (a branch of the Magaurans), 

1498. 
Mailighra {Clanmaliere : Philips- 
town bar,. King's co., and Portnahinch 
bar., Queen's co.), chief of, O'Dempsey, 
1193. 

-Mathgamna {Clonmahon, bar,, co. 

Cavan), lord of, O'Reilly, 1534. 



Clann. — cont. 

Maurice and Clann-Maurice of the 

Brees {ClanmorrU bar., co. Mayo), 
1342, 1412; defeated, 1341, 1412; ex- 
pelled, 1366 ;raided, 1335 ; TOof si., 1341. 

Mebric (Merricks of Mayo), 1337. 

Muirceitaigh(c/a/io/J/»<rce>-^ac/ithe 

Momonian, s. of TorlogliMor O'Conor), 
defeated, 1380 ; nitsterof, 1349; raided, 
1276, 1294, 1311 ; raided Carbury, 1306, 
Connaught, 1311 ; Mac Dermots. J 310, 
Tirei rill. 1309 ; at war with O'Rourkes, 
1370 ; wasted Carbury, Tirerrill, and 
Corrjui, 1307 ; other references : — 1272, 
1280, 1296, 1298, 1303, 1305, 1308, 
J 338, 1339, 1342, 1343, 1345, 1347, 
1352, 1366, 1367, 1374 1390, 1391. 

Murchadha (O'Finaghtys, co. Ros- 
common), chief of, 1181. 

Oengusa (sept of the Mac Cawells), 

chief of, 1185. 

R'caird (Clanricard, co. Gal way) 

attacked, 1469; defeated, 1336;invaded, 
1265, 1366, 1404, 1419; invaded and 
defeated by Mac Namaras, 1377 ; 
Mac William or Clan -William of, 1386, 
1412, 1430, 1431, 1467, 1481, 1509; 
chief brehon of, 1487 ; ollam of, 1438 ; 
raided, 1335 ; 126 of si., 1336 ; many of 
taken, 1349 ; defeated at Knockdoe ; 2 
ss. and 2 dd. of taken off, by earl of Kd- 
dare, 1504 ; other references, 1342, 1343, 
1420, 1475, 1510, see Mac William of 
Clanricard. 

Ruadhrach, chief of O'Togher, 

1171 ; chief of Mag Madagan 1251. 

-Ruairc (O'Rourkes of Breffny), 

1366 ; at war with Clann-Muircertaigh, 
1370. 

Sinaigh (a sept in Armagh bar., 

and CO.), slew O'Rogan, k. of Iveagh, 
for profaning Armagh by homicide, 
1038 ; stewards of : — 
Gilla-Crist, 1018. 
Mageraghty, 1059. 
O'Haughey, 1086. 



INDEX. 



73 



Clann. — cont. 

Sithigh (the Sheehys or Mac 

Sheehys), 1522. 
Sneidhgile {ClaneUy : in Raphoe 

bar., CO. Donegal), chiefs of, 1205, 

1213. 
• Siiibne (the MacSweeneys of Done- 
gal), defeated, 1380; heir of sL, 1305. 
Toirdhelbaigh [clan of Torloyh, gs. 

of Brian Boriima : Clonderalaw bar. , 

CO. Clare), steward of, Aedh, 1054. 
Tomaltaigh (a sept in co, Ros- 
common), chief of, O'Radlmibh, 1190. 
Uadach (the O'Fallons of Camnia 

and Dysart parr., Athlone bar., co. 

Roscommon), chiefs of, O'Fallons, 1181, 

1337, 1425. 
Uatach (tribe name of O'Neillans 

of Ballynascreen, Longhiusholin bar., 

CO. Londonderry), chief of, O'Neillan, 

1169. 

William, -see wider Clann-Ricaird. 

Clanna-Neill {clav-s of Niall of the 

Nine Hostages : the O'Neills of Ulster 

and Ulidia), 1455, 1505. 
Rughraidhe {clans of Riujhraidhe : 

alias of Ulidia ; Antrim and Down 

COS.), 1532. 
Clannaboy, t^ee Clann-Aedha-buidhe. 
Clarainech and his community si. by 

Munstermen, 714. 
Clay Lake, see Cloen-loch. 
Cleenish, see Clain-inis. 
Cleghile, see Cnaim-chaille, Ui-Cuanach-. 
Cleirchen, s. of Conallan, herenagh of 

Derry, ob., 950. 
s. of Donngal, coarb of Feichen (ab. 

of Fore), ob., 981. 
s. of Maelduin, k. of Iveagh, slain 

by his sept, 993. 
s. of Murchad, k. of Clare-Galway, 

ob., 912. 
Cleirech, f. of Eogan, 969. 

f. of Maelfabhuill, 891. 

gf. of Comaltan, 980. 

gf. of Flann, 952. 



Clemens, ab. of Annagassan, ob. , 828. 

bp.-ab. of Clonard, ob., 826. 

(mk.) of Terryglas, ob., 802. 

s. of Corbbcne, ob. , 787. 

Clement, bp. of Achonry, ob., 1219. 

v., pope, ob., 1313. 

Clementines, 1.S48. 

Clercu, f. of Scolaighi, 1012. 

gf. of Tigernach, 919. 

Clergy, protection of violated, 1166; of 
Cenel-Conaill, si. 1261 ; of I. :— at 
consecration of Mellifont church, 1157 ; 
exempted from Avar, 804 ; head of, 
Mael-Muire, 1117 ; hosting of to 
lona, 1204 ; held Synod of Hill of 
MacTaidhg; made O'Brolchain mitred 
ab., 1158; synods of, 1162, 1177; see 
Fastings. 

of N. of L, atDrogheda synod, 1486. 

and laity put Amalgaid in coarbship 

of Patrick, 1020. 

Cleric, Corcran, the, 1040. 

Donnall (k. I. ) became, 740 ; again, 

744 ; Echaid became, 731 ; Mael- 
Bresail became, 849 ; Selbach became, 
723. 

Teimnen of Kingarth, 732. 

dying a :— 

Cumuscach, k. of S. Bregia, 797. 
Domnall, k. of Ui-Carrcon, 783. 
Flaithbertach (k. I.), 765. 
Gormgal, k. of Knowth, 789. 

Clerkatus (clerical life), other references 
to:— 867, 869, 880, 885, 912, 1167. 

Clerics, of Comber, 4 si. , 30 taken captive, 
1031 ; of all N. W. of Europe, head of 
Mael-Muire, 1020; to enjoin morality 
on, object of Fiadh-Mic-Oengusa synod, 
1111 ; of I., exhorted to peace and 
piety by Cellach, 1126 ; captive of Kil- 
dare, ransomed by Niall, 964 ; of 
Meath, with Suarlech at Armagh 
royal conference, 851 , of Miinster, 
head of, Cetfaid, 1056 ; of S. of I., on 
Muircertach O'Brien's hosting, 1 113 ; si. 
in Maynooth cas., 1535. 



74 



INDEX. 



Cletech (on the Boj^ie), 534. 

Clew Bay, see Ciian Umaill. 

Cliacli {of Clin; q.r.), Greane-( Pallas 

. Greaii, Coonagh bar., co. Limerick), 

1168. 
Clin (Coonagh and Small Comity barr., 
CO. Limerick), btl. of, 744. 

btl. of Carn-Feradhaigh (Knock- 

ainy, Small Coimty bar.) in, 627 ; see 
also Aine-Cliacli. 
Clius (in Idrone, co. Carlow, pillaged, 533. 
Cloch-an-bodaigh (in Fews bar., co. 
Armagh), 1452. 

• -Chinnfhaelaidh) Cloghineely, Kil- 

macrenan bar., co. Donegal), chief of, 
1284. 

cuir, in Fermanagh, 1454. 

Clochar, Clochar-Mac-n Daimen and 
Clochar-Mac-Doimheni (Clogher, co. 
Tyrone), abbots of : — 
Artgal, 770. 
Cennfaelad, 931. 
Mac Gowan, 1338. 
Moran, 842. 
Ua Maeluidhir, 1441. 

bp.-ab of, Ailill, 869 ; arclideacon 

of; 1367, 1368, 1423, 1471 (Maguire), 
1541 (O'Cassidy), 1369 (0"Farrelly). 

bishops of : — 

Michael Carpenter, 1268, 1188. 
Edramid Courcey, 1485. 
Patrick Culin, 1534. 
Gilla-Tigernaigh, 1218. 
Mac Caiithinn, 506. 
Nicholas Mac Casey, 1356. 
Art Mac Cawell, 1432. 
Brian Mac Cawell, 1358. 
Eogan Mac Cawell, 1515. 
Nicholas Maguire, 1450. 
Pierce Maguire, 1471. 
Ros Maguire, 1449, 1483. 
Gelasius O'Banain, 1319. 
David O'Bragan, 1267. 
Fogartach O'Carolan, 13 85. 
Odo O'Neill, 1369. 
Richard O'Reilly, 1369. 



! Clochar. — co7it. 

bp.-designate of, Gilla-Padraig 

0' Connolly, 1504. 

brawl at, 1493; canon choral of, 

I 1390, 1444, 1479, 1486, 1498, 1501, 

1504; Ergal Ford near, 1080 ; Gilla- 
j Christ died at, 1127 ; herenaghs of : — 

Conaing, 961 ; Muiredach, 1126; mon. 

of burned, 1507 ; mk. of, Faeldobha 

702 ; scribe of, Ailill, 869 ; pillaged 

1535. 
Cloen, Domnall, 972, 983, 984; Muire- 
dach, 1014. 
Cloenad (probably Clane, q.r.), synod 

of Irish clergy at, 1162. 
and Cloenath (Clane, co. Kildare), 

btl. of, 704 ; ab. of. Ban, 782. 
Cloenfind, 703. 
Cloen-loch (perhaps Lough Cooter, co. 

Galway), btl. of, 538. 
at Fews Mountain (Clay Lake, 

Armagh, bar. and co.), hosting of 

Brian Boruma to, 1010. 
Clogher, see Clochar. 
Cloghineely, see Cloch-Chinnfhaelaidh. 
Cloitech (probably in Ulster), btl. of, 

789. 
Clonard, see Cluain-iraird. 
Clonbroney, see Cluain-Bronaigh. 
Cloncraff, -see Cluain-Cremha. 
Cloncurry, see Cluain-Conaire. 
Clondalkin, see Cluain-dolcain. 
Clonderlaw, see Clann-Toirdhelbaigh, 

and Corco-Baiscinn. 
Clonenagh, see Cluain-eidhnecli. 
Clones, see Cluain-auis. 
Clonfad, see Cluain-fota. 
Clonfeacle, see Cluain-Fiachna. 
Clonfert, see Cluain-ferta. 
Clonfertmulloe, see Cluain-ferta-Molua. 
Clonguffin, see Cluain-cuibhtin. 
Clonkeen, -s-ee Cluain-cain. 
Clonleigh, see CliTain-laegh. 
Clonmacnoise, see Cluain-Mac-Nois. 
Clonmany, see Culmaini. 
Clonmel, see Cluain-mela. 



INDEX. 



75 



Clonmore (co. Louth), see Cluain-mor- 
Aida. 

(co. Wexford), see Cluain-mor of 

Moedliocc. 

Clonroad, see Cluain-ramfliada. 

Clontarf, see Cluain-tarbh. 

Clontivrin, see Cluain-tibrinne. 

Clontuskert, see Cluain-tuaisceirt. 

Clonyliurk, see Cluain-da-tliorc. 

Cloonbiirren, see Cluaiii-bairenn. 

Cloondara, see Chiaiii-doclire. 

Cloone, see Cluain-Conmaiciie. 

Clooneen, .see Cluain-coninn. 

Clooney, see Cluain-e. 

Cloonties, see Cluainte. 

Close of Armagh, burned, 1074, 1112 ; 
west half of burned, 1091 ; burned with 
its church, 1092 ; burned with its 
churches, 1166 ; cross of door of, 1166 ; 
large part of burned, 1196. 
>S'ee also Masan-Third. 

and Third=all Armagh, 1189. 

of Downpatrick, burned by light- 
ning, 1111. 

Clothcu, bp. and anchorite of Clonard, 
ob., 796. 

Clothgne, f. of Diarmait, 778. 

Clothgno, s. of Colgu, si. in btl. of Allen, 
722. 

Clothna, herenagh of Emly, ob., 1048. 

s. of Aengus, chief poet of I., ob., 

1009. 

Clothobar, s. of Maeltuile v.-ab. of Clon- 
ard, ob., 886. 

Cloud, like rainbow, on Friday [March 
24] before Easter, 674. 

Cloyne, see Cluain-uamha. 

Cluaeth, f . of Colgu, 520. 

Cluain, see Cluain-uamha; 

-airthir (Magheracloone, co. Mon.), 

625. 

andobuir (near Killeigh, King's 

CO.), Foreigners of Dublin encamped 
at, 845. 

ard (Kilpeacon, small County 

bar., CO. Limerick), mk. of, Dobecocc, 690. 



Cluain. — cont. 

auis, and (after 1011) Cluain-eois, 

(Clones, CO. Monaghan) abbots of : — 

Caencomrac (coarb of Tiger- 

nach), 963. 
Ceilechair (coarb of Tigernach), 

1039. 
Cele-Tigernaigh, 716. 
Dicuill, 701. 
Dubdabairenn, 746. 
Dublitir, 880. 
Eochaidh (coarb of Tigernach), 

1030. 
Finan, 778. 

Flaithbertach (coarb of Tiger- 
nach), 1011. 
Flann (coarb of Tigernach), 958. 
Gormgal, 806. 

Aedh Mac Conchailledh, 1247. 
James Mac Mahon, (coarb of), 

1486, 1502. 
Maghnus Mac Mahon, 1536. 
Philip Mac Mahon (coarb of 

Tigernach), 1486. 
Macrobius, 1257. 
Maeltuile (coarb of Tigernach), 

945. 
Domnall Maguire, 1497. 
John Maguire, 1375. 
Nuadhu, 751. 
O'Connoly, 1486. 
Rumann (coarb of Tigernach), 

980. 
Ua Cairbri (coarb of Tigernach 
in Clones), 1353. 

ab., coarb and vicar of^ 1504. 

ab., bp. -anchorite, and scribe of, 

Joseph, 840 ; bp.-ab. of Mael-Ciarain, 
915 ; bp. of, Tigernach (founder), died, 
549 ; Order of Canons of, 1435 ; cas. 
of 1212, 1213 ; Confluence of, 1161 ; 
herenagh of, 1084, 1506 ; Mathgamain, 
k. of Farney, si. in centre of, 1022 ; 
oratory of Tigernach at, 851 ; razed 
by Gentiles, 837 ; vicar of, 1308 ; other 
. references, 1453, 1474, 1499. 



76 



INDEX. 



Cluain. — conf. 

bairenn (Cloonburren, Moore par., 

Moj'carn bar., co. Roscommon\ abbesses 
of :— 

Cocricli (coarb of Samthann), 

1109. 
Ellbrigh, 785. 
Finbil, 809. 
Forbflaith, 789. 
Samthann (foundress), 739. 
Sithmaith, 778. 

burned, 780 ; female herenagli of, 

Lerben, 794 ; nik. of, Scannlach, 758 : 
nun of, Cellbil, 765. 

cain and Cluain-cain of Fir-Rois 

(Clonkeen, co. Louth), bp. -anchorites 
of : — Ferchair, 881, Finan, 862 ; bp. of, 
Martan, 837 ; Glas-Liathain beside, 
943 ; hosting of Domnall, Mac Lough- 
linto, 1113. 

catha [BattJe-meadoin : in Corran 

bar., CO. 81igo), 1237. 

coirpthe (Kilbarrj', Termonbarry 

par., Ballintober í*í. bar., co. Roscom- 
mon), historian of, Daniel, 918. 

comarde (Colman's Well, co. Lime- 
rick), Forindan, ab. of Armagh, cap- 
tured by Gentiles at, 845. 

Conaire of Maeldubh (Cloncurry, E. 

Offaly bar., co. Kildare), 783. 

of Tomman(Cloncurr3', Ikeathy 

and Oughterany bar., co. Kildare), 
ab., anchorite and priest of, Colgu, 871 ; 
royal conference at, 838. 

Conmaicne (Cloone, Mohill bar., co. 

Leitrim), 1378. 

conninn (Clooneen Beg, Athlone 

bar., CO. Roscommon), raided 1512. 

Cormaic, anchorite of, Ailgal, 756. 

cracha, Calbhach of, 808. 

credail (Killeed}-, co. Limerick), 

552 ; abbess of : — 

Ita, ob., 552, 570, or 577. 

cremha (Cloncraif, Roscommon bar. 

and CO.), bp.-anehorite of, Osbran, 
752 ; pillaging of and killing of man in 



Cluain. — couf. 
b}' Men of W. Brefny and O'Flanagans, 
815. 

na-cruimthervJ/ea(/o?r of the priests: 

near Annagassan, co. Louth), defeat of 
Foreigners at, 926. 

cuibhtin and -cuiftin (Clonguffin, 

Meath), abbess of, Coblaith, 771 ; mk. 
of, Condam, 760. 

-da-thorc (Clonyhurk, Upr. Philips- 
town bar., King's co.), church of, 1389. 

dochre (perhaps Cloondara, co. 

Longford) ; ab. of Conmach, 770. 

dolcain (Clondalkin, co. Dublin), 

abbots of : — 

Ailbran, 781. 

Feidlemid, gs. of Lugadu, 801. 

bp. of, Ferfughaill, 789 ; burned, 

1071 ; fort of Amhlain at, burned ; 100 
Foreign chiefs si. near, 867 ; herenagh 
of, Fiachna, 1086 ; pillaged by Clentiles, 
833. 

e and Cluain-i (Cloonej^ Clonder- 

mot par., Tirkeeran bar., co. London- 
derry), pillaged, 1179, 1197. 

eidhnech (Clonenagh, Queen's co.)., 

abbots of : — • 

Aedh, 845. 
Maelaichthin, 772. 
Mael-Ciarain, 903. 

ferta (Clonfert, co. Galway), abbots 



of 



Aedh, 916. 

Brenann or Brendan (founder), 

558, 564, 577. 583. 
Ceithernach, 773. 
Cellan, 753. 
Cremtan, 766. 

Eogan (coarb of Brenann), 981. 
Fiachna, 752. 
Mael-Petair (coarb of Brenann), 

992. 
Maeltuile. 888. 
Mughron, 885. 
Muiredach, 802. 
Oengus (coarb of Brenann), 1036- 



INDEX. 



77 



Cluain. — cont. 

Senach Garbh, 621. 
Son of Flaithniadh, 783. 
Tipraiti, 786. 
Tipraiti, 817. 

vice-abbots of : — 

Congaltach, 813. 
Cormac, 882. 
Cormac, 884. 

bp.-abbots of : — 

Croscrach, 1040. 
Riithnel, 826. 

bishops of : — 

Gilla Maic Aiblen {rccte^ bp. of 

Ardfert], 1166. 
Moenu, 572. 
Muiredach, 1117- 
Gregory O'Brogy, 1319. 
Domnall O'Firm, 1195. 
Thomas 0' Kelly, 1263. 
Thomas O'Kelly, 1377. 
Peter O'More, 1171. 
Ua Erarain, 1205. 
Cormac Ua Luimliiin, 1259. 

burned, 749, 1016 ; burned by 

Gentiles, 844, 845 ; canon choral of, 
1328 ; church of, founded by Brendan, 
558 or 564 ; family of defeated family 
of Cork, 807 ; mk. of, Tipraiti, 795. 

Molua (Clonfertmulloe, Clan- 

donagh, bar.. Queen's co.), 573; ab, of, 
Saerghal, 781. 

Mongain (Kilclonfert, Lwr. 

Philipstownbar., King's co.), destroyed, 
and oratory of burned, by Oengus (k. 
of Offaly), 789. 

Fiachna (Clonfeacle, co. Tyrone), 

1252 ; vice-abbots of : — 
Aedh, 1069. 

Dubemna, 1053 ; herenagh of, 
Eochaid, 1004. 

fotaof Baetan (Clonfad,Killucanpar., 

Farbill bar., W. Meath), abbots of : — 
Blathmac, 799. 
Oengus, 746. 
Tipraiti, 795. 



Cluain. — cont. 

bp. of, Etchen, 578. 

i, aee Cluain-e. 

iraird (Clonard, Upr. Moyfenrath 

bar., Meath), abbots of: — 

Aedhan, 882. 

Aelchu, 727. 

Ailbrenn, 884. 

Bee of the Latin, 763. 

Becan (coarb of Finnian), 873. 

Ceilechair (coarb of Finnian), 
954. 

Cennfaelad, 931. 

Clothobar, 886. 

Colman, 654. 

Concobar, 1117. 

Crunnmael, 793. 

Crunnmael, 821. 

Diarmait, 615. 

Dodimoc, 748. 

Dubdabairenn, 787. 

Eugan, 834. 

Fachtna (coarb of Finnian of 
Clonard), 1008. 

Ferdomnach, 932. 

Fianamail, 736. 

Flaithbertach (coarb of Finnian), 
1014, 1015. 

Forannan, 745. 

Loarnn, 765. 

Loingsech (coarb of Finnian), 
1055. 

Moenach (coarb of Finnian, 956. 

Ossene the Tall, 654. 

Suairlech, 859. 

Tuathal (coarb of Finnian and 
Mocholmoc), 993. 

Ultan, 665. 
bishop-abbots of : — 

Clemens, 826. 

Colman, 926. 

Cormac, 830. 

Cormac, 885. 

Cumsuth, 858. 

Dubhduin, 718. 

Suairlech, 870. 



78 



INDEX. 



Cluain. — cont. 

bisliop-anchoritcs of ; — 

Clothcu, 796. 

Cumsuth (bp.-al).), 858. 

Suairlech (bp.-ab.), 870. 

bishops of : — 

Ferdomnacli, 1048. 
Fulartach, 779. 
Etru O'Meehan, 1173. 
Kuman, 922. 
Senach, 588. 
Tole, 738 

■ burned, 1116 ; burned Easter Eve 

(April 18), 789 ; burning at, 751 ; 
third of burned, 1020 ; community of 
had conflict withDonnchad(k. I.), 775; 
Concobar, j.-k. of Meath, drowned (in 
Boyne) at, by Amlaiph, 864 ; Finnian 
(founder) of, 776 ; herenagh of, Mael- 
Mochta, 942 ; monks of :— Airlid, 772, 
Goidel, 776 ; iiillaged by Foreigners, 
997 ; sage of : — Faelgus, 783 ; scribes 
of: — Cormac (bp.-ab.), 830 ; Ferdoni- 
nach (ab.), 932. 

laegh (Clonleigh, near Liiford, co. 

Donegal), 1480 ; abbots of : — 

Mael-Finnen (coarb of Cairnech), 

969. 
Maeltuile (coarb of Cairnech), 
945. 
Mac-Nois (Clonniacnoise, Garry- 
castle bar.. King's co.), abbots of : — 
Aedlug, 652. 
Aihther, 599. 
Anaili, 799. 
Anmere (coarb of Ciaran, s. of 

the Wright), 918. 
Blathmac, 896. 
Ceilechair (coarlj of Ciaran), 

954. 
Cellach, 740. 
Cetadhach, 849. 
Ciaran, s. ry/i/ie Wri(j]d> (founder) 

512, 549. 
Collbrand, 776. 
Colman Cas, 665. 



Cluain. — cout 

Columban, 628. 

Condmach, 868. 

Connial, 737. 

Cormac, 762. 

Cron the Little, 694. 

Cuinnles, 724. 

Cummeni, 665. 

Dedime, 752. 

Dubdabairenn, 805. 

Dunchad (coarb of Ciaran), 989. 

Eugan, 877. 

Failbhe the Little, 713. 

Ferdomnach, 872. 

Ferdomnach (coarb of Ciaran), 

952. 
Flaithbertach (coarb of Ciaran), 

1014, 1015. 
Flann Fine, 733. 
Flann Sinna, 732. 
Flannchad (coarb of Ciaran), 

1003. 
Folachtach, 770. 
Forbasach, 771. 
Forchellach, 814. 
Joseph, 794. 
Joseph, 904. 
Loingsech (coarb of Ciaran), 

1042. 
Lucredh, 753. 
Mac Nisse, 585. 
Cronan, Mac U Loeghde, 637. 
Baetan Mac Ui Cormaic, 664, 
Mael-Brighte, 892. 
Mael-Finnia (coarb of Ciaran), 

992. 
Maeltuile, 877. 
Martan, 869. 
Muiredach (coarb of Ciaran), 

1025. 
Murgal, 789. 
Oena, 570, 577. 
Eilill O'Hcret}^ (coarb of Ciaran), 

1070. 
Aedh O'^lalone (coarb of Ciaran 

of Clonniacnoise), 1098. 



INDEX. 



79 



Cluain. — cont. 

Mael-Muiie O'Malone, 1280. 

Ossene, 70G. 

Rechtnia, 784. 

Ronan, 764. 

Ronan, 844. 

Sneidriaghail, 786. 

Soerbergg, 791. 

Suibne, 816. 

Tipraiti (coarb of Ciaran, 931. 

Tolua the Tall, 614. 

Tuathal (coarb of Ciaiaii), 971. 

Tuathgal, 811. 

Echtigern Ua h-Aghraiii (coarb 
of Ciaran), 1052. 

Mael-Mochta Ua Fiadbra, or 
O'Melaghlin, 1173. 

Ua Miannaigh, 768. 
vice-abbots of : — 

Cormac, 891. 

Cu-Chiarain, 809. 

Cumuscach, 835. 

Maelachidh, 896. 

Maelmidhe, 871. 

Moengal, 875. 
bishop-abbots of : — 

Ailill (coarb of Ciaran), 1093. 

Colman, 926. 

bishop-anchorite of : — iSuibne, 891. 

bishops of : — 

Dunchad, 942. 

William 0' Duffy, 1297. 

William OTinnen, 1298. 

Aedh O'Malone, 1220. 

Tigernach O'Malone (coarb of 
Ciaran of Clonmacnoise),1172. 

Thomas O'Quin, 1278. 

Ua Muirecain, 1214. 
— - burned, 723, 755, 778, 1016 ; burned 
by Gentiles, 845 ; greater part of 
burned, 816, 834 ; third of burned, 
818, 835, 1020; Ciaran (founder) of, 
992, 1172 ; community of defeated 
community of Durrow, 764 ; fought 
community of Birr, 760 ; defeat of Ui- 
Maine in centre of, 1038 ; despoiled by 



Cluain. — cont. 
Limerick (Foreign) fleet, 922 ; doctor 
of, Tuathal, 814 ; founded, 548 ; Guest- 
House of, 1116. 

herenagh of, Tigernach O'Breen,1088; 

lector and priest of, Congalach O'Tom- 
altey, 1169 ; Official of, 1498 ; dying 
in pilgrimage at, 1118 ; pillaged : — by 
Dublin Foreigners, wlio stayed two 
nights in, — an unprecedented thing, 936; 
by Dublin Gentiles, 942 ; by Dublin 
Foreigners, 946 ; by Munstermen and 
Foreigners, 953 ; by Alunstermen, 959, 
1092 ; thrice in quarter : — by (1) 
O'Maddens ; (2, 3) Calry and O'Kear- 
neys, 1050 ; Conn of the. poor of, 1060 : 
head of poor of, Mael-Ciarain, s. of 
Conn, 1079 ; priest of,Maelbarrfind,916. 
scribes of : — 

Condmach, 798. 

Mac Concumba, 730. 

Scannal, 920. 

Suibne, 891. 

Tuathal (doctor of), 814. 

ships seen in air over, 949 ; sruth 

(senior monks) of, 768, 811 ; stewards 
of : — Ailmedhair, 797, Fergus, 894 ; 
vision at, which caused penance to be 
done throughout Ireland, 786. 

■ mela (Clonmel, co. Tipperar}^) .sove- 
reign and others of substance of, taken 
as hostages by earl of Kildare, 1516. 

mor-Arda (Clonmore, Vervard bar., 

CO. Louth), ab. of, Robartach, 828 ; 
burned by Foreigners, 828. 

of Moedhocc (Clonmore, co. 

Wexford) burned, 779 ; pillaged by 
Gentiles, 835. 

-ramfhoda (Clonroad, a suburb of 

Ennis, CO. Clare), 1460. 

in-tshnaigh, Ferry (at Strabane, co. 

Tyrone) of, 1462. 
tarbh (Clontarf, co. Dublin), 1534. 

-tuaisceirt (Clontuskert, S. Ballin- 

tober bar., co. Roscommon, mk. of, 
Baetan, 809. 



80 



INDEX. 



Cluain. — cont. 

-tibrinne (Clontivrin, near Clones, 

CO. Mouaglian), anchorite of, Conghus, 
745. 

Ui-Cinaith (Kinnitty, King's co. ), 

cas. of, 1432. 

-U-Aingriglii (in Kilmore par., 

Oneilland W. bar., co. Armagh), 610. 

luiniha [Meadow of cave : Cloyne, 

CO. Cork), ab. of, Maelcoba, 859 ; bp. of 
Uamnachan (coarb of Colnian, s. of 
lienin). 1099 : herenagh of, Colman 
OScanlan, 1179. 

Cluainte {Cloonties : W. of Strokestown, 
CO, Roscommon), invaded, 1487. 

Cnam-Chaille,Ui-Cuanach- (Cleghile near 
Tipperary town), 1124. 

Cnoc-Bane (in Bally gawley par., Clogher 
par., CO. Tjn^one), liostingby Donncliad 
(k. I.) to, 772. 

■ -Coirpri, in Calathros (Scotland), 

btl. of, 736. 

Muaidhe (Knockmo}^ co. Gahvay), 

1295 ; mon. of, 1224. 

Nascain (a hill near Londonderry 

town), 1197. 

Ninte (Knockninny bar., co. Fer- 
managh). 1450 ; raided, 1538. 

tuagh (Knockdoe, Clare bar., co. 

Galway), btl. of, described, 1504. 

Cnodhba (Knowtli, Meath), cave of sear- 
ched by Foreigners, 863 ; cave of razed 
by Amlaibh, 935. 

kings of : — 

Cernach, 818. 
Conn gal, 789. 
Maelmithidh, 918. 

Cnucha (Castleknock, co. Dublin) Conga- 
lach (mk.) of, 732 ; Niall (k. I.) of ,919. 

Cnut (Canute) s. of Sain, k. of Saxons, 
ob., 1035. 

Coarb,Maguire,s. ?\MacUidhir,theCoarb. 

Ua Taichligh, 1390, 1400. 

expelled, i<<e mtdtr Coarb of Peter. 

of Moninne (abbess of NeM-r3'),died 

in penance, 1077. 



Coarb. — cont. 

of Patrick, astings of, see Fastings; 

outraged by Tigernan 0'Rourke,1128; 
outraged by slaying of Cu-Uladh 
OQuinlan, 1157 ; protection of, dis- 
regarded in drowning of Cinaedli, 
851; protection of, violated, 1166; 
made peace of year and a-lialf between 
Connacians and Momonians, 1128 
held Synod of Hill of Mac Taidhg 
made O'Brolchain mitred ab. , 1158 
(abp. of Armagh) to be, as of old, in 
episcopal Order, decreed by Cloenad 
synod, 1162 ; refused assent to 
O'Brolchain accepting proffered lona 
abbacy, 1164. 

future, of Patrick, 1108, 1200. 

of Patrick and Columba, 927. 

• of Peter, 1049, 1175; with twelve 

councillors died after drinking poison 
given by expelled coarb. 1048. 

Coarbs of Patrick, two, Florindan and 
Diarmait, ob., 852. 

Coarbship of Brigit, dispute respecting at 
Kildare, 1 127. 

of Columba, >^et under Colum-cille. 

of Patrick, Amalgaid put in, 1020 ; 

Cellachput in. 1105. 

Cobha and Coblio (Magli- : Plain of 
Ivcagh), Ailill of, 825, Cass of, 725 ; 
Echaid of, 733. 

Ui-Ec]iach-(Iveaghbar., co. Down), 

601,882. 

kings of : — 

Cernach, 853. 
Conall Crui, 776. 
Conchad, 735. 
Echu, 801. 
Fergus Glutt, 739. 

Coblaith, d. of Cano, ob., 690. 

d. of Cathal, abbess of Clonguffin, 

ob., 771. 

d. of Cellach Cualann, ob., 931. 

d. of Dubduin, coarb of Brigit (ab- 
bess of Kildare), ob., 916 

Cobthach (k. C), f. of Colman, 622. 



I 



INDEX. 



81 



Cobthach. — cont. 

f. of Maelcron, 838. 

f. of Tuathcar, 848. 

priest of Kildare, ob., 1069. 

s. of Maelduin, k. of Loch-Lein (W. 

Munster), led Munstermen in massacre 

of Gentiles, 812 ; ob., 833. 
s, of Muiredach, ab. of Kildare, ob., 

870. 
Cochlan, k. of Garrycastle, si. in strata- 
gem by his sept, 1058. 
Cocrich, coarb of Samthann (i.e., abbess) 

of Clonbroney, ob,, 1109. 
Cochul-odhor {Dun-coirl), scribe of Ban- 
gor, ob., 730. 
Coeddi, bp. (-mk.) of lona, ob., 712. 
Coelboth, f. of Coerthenn, 446. 
Coeman, Brecc, born, 529 ; ob., 615. 

f. of Moenach, 900. 

Coemgen (founder of Glendalough), ob., 

618, or 622 ; relics of carried around 

(to enforce cess or Lajv), 790. 
Coerthenn, s. of Coelboth, si., 446. 
Coerthannan (Castlehill, W. of Lough 

Conn, Co. Mayo), 1526. 
Coibdenach, ab. of Kiltoom, ob. , 768. 

bp. of Ardstraw, ob., 707. 

s. of Flann Ua Congaile, si., 734. 

Coigny, great, by Mac Lochlainn from 

Glenswilly to r. Moy, 1063. 
Coill-in-clachain (Killacloghan, Kinawley 

par., Tullyhaw bar., co. Cavan), 1309. 
— — -na-cuirridin, (Killygordon, co. 

Donegal), 1527. 
FoUamhain ( Wood of FoUamhan : 

in Moygoish bar., Westmeath), kings 

of:— 

Congalach, 851. 
Fiachra, 922. 
Gilla-Crist, 1017. 
Maelduin, 885. 
ichtarach (Killeiter, Loughinsholin 

bar., CO. Londonderry), 1470, 1486, 

1487, 1517. 
-mor {Great Wood: in Leix, Queen's 

CO.), cut down, 1514. 



Coin. — cont. 

-Ultach (Killultagh, eo. Antrim), 

raided, 1515. 
See also Caill. 
Coillte-Concobuir (=:Cluainte, g.v.), 1515. 
Coimhan, s. of Dalach, ab. of Duleek, ob., 

868. 
Coinnecan, s. of Muircertach, si. in forag- 
ing party of Niall, 914. 
Coinrighech {Kenrian : fostered in Kcnry 

bar., CO. Limerick), Mael-Coluim, 1031. 
Coirpre, see Cairpre and Cencl-Coirpri. 
Coirpre, f. of Aedh, 773. 

f. of Cellach, 838. 

f. of Cinaedh, 935. 

f. of Flaithbertach, 812. 

s. of Cathal, k. of S. Lcinster, de- 
feated Gentiles, 828. 

s. of Feichen, f. of Brendan, 601. 

s. of Fogartach, banished by Donn- 

chad (k. I.), 769 ; f. of Cellach, 767. 

s. of Murchadh of Meath, ob., 749. 

s. of Niall, won btl. of Granard, 485. 

Crom, race of (alias of Ui-Maine), 

pillaged by Feidhlimidh (k. M.), 837. 
Coirpri, see Cenel-Coirpri. 

s. of Cinaedh, k. of Imail, ob, , 849. 

s. of Colman, ab, of Trim, ob,, 846. 

s, of Cucoluinn, si., 709, 

s, of Diarmait, k. of Ui-Cennselaigh, 

si. by his bb., 876, 
s. of Dunlang, k. of Kildare W. of 

Liffey, ob., 884. 

s.of Fogertach, k. of Bregia, ob., 771 . 

s. of Laidhghnen (k. of S. Leinstcr), 

fled from (btl, of) Ochtar-Ocha, 780 ; 

ob., 793. 
s. of Maelduin, k. of Lagore, slew 

and si, by Maelcerna, 836. 
s, of Mael-Patraic, k. of Barrymore, 

si. by Condons and Clangibbon, 944. 
s. of Suibne, herenagh of Dunleer, 

ob., 898. 
Cois-Deirgi (the district alonq [r.] Derg, 

on the W., in co. Tyrone), 1522, 1527 

1537. 

F 



82 



INDEX. 



Coisenmech, gs. of Predene, k. of Iveagh, 

ob., 784. 
Coisse, f. of Airard, 990. 
Colam, descendant of Craumthanan, ob., 

549. 
Colcu, f. of Robartach, 886. 
Cold, great, with snow and frost, 

destroyed many cattle, birds and 

salmon, 917. 

of 3 days and nights (influenza), 

1328. 

Coleraine, see, Cuil-rathain. 
Colga, f . of Lugaid, 958, 
Colgu, si. in btl., 714. 

ab. of Monasterboice, ob. , 866. 

f. of Aedh, 610 ; (II.) 732, 738. 

f. of Ailill, 832. 

f. of Bresal, 749. 

f. of Cennfaelad, 682. 

f. of Clothgno, 722. 

f , of Conchobar, 785. 

f. of Crunnmael, 936. 

f, of Eicnech, 722. 

f. of Moenach, 805. 

f. of Sechnusach, 746-7. 

foster-f. of Blathmac, 814. 

gs. of Duinechad, ob., 796. 

k. of Ard-Lathrann, si., 722. 

R. of Blathmac, si., 683. 

s. of Cellach, ab. of Kiltoom, ob., 

851. 

defeated Oriors, 780. 

s. of Crummacl, ab. of Lusk, ob., 787- 

k. of Ui-Cennsclagh, 

fought btl., 647. 

s. of Domnall, si, 580. 

si., 663. 

s. of Fedach, anchorite, ob., 843. 

s. of Mael-Sempuil, ab. of Slane, 

ob., 922. 
s. of Maeltiiile, anchorite, presbyter- 

ab. of Cloncui'ry, ob., 871. 

s. of Maenach, ab. of Lusk, ob., 

702. 

two ss. of, si., 703. 

Colggene, f. of Aedh, 778. 



Colggu, f. of Domnall, 791. 

f. of Echaid, 731. 

f. of Flaithnia, 715. 

s. of Cellach, ob., 622. 

k, of Ui-Cremthainn, 775 ; ob,, 

781. 

s. of Failbe Flann, k. M., ob., 678. 

s. of Suibne, si., 618. 

Colic, plague of, in Armagh, 1012. 
Colla Dacrich, f. of Reochaid, 514. 
Colla, gf. of Derir, 722. 
gf. of Flann Sinna, 732. 

herenagh of vScattery Island, ob., 

995. 

Uais, race of, 548. 

Collbrand, ab. of Clonmacnoise, ob., 776. 

College, choral, 1490. 

Collumrach, Galenga- (S.E. part of Clan- 

kee bar., co. Cavan, adjoining Morgal- 

lion bar., Meath), 884. 
Colman, ab. of Bangor, ob. , 680, 

ab. of Clonard and Clonmacnoise, 

scribe and bp., ob., 926, 

ab, of Kinnitty, si. n btl. of Bal- 

laghmoon, 908. 

the Fair, anchorite, ob., 776. 

Assembly of (on Curragh ?), 827. 

(and Columban) bp. , sailed to, and 

founded church at, Inishbofin, 668 ; 

ob., 676. 

Banban, scri))e of Kildare, ob., 725. 

bp. of Lissan, si., 744. 

Cas. ab. of Clonmacnoise, ob., 665. 

Elo (of Lynally), ob., 611 ; coarb 

of IVIac Nisse and (Z.^., ab. of Connor), 

946, 954. aSVc aUo Colman, s. of 

Luachan. 

f. of Ailill, 642. 

f. of Cerran, 914. 

f. of Coirpri, 846. 

f . of Connecan, 855. 

f. of Cunmien, 628. 

f. of I]ugan, 774. 

f. of Faelan, 628. 

Cutlach, f. of Fergus, 744. 

f, of Flannacan, 860. 



INDEX. 



83 



Colman, — cont. 

f. of Maslduin, 641. 

f. of Moenach, 773. 

f. of Oengus, 612. 

f. of Ronan, 624. 

f. of Ruman, 747. 

gs. of Suibne, ob., 707. 

gs. of Suibne, f. of Baetliallach, 

756. 
Mac Ui Telduibh, bp.-ab. of Clon- 

ard, ob., 654. 

the Mild, f. of Daniel, 736. 

(mk.) of Glendaloiigh, ob. , 660. 

(mk.) of Telach-Ualand, ob., 731. 

scribe, bp. of Duleekand Lusk, ob., 

907. 
bp.-ab. of Mahee Island, ob., 

873. 
s. of Ailill, ab. of Slane and other 

monasteries, Frankish and Irish, ob., 

825. 
Righmidh, or Rimidh, began to 

reign, as j.-k. I., 578 : instigated slay- 
ing of Baetan, 586 ; k. of Cenel- 

Eogain, won btl. of Slemain, 602 ; s. 

of Baetan Brigi, si., 604. 
s. of Cobthach, f. of Rimidh, si. , 

622. 

s. of Comgellan, ob., 625. 

s. of Congal, coarb of Molaissc (ab. 

of Devenish), ob., 957. 
the Big, s. of Diarmait the Ruddy, 

si., 555, 558, or 563 ; f, of Aengus, 621 ; 

f. of Fergus, 618 ; f. of Suibhne, 600 '; 

763 862. 
the Little, s. of Diarmait the Ruddy, 

expedition of, 568 ; defeated, 573 ; si., 

587 or 593 ; f. of Cummaene, 586. 

s. of Faelan, ab. of Slane, ob., 751. 

s. of Faelgus, ab. of Lorrha, ob., 788. 

s. of Finnbarr, ab. of Lismore, ob. , 

703. 

s. of Lenin, coarb of (bp. of Cloyne), 

1099. 



— s. of Luachan ( : 
shrine of, 1122. 



: Colman Elo, q.r.). 



Colman. — cont. 

s. of Mael-PatraiCj ab. of Slane, taken 

by, and died among, Foreigners, 949. 

s. of Murcu, ab. of Moville, ob., 736. 

s. of Niall, si. by Cenel-Conaill, 815. 

s. of Robartach, ab. of Slane, ob., 

839. 

s. of Sechnasach, ab. of Lorrha, ob., 

710. 

Stellain (ab. of Terryglass), ob., 624. 

Ua Littain, master of religious life, 

ob., 731. 

Ua Oirc (ab. of Clonard), ob,, 701. 

Uamach, scribe of Armagh, ob., 

725. 

Uathach, ob., 613. 

Cologne, Braen, k.L., died (in pilgrimage) 
at, 1052 ; Donnchad, ab. of Dunshaugh- 
lin, died at, 1027 ; Irish monks of, 1042. 

Colum, gs. of Cathal, herenagh of Ros- 
carbery, ob., 1055. 

herenagh of Cork, ob., 988. 

herenagh of Emly, ob., 1002. 

' (St. of Inis-celtra, ob., 549. 

s. of Cremthann, coarb of, (ab. of 

Terryglass), 1008, 1099. 

cille, born, 519, or 523 ; enshrined 

Patrick's relics, 553 ; sailed to lona, 
563 ; granted lona by Conall, 574 ; 
attended Convention of Druim-ceta, 
575 ; granted Durrow by Aedh, k. I., 
589 ; ob., 595, or 601. 

■ abbey of, Derry, 1174, Irish abbeys 

of, 1158 ; btl. of Cul-dreimne won by his 
prayers, 561 ; Cathach of, 1497, 1499 ; 
church of, Armagh, 1011 ; churches of 
in Meath and Leinster freed from tem- 
poral cess, 1161 ; coarb of (ab. of Derry), 
1215 ; coarb of, see under lona ; coarb 
of (ab. of Kells), 1011, 1055; coarb of 
(ab. of Derry) made mitred ab., 1158 ; 
coarb of (head of Coluraban Order) 
1057, 1098 ; coarb of in Drumclifif, 1252 ; 
coarb of in I. and Scotland (ab. of 
Columban abbeys in I. and of abbey of 
lona), 980, 1062 ; coarb and community 

f2 



84 



INDEX. 



Colum.— con^ 

of (inDerr3'), 1163, 11G4, 1166; coarb 
of (Indrechtach, ab. of lona) martyred, 
854 ; coarb of, and of Patrick (ab. of 
Derry and Armagh), 927, 998 ; coarb- 
shipof (presidency of Columban Order), 
989, 1007 ; member of community of (in 
Derry), made ab. of Raphoe, 817 ; chief 
confessor of community of, Oengus, 
1109 ; Cuhhad of , see Culehad; cross of, 
Armagh, 1166 ; Derry of, 1177, 1219. 

Gospel of — chief relic of western 

world for its cover — stolen from great 
church of Kells : found— under sod, 
robbed of gold — that day two months 
and twenty days, 1007 ; house of in 
Kilmacrenan, 1129 ; I[ona] of, 778 ; 
Kells given peaceably to, 804 ; Laiv of 
established by Domnall (k.I.), 753 ; by 
Sleibene(ab. of lona), 757 ; byDonnchad 
(k.I.) and Bresal (ab. of lona), 778 ; 
miracle of, 1172, 1176, IISO, 1187, 
1188, 1197, 1201, 1214, 1215, 1223,1261 ; 
miracle of shrine of (at Ballj^iascreen), 
1204 ; new mon. of built in Kells, 807 ; 
Moone of, 1005 : Penitentiary of, Derrj-, 
1173, 1214; relics of carried off by 
Saxons from monastery of Down- 
pat rick, 1538 ; reliquaries of taken by 
ab. of lona to Scotland, 829 ; to Ireland, 
831, 849; reparation to, 1171, 1180, 
1186; ArdgarO'Melaghlin, sl.inrepara- 
tion to, 1124; head of O'Gormley taken 
to Armagh in reparation to, 1160 ; 
shrine of, 1201 ; shrine and reliquaries 
of brought to I., fleeing from Foreigners, 
788 ; Swords of, 1020 ; number of years 
since he went to lona, 1249. 

Columb, f. of Ronan, 658. 

Columban, seeColman (and Columban), bp. 

abbeys in I., ab. of, Mughron (coarb 

of Columbain I.), 980. 

Order, presidents of : — 

Domnall, 1098. 
Ferdomnach, 1007. 
Gilla-Crist, 1062. 



Columban. — cont. 

Mael-Muire, 1040. 
Muiredach, 1007. 
Robartach, 1057. 

s. of Barrdaeni, ab. of Clonmacnoise, 

ob., 628. 

Comaltan, f. of Gilla-Cellaigh, 1004. 

gs of Cleirech, k. of Ui-Fiachrach of 

Aidhne, ob., 980. 

Coman, bp. of Ferns, ob., 678. 

coarb of (ab. of Roscommon), 980 ; 

Law of, established over all Connaught, 
772,780, 793. 

f. of Celechair, 705. 

f. of Siadhal, 799. 

the Pious, ob., 747. 

Comar, (Cumber, co.Down), ab. of, 1222 ; 
clerics of — four si., thirty carried cap- 
tive, 1031. 

Comarpach, s. of Ceallan, ab. of Kilmore 
(co. Armagh), ob., 750. 

Combo, see Cenbuigh. 

Comet, appeared, 614, 077, 912 ; for fort- 
night in Autumn, 1018. 

Comets, sky ablaze with, 917. 

Comgall (St.), Brodur, enemy of, 1065 ; 
coarb of (ab. of Bangor), 940 ; feast of 
(May 10), 782 ; relics of cast out of 
shrine by Gentiles at Bangor ; taken 
thence to Antrim ; quatrain relative 
thereto, 824. 

bp., ob.,618. 

f. of Conall, 568, 574, 576. 

f. of Felcmaire, 755. 

s. of Domangart, died, 538, or 542. 

Comgan, f. of Echaidh, 887. 

the Tall (Fota), anchorite of Tallacht, 

ob., 870. 

Mac Ui Tcimhne, ob., 664. 

Comgellan, f. of Colman, 625. 

Comman, ab. of Annagassan, wounded 
and burned by Gentiles and Irish, 842. 

(mk.) of Enach-dathe, ob., 769. 

Common Life^ Friars of, 1502; subjected 
to Friars of Stricter Observance, 1517; 
see also binder Community. 



INDEX. 



85 



Commotatio rel{qiMarum,seeCarrying relics 

Communion, death after, 108G, 1177; 
death without, 836, 1171. 

and Contrition, death after, 974. 

and Sacrifice, hendiadys for Com- 
munion, 1512. 

Community {familia), of Armagh, 1184; 
of Armagh, defeated and many made 
captive by Gentiles, 831. 

of Birr, fought community of Clon- 

macnoise, 760. 

of the Clarainech, si. by Munster- 

men, 714. 

— — of Clonard, had conflict with Donn- 
chad (k.I.), 775. 

of Clonmacnoise, fought community 

of Birr, 760 ; defeated community of 
Durrow, 764 ; si. and termon of burned 
to church door by Feidhlimidh, k.M., 
833. 

Columban, chief confessor of, Oen- 

gus, 1109 ; of Derry :— 1205, 1220; slew 
Ardgar O'Melaghlin in reparation to 
Columba, 1124 ; built lime-kiln, 60 feet 
square, in twenty days, 1163 ; outraged 
by Christian burial of delinquent, 1166. 

Columban (of Raphoe), M-ent to Tara 

(Assembly) to curse Aedh (k.I.) [because 
of killing of Maelduin, ab. of same 
community], 817. 

of Cork, fought community of Clon- 

fert, 807- 

of Donegal, 1497. 

of Drumlane, 1484. 

of Durrow, defeated by community 

of Clonmacnoise, 764 ; in btl. between 
(S.) Ui-Neill and Munstermen, 776; 
si. and termon of burned to church 
door by Feidhlimidh, k.M., 833. 

of Ferns, fought community of Tagh- 

- mon, 817. 

of Finnian (of Clonard), outraged in 

Clonfad church, 891. 

of Friars ofCo7nmon Life, conditions 

of subjection of to Friars of Stricter 
Observance, 1517. 



Conmiunity. — cont. 

• of Inishkeen, 1416. 

of lona, skiff of wrecked, 641. 

of lona, dishonoured, 1204; drowned, 

749; 68 of si. by Gentiles, 806; see 

Members of lona community. 

of John the Baptist, Rindoon, 1372. 

of Kells, massacred by Aedh, 1117. 

of Kildare, defeated in their church, 

and many si. by Cellach (k. L.), 833. 

of Lisgool, 1431. 

of Patrick, council of, 851 ; mk. of, 

Cathusach, 1111 ; steward (to collect 

cess) of, 888, 894. 

of Rossorry, 1420. 

of Suibhne, si., 719. 

of Taghmon, fought community of 

Ferns, 817 ; with k. of S. Leinster, de- 
feated Gentiles, 828. 
ofTallaghtjpreventedTeltownAssem- 

bly, Sat. (Nov. 1), because Ui-Neill 

violated their right of asylum ; many 

donations given in reparation, 811. 
Companions of Brian (Boruma), — Cudui- 

lig, Eocho and Niall, 1014. 
Compensation for life of hostage, see 

Ransom of Amlaim. 
Compostella, pilgrimage to, 1428, 1518. 
Comrair of Meath (Conragh or Conry 

par., Rathconrath bar., Westmeath), 

ab. of, Ferfio, 762. 
Comulf (Cenwulf), k. of Saxons, ob., 821. 
Conad Cerr, k. of (Scottish) Dalriata, sL, 

629. 
Conaen, f. of Solon, 613. 
Conallle, Oenach-(in Louth), 1006. 
Conaillech (fostered in Conailli, in 

Louth), Bresal, 1030. 
Conailli-Cerd (alias of Conailli-Muirthe- 

imhne, q.v.), Ulidians defeated in 

district of, 864 : slew Echmilidh, 989. 
of Farney (co. Monaghan), slew 

Cairell, their k. , before door of Tiger- 

nach's oratory. Clones, 851. 
Muirtheimhne (Louth co., except 

the part, Lower Dundalk bar., between 



86 



INDEX. 



Conailli. — coiif. 

Carlingford Lough and Dundalk Bay), 
688 ; beheaded Amalgaidh and Indeir- 
ghi, 909 ; defeated Ulidians, 882 ; de- 
feated and k., Matudan, si., on foray in 
vale of Newry r., 996 ; defeated by 
Sitriuc, 1032; Dromiskm in District of, 
879 ; fought Iveagh at Cenond, 786 : 
foray by Mael-Sechlain, k. I., in, 1013 ; 
hosting of Domnall OLoughlin to, 1097. 
kings of : — 

Amalgaidh, 7^1. 

Cinaedh, 970. 

Cinaedh, 1066. 

Congalach, 913. 

Congalach, 988. 

Crinan, 1012 

Crongilla, 937. 

Foidmenn, 752. 

Garfith, 878. 

Giblechan, 890. 

]Maceitigh, 951. 

^lac Ingeirrce, 1029. 

Mac Ingeirrce, 1081. 

Mael-Brighti, 869. 

]\Iael-Brighte, 914. 

Maelmordha, 891. 

Sloighedhach, 789. 

8pelan, 824. 

Spelan, 923. 

Son of Ua Treodain, 1078. 

massacre of Foreigners b}-, 896 ; 

pillaged, their k. and his b. carried 
off in ships, by Gentiles, 831 ; pil- 
laged by Matudhan and Niall, 949 ; 
Plain of, raided, 1178; raided b}-, and 
defeated, Oriel, 1041 ; raided and large 
cattle-spoil taken from by Domnall, 
1083; royal-heir of, Gairbith, 912; 
some of Ruaidliri's people si. in 945 ; 
slaughter of by Ui-Meith, 1078; slew 
Maelruanaidh, 1006 ; slew Mael-Mochta 
and Donn, 1028. See aiio Conailli- 
Cerd. 
Conaing, f. of Cinaedh, 850, 851. 
f. of Conaing and Dunghal, 781. 



Conaing.— co??^ 

f. of Fergal, 988, 1001, 1015. 

f. of Flann, 735. 

f. of Flann, S54, 860, 862, 863, 864, 

868. 

f. of Flannacan, 1016. 

f. of Mael-Ciaraiu, 880. 

f. of Sechonnan, 859. 

gf. of Conaing andDiarmait, 786. 

gf. of Innrechtach, 743, 748. 

gs. of Conaing, si. in btl. of Liac- 

find, 786, 
gs. of Domnallan, herenagh of Clog- 

her, ob., 961. 
gs. of Finan, coarb of Mac Xisse 

and Colman-Ela (ab. of Connor), ob., 

976. 
s. of the ab. (Mael-Muire), deputy- 

herenagh of Armagh, died in penance, 

1061. 

s. of Aedhan, drowned, 622. 

s. of Amalgaidli, k. of Ciannachta of 

Bregia, defeated Cernach [recf.e, was 

defeated by Cernach], 737; strangled, 

742. 
s. of Cadan, coarb of Moedoc (bp. of 

Ferns), ob., 977. 
s. of Cellach, 'si. by Echaidh 

in treachery, 829. 

s. of Conaing, f. of Diarmait, 781. 

s. of Congal, si., 662. 

s. of Congal, si. in btl. of Magh-Itha, 

733. 

s. of Congal, k. of TefHa, ob., 823. 

s.of Congalach, f. of Gilla-Crist, 1018. 

Curraigh [of the Curragh of Kil- 

dare], s. of Congalach, f. of Congalach, 

956. 
s. of Donncuan, royal heir of Munster, 

fell in btl. of Dublin (Clontarf ) ; head 

of buried in Armagh, 1014 ; f. of Math- 

gamain, 1019. 

s. of Dunchad, si. in Sk\-e, 701. 

s. of Dungal, won btl. of Righe, 781, 

s. of Ferdomnach, ab. of Donagh- 

patrick, ob., 846. 



INDEX. 



87 



Conaing. — cont. 

(and Conang) s. of Flaiid, k. of 

Bregia, associates of slew Aedh, s. of 
Dunchad, in his presence, 841 ; ob., 849. 

s, of Fland, slew Donncuau in 

treachery, 873 ; royal heir of Cian- 
nachta (of Bregia), beheaded by 
Leinstermen, 884. 

s. of Niall, defeated by Fergal and 

Sichfridh in Magh-Uatha ; defeated 
Ulidians at Ruba-Conchongalt, 93-3 ; 
royal heir of L, ob., 937. 

Conait, ab. of Lismore, ob., 760. 

Conall (Cernach, Ulster hero), 1197. 

ab. of Tomgraney, ob., 749. 

the Little (Becc), f. of Bran, 695. 

the Slender(Cael),s. of Dunchad, sL, 

681. 

s. of Maelcoba, colleague of 

Domnall [y^ecte, of Cernach), wonbtl. of 
Saeltire, 637 ; began reign (as j.-k.I.), 
643 ; won btl. of Dun-Crenitain, 650 ; 
si., 653, or 654. 

Crannamna and Crandannie, ob., 

660 ; f . of Domnall, 696 ; f. of Mael- 
duin, 689. 

Cremthainn, s. of Niall (of the Nine 

Hostages), si., 480 or 485 ; f. of Ardgal, 
520, 523 ; f. of Fergus Wry-mouth, 
483, 545, 555, 600, 604, 643, 664. 

Crui, f. of Gormgal, 776. 

Cu, s. of Aedh. defeated, 602 ; ob., 

604. 

Fair-hair, scribe, ob., 745. 

Gabra, f. of Bodbthach, 736. 

Grant, gs. of Cernach, won btl. of 

Kells ; si. two months later, 718. 

Gulban, f. of Duach, 586; f. of 

Fergus Long-head, 710 ; s. of Niall (of 
the Nine Hostages), 547. 

Guthbinn (Sweet-voice), .see Conall 

Sweet-voice. 
Laegh-bregh, s . of Aedh Slaine, si. 

612. 

Menn, k. of Cenel-Coirpri, slew 

Indrechtach, 707 ; si. in btl. of Allen, 



Conall. — cont. 
722; f. of Cathal, 771 ; f. of Echaidh, 
759 ; f. of Flaithbertach, 752. 

Oircnech (k. of Cenel-Coirpri), f. of 

Fergus, 732 ; si. in btl., 680. 

f. of Ardgal, 520. 

f. of Congalach, 760. 

f. of Cormac, 839. 

f. of Fiachra, 618. 

f. of Flann, 904. 

f. of Fothad, 552. 

f. of Mael-Cairnigh, 938. 

f. of Maeldeith, 657. 

f . of Maelduin, 842, 846. 

-^ f. of Maelochtaraigh, 785. 

gs. of Ossene, ab. of Letuba, 779. 

(mk.) of Kilskcer, bp., ob., 867. 

(penitent) of Tiree, ob., 775. 

s. of Aedhan, slew Conall, s. of 

Tadhg, in Canty re, 807. 

s. of Blathmac, si., 651. 

s. of Comgall, 568 ; grantor of lona 

to Columcille, 574 ; ob., 574 ; f . of 

Duncath, 576. 
"-. — s. of Crmmmael, ab. of Lusk, ob., 

784. 

s. of Cucongalt, k. of Fortuatha, si. 

by Gentiles, 827. 

s. of Daimin, ob., 609. 

s. of Daimtech, ab. of Trcvet, ol),^ 

813. 

s. of Domnall, si., 663. 

s. of Donennach, k. of Ui-Fidligente, 

ob., 701. 

s. of Feradacli, si., 709. 

s. of Fiannamail, fell in btl. of For- 

boros, 741. 
s. of Fidhgal, k. of Ui-Maine, ob., 

787 

s. of larlaithi, ob., 741. 

s. of Maeldubh, defeated, 627. 

s. of Moudan, martyred, 727. 

s. of Niall, k. of S. Bregia, defeated 

Fiangalach, 800 ; ob., 815. 
s. of Suibhne, k. of Decies, si., 701. 

Sweet-voice, s. of Suibhne, slew 



88 



INDEX. 



Conall. — cont. 

Aedh Slaiiie, 604 ; won btl. of Cenn- 
delgden, 622; slew two sons" of Aedh 
Slaine, 634 ; si, 635 ; f, of Airmedach 
Blind-eye, 763, 862. 

s. of Tadhg (of the Scottish Picts), 

defeated in btl. by Constantine of the 
Scottish Picts, and fíed, 789 or 790 ; 
sL by Conall, s. of Aedhan, in Cantyre, 
807. 

s. of Tuathal, ob., 695. 

Wood of (in Louth), 1254. 

Conallan, f. of Cleirchen, 950. 

s. of Maelduin, k. of I veagh, defeated 

and si. by Louth, 812. 

s. of Maelteimiii, ab. of Liishkeen, 

ob., 884. 
Conamail, s. of Cano, taken 673 ; si, 705. 

s. of Failbhe, ab. of lona, ob., 710. 

Conamhal, s. of Foreign chief, si in btl 

of Tara, 980. 
Conan, f. of Conna, 779. 

s. of Ruadhri, k. of Britons (Welsh), 

ob., 816. 
Conang Cumach, s. of Congalach, f. of 
Irgalach, 728. 

f. of Aedh, 733. 

f. of Cinaedh, 834. 

f. of Condalach, 717. 

f. of Congalach, 688, 778. 

f. of Duncath, 654. 

f. of Dunchad, 831. 

gf. of Amalgaidh. 718. 

gf. of Dungal, 759. 

gs. of Dubduin, k. of Longford 

Teffia, ob., 752. 

s. of Congal, si, 681 ; f. of Congalach, 

695, 696. 
Conasach, f. of Cu-dinaisc, 791. 
Conbrann, ab. of Killeigh, ob., 767. 
Conchad, lip., ob., 692. 

s. of Cuanu, k. of [Magh-JCobha, si 

in btl. (of Faughard, co. Louth), 735. 
Concenn, s. of Ladgnen, si, 659. 
Conchenn. d. of Cellach Cualann, ob., 
743. 



Concobar, sec Donnchad and Concobar. 

f. of Aedh, 888. 

f. of Aedhaccan, 877. 

f. of Anion, 810. 

f. of Artri, 823, 825, 833. 

f. of Bochaill, 745. 

of Ard, f. of Bresal, 737. 

f. of Cathal, 843. 

908, 925. 

1001, 1010, 1030. 

f. of Cinaedh, 808. 

f. of Conn, Flaitlibertach and Tadhg, 

962. 

f. of Cumuscach, 743. 

f. of Domnall, 1017. 

f . of Flaithbertach— f . of Conn. 

f. of Fland, 754. 

f. of Maelcluiche, 9:3, i^23. 

f. of Maelruanaigh, 928. 

f. of :Muirghis, 988. 

f. of Tadhg, 900. 

f. of Tadhg =- f. of Conn. 

f. of Uathmaran, 897. 

gs. of Cathal, si in btl. of Ard-Maic- 

Rime, 792. 

gs. of Carrach (-calma), si., 1023. 

gs. of Maelduin, si, 772. 

gs. of Mael-8echnaill, royal-heir of 

Tara, si. in btl. of Dublin, 919. 

gs. of Muiredach, k. of Kerry, si, 

1033. 

of Maenmagh, 1174. 

s. of Ailill, si by his bb., 834. 

s. of Cerball, ob.,993. 

s. of Colgu, ob., 785. 

s. of Cumascach, k of Aidhne, ob., 

769. 

s. of Domnall, k. of Lough Veagh, 

ob., 1005. 

royal-heir of Ailech, died 

and buried in Armagh cemetery of kk., 
935. 

s. of Donnchad, got moiety of Meath 

from Aedh (k. I), 802; won btl. of 
Rathconnell over his b., Ailill, 803; 
went on hosting with Muirgis (k. C.) to 



•INDEX. 



89 



Concobar. — cont. 

Teltown, 808 ; (k. I.) led S. Ui-Neill 
and Leinstermen against N. Ui-Neill 
(to Drimnagh), 820 ; led hosting to 
Ard-achaidh of Sliab-fuait, 821 ; pil- 
laged S. Bregia and encamped at 
Gualat ; pillaged it again, slew very 
many Bregiaus and forced Ui-Cernaigh 
to give hostages, 822 ; dispersed and 
slew very many of Gailenga in Assemb- 
ly of Teltown, 827 ; outraged Eogan, 
ab. of Armagh, captured his retinue 
and carried off his horses ; pillaged 
Plain of LiiFey (E, part of co. Kildare), 
831 ; k. L, ob., 832, or 833. 

s. of Donnchadh, j.-k. of Meath, 

drowned (in Boyne) at Clonard by 
Amlaiph, k. of Foreigners, 864. 

s, of Echaidh, si., 1028. 

s. of Eicnechan, f. of Conn, 1017. 

s. of Finn, k. of Offaly, ob., 979. 

s. of Flannacan, chief of IMuinntir- 

Birn, wounded by Ui-Cremthainn and 
died, 1120. 

k. of OfFaly, burned, com- 
munity of Finnian outraged, reliquaries 
of Finnian profaned and burned, in 
church of Clonfad, 891. 

• s. of Maelcen, k. of Offaly, si, by 

Leinstermen, 938. 

s. of Maelduin, k. of Cenel-Coirpri, 

si., 706. 

of Macha, s. of Maelduin, si. in btl- 

of Farney, 698. 

s. of ;Mael-Sechlainn, k.*of Corcom- 

roe, sL, 1003. 

royal heir of Tara,ob.,1105 

s. of Muiredhach, k. L., defeated by 

Cellach, s. of Fogartach, 818. 

s. of Ness, reckoning from time of, 

482 ; Fifth of, see Fifth of Concobar ; 
Cormac, s. of, 1372. 

s. of Tadhg, k. of the 3 Connaughts, 

died in old age, 882. 

. (k, C.) defeated and slew 

Ualgarc, 970; ob., 973. 



Coacobar. — cont. 

s. of Tadhg Teimin, ob., 760. 

of Ui-Fidhgente, fell in btl., 744. 

Concohars, htl. of, 1180. 
Concodach, f. of Cellach, 810. 
Concord, sought to be made between 
Men of I., at Rahue conference, 
859. 
Concurrents, bissextile, 1064. 
Condal, d. of Murchadh, abbess of the 

House of Seniors, Kildare, ob., 797. 
Condalach, f. of Donncuan, 884. 

s. of Ailill, si, in brawl at Armagh, 

Pentecost Day, 781. 

s, of Conang, k. of Ui-Cremthainn, 

ob., 717. 
Condam (nik,) of Clonguffin, ob., 760. 
Conde, s. of, si., 711. 
Condere, Condire and Connire (Connor, 
CO. Antrim), abbots of : — 
Ainfchellach, 778. 
Conaing (coarb of MacNisse 

aiid Colman-Ela) 976. 
Cuinniden (coarb of MacNisse 

and Colman-Ela), 1038, 
Flannacan (coarb of MacNisse 

and Colman-Ela), 954, 
Oegedchar, 867. 

bp. of [Robert of Flanders] assisted 

at consecration of cemetery of Friars, 
Armagh, 1266. 

bishops of : — 

Dimma the Black 659. 
Duchonna the Pious, 726. 
Flann, 1117. 
Aengus MacNisse (founder), 507, 

514. 
Mael-Patraic O'Banan, 1174. 
Gilla-Crist O'Kearney, 1210. 
(Robert of Flanders), 1266. 

burned, 617 ; destroyed by Artgar, 

970; herenaghs of :— Eochaidh, 1063; 
Tipraiti,901 ; O'Roarty, 1081 ; pillaged 
by Gentiles, 832; pillaged by Flaith- 
bertach, 962. 
Condla, anchorite of Drumcar, ob., 870. 



90 



INDEX. 



Condmach, ab., of Armagh, presided over 

Rathcore Assembly, 804. 
ab. of Clonmaciioise, died on eve of 

Jan. 1, 868. 

f. of Murchad, 799. 

s. of Donit, ab. of Cork, ob., 800. 

s. of Dubdaleithi, ab. of Armagh, 

died suddenly, 807. 
s. of Muirmedh, scribe of Clonmac- 

noise, ob,, 798. 
Conene, s. of Mnircertach, si. in btl. of 

Crew Mount, lOOi. 
Conference between Aedh Allain (k. I.) 

and Cathal (k. M.), at Terryglass, 737. 
I'oyal, in Armagh, between Mael- 

Sechnaill (k. I.) and Matodhan (k. U.), 

851. 
(between k. of Cashel and k. 

I.) at Birr, 827. 

. in Cloncurry, 838. 

of nobles of I., at Rahue, to 

make peace between Men of I. : full 

award of community and coarb of 

Patrick given by Cerball, k. of Ossory ; 

allegiance with N. of I. tendered by 

Ossorians and Maelguala, k. M., in, 

859. 
Confessor {tioul -friend), chief, Gormgal, 

1056 ; of Columban Community, 

Oengus, 1109 ; of I., Domnall, 1060 ; 

of I., Gormgal, 1018 ; of I., Tigernach, 

1061 ; of N. of I., Maelruanaidh, 1062 ; 

of I. and Scotland, Dubthach, 1065. 

select, Mac Marais, 1098. 

Confey, see Cenn-fuait. 

Ce)nfluence of Clones, JSluircertach 

O'Loughlin's hosting passed by, 1161. 
Congal [Conall of Translation is an error], 

[k.] of [Ui-Conaill-] Gabra, si, 703. 
Blind-eye, s. of 8canlan, slew Suibne 

Menu, 628 ; defeated, 629. 
Long-head, s. of Dunchad, k. U., si., 

674. 

f. of Cellach, 815. 

f. of Cillenc, 752. 

f. of Colman, 957. 



Congal. — co)it. 

f. of Conaing, 662. 

f. of Conaing, 823. 

f. of Conang, 681. 

f. of Dunchad, 802. 

f. of Dungalach, 781. 

f. of Feradach, 687. 

f. of Fergus, 757. 

f. of ISIaelmordha, 924. 

gf. of Flann, 738, 740, 751. 

gf. of Forbasach, 714. 

" s. of Aedh Slaine, k. of Bregia, 

634 ; f. of Conang, 695, 696. 



si.. 



s. of Bran, si. 



btl. of Burren, 



727. 



s. of Doergart, ob,, 712. 

s. of Dunchad, si., 639. 

s. of Eicnech, defeated Ui-Tuirtri, 

745 ; k. of Oriors, si. in Rath-escle, 

748. 

s. of Eoganan, ob,, 701. 

s. of Fedach, scribe, ab, of Kildalkey, 

ob,, 868. 
of Kennaweer, s. of Fergus of 

Fanat, began to reign (as k. I.), 705 ; 

made hosting into Leinster, 707 ; died 

of fit, 710 ; f. of Conaing, 733 ; f. of 

Donngal, 731 ; f. of Flann Gohan, 732. 
s. of Guaire, ob., 685 ; f. of Ecomras, 

697. 

s. of Maelanfaith, ob., 725. 

s, of Maelduin, si., 676, 

k. of W. Munster, sL, 

690. 
s. of Moenach, ab. of Slane, died a 

virgin, 806. 
Congalach, f. of Cenneitigh, 839. 

f. of Amalgaidh, 909. 

f. of Cernach, 818. 

f. of Conaing, 1018. 

f. of Conn, 994. 

f. of Cumuscach, 822, 839. 

f. of Cu-Ulad, 1061. 

f. of Domnall, (k. of, Bregia), 964 

966, 970, 972, 976. 
f. of Donnchad, 1017. 



INDEX. 



91 



Congalach. — cont. I 

f. of Dubhdainbher, 927. 

f. of Ferdacrich, 722. 

f. of Flann, 795, 812. 

f . of Maeloghrai, 908. 

f. of Muircertach, 1026. 

f. of Muirenn, 979. 

f. of Spelan, 923. 

gf. of Donnchad, 991. 

gf. of Muircertach, 995. 

gs. of Cuilennan, k. of Louth, slew 

and si. by Ciarchaille, 988. 

(mk.) of Cnucha (Castleknock), ob., 

732. 

slew some people of Ruaidhri, 945. 

s. of Aedh Slaine, f . of Coriang, 728, 

856. 

s. of Aenghus, won btl. over Fian- 

galach, 800. 

s. of Cathal, defeated in btl. of 

Leth-cam by Niall, 827. 

s. of Cennetigh,sl., to avenge slaying 

of Ruaidhri, 1019. 

s. of Conaing Curraigh, f. of Cellach, 

956. 

s. of Conall, k. of Diathrabh, si., 760. 

s. of Conang, defeated, fled, 688 ; slew 

Finsnechta (k. I.) and Bresal,,his s., 
695 ; ob., 696. 

war against Donnchad 

(k. I.) by, 777, 778 ; si. in same at btl. 
of Forcalad, 778. 

s. of Domnall, royal-heir of I., si. by 

Amlaim, 977. 

s. of Echaid, defeated at Lough- 

brickland, and slain at their ships by 
Gentiles, 833. 

s. of Fergus, k. of Kells bar., ob., 

819. 

s. of Finsnechta, k. of Oriel, ob., 

876. 

s. of Flannacan, royal-heir of Bregia, 

ob., 893. 

s. of Gairbidh, k. of Louth, si. by 

his sept, nine months after he ignited 
the abbot's house (refectory, 912) of 



Congalach. — cont. 

Dromiskin against Gairbith and Cor- 
mac, 913. 

s. of Gilla-Ciarain, herenagh of 

Guest-House (of Clonmacnoise), died in 
penance, 1116. 

s. of Irgalach, k. of Coill-FoUani- 

hain, ob., 851. 

s. of Mac Conchaille, herenagh of 

Derry, died in penance, aged 94, 1112. 

s. of Maelmithidh, defeated Morgal- 

lion and Gailenga-becca at Ath-da- 
loarc, 939 ; slew two ss. of Lorcan, 
942 ; (k. I.) pillaged Dublin and took 
off great spoil, 944 ; led Irish in btl. of 
Slane, 947 ; slew Blacair, k. of Fo- 
reigners, 948 ; led hosting and pillaged 
Monaghan and Farney barr., co. 
Monaghan, 949 ; expedition of into 
Connaught, 955 ; k. L, si. by Dublin 
Foreigners and Leinstermen, 956 ; f. 
of Muircertach, 964. 

s. of Moenach, k. of Moygoish, died 

suddenly, 838. 

s. of Oengus, k. of Cenel-Loeghaire, 

ob., 834. 

Congaltach, s. of Eitguine, v.-ab. of 
Clonfert, ob., 813. 

Congbail of Glenn-Suileidhi {Conwal of 
Gleiiswilly : in Kilmacrenan bar., co. 
Donegal), herenaghs of : — Scannlan, 
915 ; Ua Sruithein, 1205 ; other refer- 
ence, 1258 (D). 

Congregation of Patrick, see Patrick, 
Congregation of ; also Waking. 

Conghus anchorite of Clontivrin, ob., 745. 

bp. of Armagh, ob., 750. 

Blind-eye, scribe, ab. of Leamo- 

kevoge, ob., 752. 

f. of Cubretan, 740. 

f. of Dalach, 820. 

f. of Talorg, 731, 734. 

Con-inis, Clann-Donnell of, see under 
Clann-Domnaill, 1520. 

Dartry of (Dartree bar., co Mona- 
ghan), 1432, 1457, 1502. 



92 



INDEX. 



Conla, f. of Becc, 771. 

Coiilaech, f. of Moeiiacli, 743. 

Conlaedli (first bishop of Ivildare), ob., 
520 ; relics of enshrined, 800. 

f. of Eacha, 553, ooS. 

Conle (mk.) of Teifia, ob., 741. 

■Conligan, s. of Draignu, chief of Ui- 
Lomain-Gaela, ob., 916. 

Conmaicne (Longford co.), bishops of ; 
see Ard-achadh, bishops of ; chief of 
(O'Farrell), 1342 ; future chief of 
(OTarrell), 1 345 ; defeated by O'Conors 

, at Ros ; defeated O'Conors in Magh- 
Brengair, 1113 : defeated near Ardee, 
1159 ; invaded Tyrone, 1166. 

Cuile (Kilmaine bar., co. Mayo), 

defeated with great loss by Ui-Briuin in 
btl. of Shrule, 766 ; invaded, 1430 ; 
raided, 1412, 1431 ; other ref., 1475. 

(of Dunmore : Dunmore bar., co. 

Galway) defeated, 746. 

and Conmaicne of jSIagh-Rein 

(Leitrim co.), kings of (O'Rourkes) : — 
Aedh, 1087. 
Aedh, 1122. 
Domnall, llO?. 
Tigernan, 1172. 

sub.-k (?) of, Aedh O'Rourke, 1159 ; 

nobles of, fell in btl. in Corran, 1087 ; 
royal heir of, Aedh O'Rom-ke, 1171 ; 
slew Aedh O'Conor, 1067 ; slew k., 
Domnall, 1102 ; other ref., 1288. 

(-mara : Connemara) massacred by 

Gentiles, 812 ; burned Thomond forte 
and churches, and took spoil in absence 
of Momonians, 1084. 

Conmal, gs. of Lochene, ab. of Clonmac- 
noise, ob., 737. 

k. of Toaghie, si. in defeat of Magh- 

Uatha, 933. 

s. of Cernach, si. in btl. of Magh- 

lingsen, 800. 

steward of Tallaght, ob., 865. 

Conn (of the Hundred Battles), descend- 
ants of (chief septs of Connaught), 
1343; (S. Ui-Neill), 738; Half of 



Conn. — conf. 

(alias of N. of I), 1067, 1073, 1075, 
1162, 1230. 1316, 1364, 1368, 1375, 
1488, 1501, 1504, 1532. 

of the poor, of Clonmacnoise, ob.. 

1060. 

b. of Flaithbertach, si. with him in 

Dalaraide, 962. 

f. of Mael-Ciarain, 1079. 

s. of Concobar, ob., 1017. 

s. of Congalach, k. of Offaly, si., 

994. 

s. of Donnchad, si. by Flann, 795. 

(k. I.), f. of Carlus, 960. 

s. of Erudan, k. of Moj'dow, si., 

954. 

s. of Mael-Patraic, herenagh of 

Mungret, ob., 1033 or 1034. 

Conna, f. of Rubin, 725. 

s. of Conan, ob., 779. 

Connachta (Connaught), archbishops of, 
6ee Tuaim, archbishops of. 

archer of, 1243 ; btl. in, 653, 732 ; 

cavalry of defeated h\ cavalry of Con- 
cobar, 1131 ; Ciaraidhe of , 847 ; circuit 
of made b}^ bishop of Armagh, 960 ; cir- 
cuit of made, and fuir(Patrician) cess of 
got, by Cellach, firstly, 1 108 ; by Cellach, 
secondly, 1116; fourth Patrician cir- 
cuit of, 1172 ; constable of, 1397 ; de- 
feated near Ardee, 1159 ; devotee of, 
O'Fallon, 1092; Dubchablaigh, d. of 
(Cathal) k. of, 1009; Foreigners of, 1349. 
1366, 1412 ; gallowglasses of, 1397 ; 
Garbtrian of, 1263; hostages of:— got 
by Feidhlimidh, k. M., 840; taken by 
Brian (Boruma), 1002; taken by O'Mul- 
dory and O'Rourke, 1014 ; returned 
from England, 1211. 

hosting, of to N. of I., 860 ; into, 

and N. of defeated, by Niall, s. of 
Aedh, 913; of Congalach into, 955; 
into, and wasted, b}' Domnall, 965 ; into, 
its crannogs razed and chiefs si., by 
Mael-Sechnaill, 985 ; into, and great 
spoils tak«n from, by Mael-Sechlainn, 



INDEX. 



93 



Connachta. — cont. 

992 ; into, and devastation of, by Mael- 
Sechlainn,998; into,byTorlogh O'Brien, 
1076 ; into by, and hostages of given to, 
Domnall O'Loughlin, 1088 ; through, by 
Muircertach O'Brien, and S. of I., 1101 ; 
of Domnall, home through, 1114; of 
Domnall against, 1120; into, and pil- 
laging of, by Muircertach, 1159. 

on Muircertach's hostings, 1113 ; 

on Torlogh O'Conor's Desmond host- 
ing, 1121 ; with Torlogh, on Munster 
hosting, 1131 ; invaded, 1235, 1262, 
1286, 1288, 1442 ; invaded by O'Neill, 
1225 ; invaded and destroyed by De 
Burgh, 1230. 
kings of : — 

Aedh, 888. 

Aedh, s. of Echa Dry-Flesh, 561. 

Aedh the Dumb, 742. 

Ailill, 764. 

Ailill Inbanna, 550. 

Art, 1046. 

Artgal, 778, 782, 791. 

Cathal, 735. 

Cathal, 837. 

Cathal, 908, 925. 

Cathal, 973. 

Cathal, 1010. 

Cellach of [Loch-]Cime, 703 
(note), 705. 

Cennfaelad, 682. 

Cinaedh, 792. 

Concobar, 973. 

Diarmait, 833. 

Domnall, 728.' 

Domnall, 1106. 

Donncothaidh, 773. 

Duach, 502. 

Dubdaingen, 1034. 

Dubinnrecht, 766, 767. 

Eogan Bel, 543, 547- 

Fergus, 756. 

Ferghus, 843. 

Finsnechta, 848. 

Flathruae, 777, 779. 



Connachta. — cont. 

Guaire Aidhnc, 627, 649, 663, 
666. 

Indrechtach, 723. 

Mughron(j.-k.), 872. 

Muiredach, 732. 

Muirgis, 792, 793, 799, 805, 808, 
812, 814, 815. 

Murchadh, 840. 

Nainnid, 561. 
/Aedh, 1228. 

Aedh, 1228, 1232, 1233. 

Aedh, s. of Cathal the Blind, 
1274. 

Aedh, s. of Feidhlimidh, 1274. 

Aedh, 1280. 

Aedh, 1306, 1309. 

Aedh, 1342, 1350. 

Aedh, 1352 1356. 

Aedh, 1368. 

Cathal Red-hand, 1190, 1224. 

Cathal, 1280, 1288. 

Cathal, 1318, 1324. 

Conor of Moenmagh, 1188, 1189. 

Eogan, 1274. 

Feidhlimidh, 1232. 1267. 

Feidhlimidh, :310. 

Maghnus, 1288. 

Ruaidhri, 1076, 1092, 1118. 

Ruaidhri, 1321. 

Ruaidhri, 1368, 1384. 

Ruaidhri, 1421. 

Tadhg, 1015, 1030. 

Tadhg (j.-k,), 1464. 

Torlogh, 1106, 1156. 

Torlogh, 1317, 1324, 1345. 

Torlogh, jun. (Brown), 1384, 1406. 
VTorlogh (Red), 1384. 

Muircertach O'Flaherty, 1419. 

Raghallach, 649, 650. 

Tipraiti, 784, 786. 
— kk. of submited to Mac Lochlainn, 
1063 ; lands of, 818 , Law of Ciaran 
proclaimed over, 788, 814 ; Lmo of 
Coman and Aedan promulgated over all 
of, 772 ; Law of Dare promulgated over, 



94 



INDEX. 



Connachta. — cont. 

812, 826 ; Lmc of Patrick promulgated 
over b}' Gormgal, 799 ; Law and shrine 
of Patrick carried to, 811 ; Latv of Pat- 
rick promulgated over the three divisions 
(= whole) of, 825; Laic and reliquaries 
of Patrick taken to by Dermot (ab. of 
Armagh), 836 ; Loch-Erpsen in, 929 ; 
lord of, Walter De Burgh, 1271 ; 
Luighni of, 810, 879, 1023 ; marched 
through by Brian (Boruma), 1006. 

Men of : — defeated, 533 : fought 

Cenel-Conaill, 703 (note) ; fought Corco- 
Baiscinn, 721 ; defeated at Cuilnech- 
mor, 763 ; fought domestic btl., 789, 
799, 822, 824, 836 ; led by (k.) Muirgis to 
Teltown, and fled after three days from 
Aedh (k. I), 808 ; defeated with great 
loss by Men of Meath, 829 ; defeated 
with great loss by Gentiles, 838 ; de- 
feated bj»- Foreigners, 846 : fought 
Murchad, 973 ; secret foray by to 
Lough EnncU, when its crannog was 
burned, and k. of Fir-Cell si., 985 ; 
defeated by Brefnians, 1009 ; de- 
feated by O'Muldory, 1013; slew 
Domnall, 1052; slew Aedh, 1054; cap- 
tured Alia cave from Aedh O'Conor's 
people and smothered 160 in it, 1063 ; 
submitted to Domnall, 1114; slew 
Domnall, 1115 ; with Torlogh on 
Thomond raid, 1115: (k.) with grand- 
sons of Cathal in btl. of Lackan. 
11'7 ; razed Kincora, 1119; built Nar- 
row-Water castle, 1212 ; peace of year 
and half between and Momonians, 
1128; defeated De Cogan, 1177; si. in 
btl. of Downpatrick, 1260; invaded 
Mac Namara, 1334; depredator of, 
1374; other references to, 1254, 1270, 
1280, 1288, 1291, 1333, 1409, 1466, 
1505. 

muster of, 1348 ; nobles of : — si. by 

Tadhg, 925; went with O'Brien to 
Magh-Coba, 1103; si., 1249; other re- 
ferences, 1201, 1262; O'Conors ex- 



Connachta. — cont. 

pelled from and returned to, 1093 ; 
ollams of :— O'Donnellan, 1178, 1342; 
O'Hely, 1309; three parts (=:all) of, 
882, 900 ; pillaged by Gentiles, 845 ; 
pillaged by Aedh, 1002; Plain of, 1373, 
1388, 1397 ; preceptor of in poetrj', 
1510; raided, 1062, 1269, 1294, 1311 ; 
raided and captives and cattle taken 
from bj'' Domnall O'Loughlin, 1110. 
roj'al-heirs of : — 

Aedh, 991. 

Brian, 1029. 

Cathal, 1013. 

Maelcluiche, 923. 

Muircertach, 967. 

Niall, 1025. 

Aedh O'Conor, 1093. 

Domnall ,, 1082. 
1118. 

Tadhg „ 1097. 

^Son of the Night O'Rourke, 1053. 

Ualgarc „ 1085. 

slirine of Patrick taken to by Artri, 

818 ; ss. of chiefs of, 1306 ; ss. of kk. 
of, 1196, 1247, 1273; ss. of kk. of, 
defeat and slaughter of, 1181; synod 
of at Athlone, 1202 ; tanist of, 1307 ; 
3 tribes ( = whole) of, 793; Ui-Maine 
of, 799, 1171 ; head of urbanity of, 
1377; great war in, 1338, 1.368; general 
war in, 1351; wasted, 1186; wasted by 
dissension, 1296 : all Avasted b}' Gentiles, 
836; other references, 1191, 1197, 1229, 
1281, 1291, 1365, 1374, 1418, 1426, 1486, 
1488, 1497, 1512. 

Lower (northern), some of aided 

O'Donnell at Lough-monann btl., 1522; 
invaded, 1245, 1249 (D), 1284, 1458, 
1469, 1471, 1536, 1538, 1539 ; k. of, 
Aedh O'Dowda, 982 ; lord of, O'Don- 
nell, 1510 ; great part of at war with 
O'Donnell, 1526; other refei'ences, 1427, 
1475, 1487, 1493, 1495, 1512, 1513, 1528. 

South, devastated by Muirgis, k. C, 

812 ; k. of, Flann, 952. 



INDEX. 



95 



Connachta. — cont. 

West, attacked by sea, 1396 ; half of 

fell in btl. of Fenaglj, 1094 ; Foreigners 
of, 1285. 

kings of : — 

Aurchath, 945. 
Amalgaidh, 1051. 
Cathal, 1037, 1043. 
Cathal, 1059. 

Son of Aedh O'Conor, 1091. 
Domnall O'Flaherty, 1159. 
Flaithbertach „ 1098. 

Muiredach , , 1121. 

Ruaidhri ,, 1062. 

royal-heirs of : — Murchad, 1036 ; 

Niall, 1036 ; slew Aedh by stratagem, 
1062 ; other references, 1258, 1272. 

Connadh Cerr, f. of Ferchar, 694. 

Connaught, see Connachta. 

Connecan, s, of Colman, si. in foray of 
Aedh (k. I.) in Ulidia, 855. 

Connemara, see Conmaicne-mara. 

Connla, f. of Forbflaith, 780. 

Connlae, s. of Artgal, ob., 800. 

Connmach, brehon of Ui-Briuin, ob., 806. 

coarb of Ultan (ab. of Ardbraccan), 

ob., 968. 

s. of Brendan, ab. of Cluain-dochre, 

ob., 770. 

s. of Cernach, j.-k. of Ciaraidhe of 

Connaught, ob., 847. 

the Big, won btl. of Drung, 836 ; s. 

of Coscrach, k. of Ui-Briuin, ob., 846. 

Connor, see Condere. 

Conodor (mk.) of Fore, ob., 707. 

Conrach, s. of Eogan, f. of Sitriuo, 1102. 

Conragh, see Comrair, 

Conri, s. of Congal Long-head, si,, 718. 

Conr}', see Comrair. 

Consecration, of cemetery of Friars Minor, 
Armagh, 1266 ; of church of Paul and 
Peter, Armagh, by Cellach, 1126 ; of 
Cistercian church, Bojde, 1219 ; of Kil- 
more (co. Roscommon) church, 1232 ; of 
Mellifont church, by coarb of Patrick, 
1157. 



Constable (leader of gallowglasses), 1378, 

1394, 1424, 1444, 1455, 1485, 1524, 1526, 

1540 ; of Brefny, 1447 ; of Connaught, 

1397 ; Mac Cabe, 1460. 
Constans, sage, of Lough-Erne, ob., 778. 
Constantino, emperor, 1492. 

(martyr), became mk,, 588. 

— — (of Scottish Picts) defeated Conall (of 

same), 789, or 790. 
s. of Cinaedh (k. of Scots), Artghasl. 

by counsel of, 872. 
s. of Constantino, reigned 28 years, 

[from] 643 [642], 
reigned 17 years [from] 

673 [658]. 
s. of Heraclius, reigned six months, 

642. 

see Custantin. 

Constantinople, church of, 606 ; date of 

foundation of, 527 ; earthquake in, 448. 
Consuls, Etius and Valerius, 431 [432]. 
Contrition andCommunion,deathaiter,974, 
Convent of Preachers, first, in England, 

1221. 
Convention, of Druim-ceta, 595. 
Conwal, see Congbail. 
Coolarn, see Cul-corra, 
Coolcarney, see Cuil-cernu. 
Coole, see Cuil. 
Cooley, see Cuailgne. 
Corann (Corran bar., co., Sligo), btl. of, 

596, 683, 703 ; Ath-na-croise in, 1024 ; 

btl .in, between Ruaidhri Conor and 

Aedh O'Rourke, 1087. 
chief of, IVlac Donough, 1470, 1497 ; 

corn of burned, 1307 ; Gailenga of, see 

Gailenga of Corann ; raided, 1273. 
Corbbene, f . of Clemens, 787. 
Core, Cathal, 729. 

■ f . of Sebdann, 732, 

Corcach (Cork city), called mor (great), 

687, 792, 800, 836, 839, 868, 978, 1042, 

1116, 1118, 1126, 1127; of Munster, 1116' 

abbots of : — 

Artagan, 899. 
Condmach, 800. 



96 



INDEX 



Corcach — cont, 

Dimlaing, 836. 
Flann, 912. 
Rechtabhra, 868. 
Rossene, 687. 
Suibne, 682. 
Ternoc, 792. 

ab. of tliird of, Ailill, 908. 

bishops of : — 

Cellach (coarb of Barre), 1036. 
Domnall, 876. 
Gilla-Aedha, 1172. 
Robert, 1302. 

burned by Gentiles, 839 ; bnrned, 

978, 1116, 1126 ; Diarmait O'Brien die_d 
at, 1118 ; family (community) of fought 
family of Clonfert and lost countless 
ecclesiastics and nobles, 807. 

■ herenaghs of : — 

Cathal, 1034. 

Cellach, 1007. 

Colum, 988. 

Gilla-Patraic Mac Carthy, 1157. 

Dubdalethe O'Kennedy, 1057. 

Cleirech O'Selby, 1085. 

Gilla-Patraic O'Selby, 1109. 

hosting of Torlogh O'Conorto, 1127 ; 

pillaging of designed by Foreigners, 
1088; other references :— 1042, 1428, 
1528. 
Corca-roidhc of (W.) Meath (Corkaree 
bar., Westmeath), Massacred by Moy- 
goish, 812. 
Corco-Achlann (Kiltrustan, Bumlin and 
Clonfinlough parr, and W. part of 
Lisonuffy par., Roscommon bar. and 
CO.), chiefs of (Mac Branans), 1225, 
1295, 1319, 1402. 

k . of, Branan, 1 1 20 ; other references, 

1416, 1487. 

Baiscinn (Clonderalaw, Mo^^arta and 

Ibrickan barr., co. Clare), fought Con- 
nachtmen, 721 ; with Corcomroe fought 
Ui-Fidhgente, 763 ; kings of : — Aedh 
Roen, 812; Domnall, 1014; Mac 
Mahons, 1359, 1426 ; future k. of, Mac 



Corco. — cont. 

Mahon, 1432 ; man of abnormal length 
cast ashore on, 1029; great thunder- 
storm in, 804. 

duibne (Corkaguiny bar., co. Kerry), 

k. of, Mahon O'Shea, 1096. ; 

Laighdhi (Bantry, Bear and Car- 

bery barr., co. Cork), k. of, Finn, 944. 

Modruadh (Corcomroe bar., co. 

Clare), btl. of, 705; bishop of, mider 
Kilfenora ; half of fell in btl. of Fenagh 
1094 ; with Corco-Baiscinn fought Ui- 
Fidhgente, 763. 

kings of : — 

Cett,919. 
Concobor, 1003. 

kings of (of O'Conor sept) : — 

Concobar, 1104. 
Feidhlimidh, 1365. 
Rughraidhe, 1422. 

kings of (of O'Loughlin sept) : — 

Congalach, 1045. 
Donnchadh, 1361. 
Irial, 1396. 

Mael-Sechlainn, 1113. 
Mael-Sechlainn, 1389. 

O'Conors of, 1168, 1431 ; ollam of, 

O'Daly, 1405 ; wasted by Decies, 744. 

of O'Loughlin (Burren bar., co. 

Clare), chief brehon of, O'Davoren, 
1364. 

Ninis (Corcomroe and Burren barr., 

CO. Clare, and Arran Isles,Galway Ba}'), 
k. of Flaithbertach, 873. 
Ochc (a sept in Limerick co.), de- 
feated, 552. 

Sogain (Tiaquin bar., co. Gal way), 

k. of, Irgalach, 816. 

tliri (a sept in Corran bar,, co. Sligo), 

k. of Fogartach, 994. 
Corcomroe, -see Corco-Modruadh. 
Corcran the Cleric, head of piety and 
learning of Europe, ob,, 1040. 

gf. of Samson, 736. 

Corrjhai^ ( Quadragesima), ^econa (and more 
strictly kept) half of Lent, 1116. 



INDEX. 



97 



Corindu, ob., 669. 

Cork, see Corcach. 

Corkaguiny, see Corca-duibne. 

Corkaree, see Corca-roidhe of (W.) Meath. 

Corlieu Hills, see Cor-sliabh. 

Cormac, ab. of Clonard, bp. of Duleek, 

died after long suffering, 885. 

ab. of Clonmacnoise, ob., 762. 

ab. of Cumber, si., 1222. 

ab. of Fore, v.-ab. of Clonmacnoise, 

ob., 891. 

anchorite, ab. of Dromore, ob., 908. 

bp. and herenagh of Glendalough, 

ob., 927. 
bp. and scribe of Kilbrew, ob., 

838. 
Blind-eye, s. of Cairbre, f. of Tuathal 

Maelgarb, 535, 539. 

f. of Aedh, 758. 

f. of Ailill, 802. 

f . of Cellach, 786. 

f. of Dubdainber, 767. 

f. of Dunacan, 884. 

f. of Dunchad, 728. 

f. of Faelan, 966. 

f. of Fedhach, 789. 

f. of Feradhach, 880. 

f. of Moenach, 959. 

f. of Muirecan, 880. 

f. of Muiredhach, 758. 

f. of Muiredhach, 912, 913. 

foster-s. of Moenach, ab. of Agha- 

boe, ob., 935. 
gs. of Congalach, coarb (ab.) of 

Devenish, ob., 996. 

herenagh of Ardbraccan, ob., 1064. 

(mk.) of Laraghbryan, scribe and bp., 

ob., 856. 
— — (mk.) of Magheracloone, ob., 625. 

(mk.) of Trim, ob., 746. 

s. of Ailill, ab. of Monasterboice, 

ob., 764. 

s. of Ailill, k. M., si. in btl., 713. 

s. of Art, 482. 

s. of Bresal, ab. of Ardbraccan and 

other abbeys, ob., 782, 



Cormac. — cont. 

s. of Ceithernach, v. -ab. of Terry- 
glass and Clonfert, ob., 884. 
s. of Ciaran, v.-ab. of Clonfert, and 

ab. of Tuam, ob., 882. 

s. of Conall, ab. of Trevet, ob., 839. 

s. of Conall, steward of Lusk, ob., 

804. 
s. of Cuilennan, replaced Finnguine as 

k. of Cashel, 901 ; si. in btl. of Ballagh- 

moon, 908 ; other ref., 1346. 
s. of Cuilennan [recte, s. of Mothla), 

k. of Munster Decies, si., 920. 
s. of Dubdacrich, k. of Brefny, si. in 

btl. of Ard-Maic-Rime, 792. 
s. of Eladach, scribe, bp.-ab. of 

Seirkieran, ob., 869. 

s. of Eogan, f. of Saran, 561. 

s. of Fergal, ob., 790. 

s. of Fianamail, ab. of Dromiskin, 

ob., 891. 
s. of Lorcan, k. of Iveagh, si. by 

Ui-Trena, 1017. 
s. of Mac Ulcha, herenagh of Cole- 

raine, died in penance, 1110. 
s. of Mael-Ciarain, coarb of Mochutu 

(ab. of Lismore), ob., 983. 

s. of Maelfothartaigh, ob. , 673. 

3. of Muirghis, ab. of Baslick, si., 

805. 
s. of Muirghis, ab. of Santrey, ob., 

829. 
8. of Suibne, scribe, bp.-ab. of 

Clonard, ob., 830. 
Cormacan (the Poet), saying of, 914. 
Corn, abundant, 1108 ; cut on morrow of 

Brigit's day, 1225 ; of Foreigners in 

Mag-Fitharta burned by O'Loughlin, 

1162; failed through wet, 1491. 
Corp, f. of Elvin, 673. 
Cor-sliabh (Corlieu Hills, co. Sligo), 1249, 

1265, 1309, L344, 1494, 1495, 1505, 

1512, 1516, 1519. 
Corrach, Ailill, see Ailill Corrach. 
Corran bar., see Corann. 
Coscan, f. of Mael-Patraic, 953. 

G 



98 



INDEX. 



Coscarach, s. of Ceithernach, si. in btl. of 
Fennor, 799. 

Coscrach, f. of Airmedach, 1006. 

f . of Cathal, 847. 

f . of Cellach, 838. 

f. of Connmhach, 846. 

f. of Lorcan, 822. 

(mk.) of Tehelly, scribe and anchor- 
ite, ob., 867. 

s. of Ainngid, coarb of Flannan and 

Brenann (bp. of Killaloe and bp.-ab. of 
Clonfert), ob., 1040. 

s. of Donn, si. in btl. of Dun-ganiba, 

799. 

s. of Finsnechta, si., 815. 

s. of Flandabra, si. in massacre of 

Owlee, 813. 

s. of Niallghvis, k. of Garbros, ob., 812. 

s. of Oindenach, k. of Gailenga, ob., 

738. 

Ua Froich, ab., Louth, ob., 802. 

Coscradh, f. of Cinaedh, 840. 

Cosdibran, f. of Airbertach, 1016. 

Gossan (r. Glyde, co. Louth), 922. 

Cots, broken by storm, 1487. 

Council, of Nice, 533 years reckoned from 
to 857 ; General, 1215. 

of Community of Patrick, with Diar- 

mait at Armagh royal conference, 851. 

(of k. of England), Dublin, 1516, 

1525, 1532. 

Councillors, 12 Papal, poisoned, 1048. 

Counsel of Irish and Scots, presidency of 
Columban Order taken in accordance 
with, 989 

Counsellor, tribal, 1533, 1538. 

Country of O'Rourke (Leitrira co.), 1487. 

Courcey, Edmond, D.D., Friar Minor, 
made bp. of Clogher, but letters not ex- 
pedited to, 1485 ; s. of Patrick, sL, 1486. 

country, in Munster, 1485. 

Court, Papal, see Curia. 

Covenant of peace, \aolated, 1515. 

Cover of Armagh belfry blown off, 1121. 

of Kells Gospel, see Colum-cille 

Gospel of. 



Cow, for six (householders) See Cess 
(Patrician). 

in-calf, price of, bundle of oats, 

1497 ; 10 pails of oats, 1497. 

Cows, many, taken as spoil from Cenel- 

Conaill, 1011. 
— — 2 in-calf, price of milch-cow, 1497. 

7, see Cess (Patrician). 

10, annual grant of 0' Conor to 

Armagh Lector to lecture Irish and 
Scottish students, 1169. 

48, see Magh-Uatha. 

60, see O'Carolan, Donnchadh. 

donative of 60, 1499. 

80, see Ransom of Amlaim. 

• 15 herds of, rested from ss, of 

Glaisne O'Reilly, 1485. 
160, promised (and not given) to 

Armagh by Muircertach O'Brien, 1103. 
160, given by Muircertach O' Carroll 

at consecration of Mellifontchurch,1157. 
160, from O'Conor to Cenel-Conaill, 

1166. 
200 or 300, taken in raid on Torlogh 

O'Neill of the Beeves, 1487. 
240, eric of Munster, for slaying 

O'Brien, 1168. 

280, ransom, 1496. 

300, taken in Cenel-Binnigh raid, 

1053. 

300, taken in Oriors' raid, 1059. 

400, taken from ss. of Donnchadh 

Maguire, 1490. 
500, taken and left behind in 

Magh-Itha raid, 1056. 

1,200, see Ransom of Amlaim. 

1,200, taken in raid of Ui-Meithand 

Cuailgne, 1044. 

2,000, taken in Dalaraide raid, 1056. 

3,000,rescued from Niall in Tyrone, 

1031. 

3,000 (or 1,000), taken by Niall 

from Ulidia, 1111. 

6,000, taken in Connaught raid, 1062. 

many thousand, taken in raid in Fir- 
Li and Ui-Tuirtrc, 1181. 



INDEX. 



99 



Cows.— cont. 

thousands, taken in Ulidian raid, 

1130. 

great destruction of, 1321,1324,1325. 

plague of, 777, 778. 

Crach-erpais, sage, ob., 702. 
Crachen, f. of Suibne, 616. 
Craebh-Ui-Fliuadachain (Creeve Hill, 
Tirkennedy bar., co. Fermanagh), 1435. 
Craft carried from Lough Foyle to Lough 

Erne, 1248 ; simk by storm, 1363. 
Craib (alias of O'Kane territory, Keen- 
aght bar,, co. Londonderry), defeated, 
1295 ; k. of, O'Kane, 1213 ; Men of 
burned Ardstraw church, 1099; other re- 
ferences, 1118, 1156, 1192, 1206, 1214. 
See also Fir na Craibe. 

-telcha {Branch\ing tree'] of hill : — 

Crew Mount, CO. Antrim), btl. of, 1004; 
Uilidian camp at left to, and burned, 
and tree of uprooted by, Cenel-Eogain, 
1099. 
Cranuach, conflict of, 697. 
Crandamne, see Conall Crannamna. 
Crannog of : — 

Clabby, 1518. 
Coole (Fermanagh), 1514. 
Inisloughan, 1170. 
Killywillin, 1495. 
Lagore, 850, 935. 
Lough Barry, 1367. 
Loch-an-drochaid, 1245. 
Lough Ennell, 985. 
Lough Mary, 1436, 1500. 
Lough Meilghi, 1455. 
Loch-nen, 1225. 
Lough-Ooney, 1025. 
Lough Ram or, 847. 
Lough Sewdy, 1131. 
Lough Sheelin, 1155. 
Lough Veagh, 1524. 
Magauran, 1512, 1538. 
Ui-Finntain, 1194. 
Crannogs, of Connaught, burned, 985 ; 
destruction of by storm, 857; of Foreign- 
ers, seized, 942, 



Craumthan, s. of Brian, ob., 553. 
Craumthanan, ancestor of Colam, 549. 
Creation, .see Cycle, great Paschal. 

Credran, 1258 (D). 

cille (in the Rosses, Drum cliff par., 

Carbury bar., co. Sligo), 1257. 

Creeve Hill, see Craebh-Ui-Fhuadhacain. 

Creit (in Leitrim), pillaged, 1235. 

Creic (Creich, in Ross of Mull), burned 
by Oengus, 736. 

Cremtan, ab. of Clonfert, ob., 766. 

Cremthann, f. of Annud, 1099. 

f. of Colum, 1008. 

f. of Feidhlimidh, 820. 

f. of Feidhlimidh, 823, 

f. of Tuathal, 778. 

Cresen, f. of Ernaine, 635. 

Crew of Foreign ship si., 921. 

Crew Mount, see Craib- telcha. 

Crews of Ulidian fleet, defeated by Gen- 
tiles in Saxon haven, 913. 

Crich-Bresail (a tribe in Oneilland E. 
bar., CO. Armagh) ; Cele-Petair of, 
758. 

-na-cetach (Crinagedagh : Warrens- 
town bar., King's co.), 1484. 

Muiredaigh, in Inishowen, 764. 

Oa-nOlcan {territory of Ui-Olcan : 

perhaps in Meath), 795. 

ua-nGabla (in co. Kildare), 498. 

Crichan, f. of Aedh, 792. 

f. of Muiredach, 1007, 1011. 

k. of Moygoish, si., 719. 

s. of Mael-Muire, k. of Ui-Fiach- 

rach (of Ardstraw), ob., 939. 

Cridan, bp., died in Mahee Island, 639. 

Crikstown, see Circistown. 

Crime, great : burning of Trim and its 
chiu-ches with persons in them, by 
Concobar O'Loughlin, 1128. 

Crimthan, won btl. of Ath-dara, 461. 

f. of Cairbre, 665. 

f. of Feidlimidh, 831, 847. 

s. of Aedh, k. L., si., 633. 

s. of Cellach, si. at early age, in btl. 

of Belach-licce, 726. 

G^ 



100 



INDEX. 



Crimthan. — cont. ' 
8. of Fedhlimidh, f. of Aedh the 

Black, 662. 

6. of Fiag, f. of Eochu, 514. 

Corrach, slew his two bb., 719. 

Crinach (apparently on confines of Meatli 

and Dublin cos.), defeat of I^Iael- 

Sechlainn at, 1086. 
Crinagedagh, see Crich-na-cetach. 
Crinan, f. of Donnchad, 1040. 
s. of Gormlaidh, k. of Louth, si. by 

Cu-Chuailgni, 1012. 
Crinna (in Meath), btl. of (3rd cent.), 

mentioned, 903. 
Critan, ab. of Bangor, ob., 669. 

Areni, ob., 616. 

Criteria, Lunar (Decemnovennal) : — 

moon 1, Jan. 9, 1125. 

2, Sept. 2, 1022. 

8, Wed. (May 11), 1166. 

10, Dec. 15, 1119. 

13, Sept. 13, 908. 

14, Jan. 10, 1023. 

14, Oct. 15, 878. 

18. Feb. 9. 1121. 

Nov. 13, 1063. 

27 {read 28), Jan. 24, 1023. 

28, Mar. 13, 1119. 

Aug. 12, 1105. 

29, July 14, 1086. 

See also Eclipses, lunar. 

Paschal (Alexandrine) : — Sun., 

Mar. 5, Beginning (first day) of Lent, 
1088. 

Little Easter (Low Sun.), in Summer 
(May 2), 1014. 

Mon., May 30, Mon. next before 
Pentecost (June 5), 1020. 

Spy Wed., Mar. 20; Easter Wed., 
March 27, 1174. 

(Fri.) March 12, before Lent (March 
14), 1014. 

Fri., June 3, Fri. next before Pente- 
cost (June 5), 1020. 
Solar :— 

Sun., Feb. 15 (Feast of Berach), 1495. 



--^.e of Med/a'^;- 




Criteria, Sun. — cont. 

Feb. 26, 943. 

Mar. 5, 1088. 

— - Mar. 26, 1503. 

May 3, 1254. 

June 13, 1501. 

Sept. 2, 1022. 

Dec. 8, 1219. 

Dec. 30 (Í6.TÍ ,• Sat. , Dec. 28), 

1011. 
Mon., Feb. 27, 943. 

Ap. 1, 1129. 

May 30, 1020. 

Sept. 4, 1038. 

Nov. 2, 1265. 

Dec. 15, 1119. 

Tues., Jan. 2, 1498. 

Feb. 7, 915. 

Feb. 7, 1072. 

Mar. 10, 1495. 

July 14, 1086. 

Aug. 19 (xiiii. [Kal.] Sep. die,iii. 

\not ui.] feria), 738. 

Aug. 27, 782. 

Feast of Dagan of Enerilej'.Sept. 

13, 908. 

Nov. 3, 1265. 

Nov. 30, 862. 

Dec. 18, 921. 

Wed., Feb. 8, 730. 

Feb. 9, 1121. 

Mar. 20, 1174. 

Mar. 27, 1174. 

feast of Tigernach (Ap. 4), 1520. 

May 6, 795. 

May 27, 1495. 

July 5, 1497. 

Aug. 5. 1103. 

Sept. 13 {text : Thurs.), 719. 

Sept. 15, 919. 

Oct. 15, 878. 

Oct. 29, 878. 

Nov. 4, 1265. 

Thurs., Jan. 10, 1023. 

Jan. 24, 1023. 

Mar. 13, 1119, 



LI B RAR^' 




CAMPBELL 
COLLECTION 



ÍNDÉX. 



lOl 



Criteria, Thurs. — cont. 

Ap. 4, 1129. 

Sept. 14, 1004. 

Oct. 19, 1497. 

Nov. 13, 1063. 

Dec. 28, 926. 

Fri., Jan. 9, 1125. 

Feb. 27, 1495. 

May 26, 1497. 

June 3, 1020. 

July 11, 1505. 

Aug. 20, 1484. 

Oct. (Sep. is an error) 6, 719. 

Dec. 11, 722. 

Sat., May 20, 686. 

May 22, 1490. 

May 25, 916. 

July 12, 703. 

Aug. 2, 783. 

Aug. 12, 1105. 

Aug. 29, 716. 

Oct. 28, 713. 

Nov. 10, 921. 

Croboy, see Crupat. 

Croebh and Croebh-Laisre [branch [ing tree] 

of [St.] Lasair : mon. near Clonmac- 

noise), boy two months old spoke at, 

885 ; monks of : — 

Airmedach, 683. 
Rotechtach, 797. 
Croen, s. of Masot, ob., 708. 
Cro-inis (in Lough Ennell), 1446. 
Crois-sliabh (in Meath), 1289. 
Crom (stooped), Coirpre, 837. 
Crom-duban, Sunday of (last Sunday of 

Summer), 1117. 
Cron-conaill (mortality), 556. 
Cron the Little, ab. of Clonmacnoise, ob., 

694. 
Cronan, ab. of Dunkeld, si. in domestic 

btl., 1045. 

bp. of Mahee Island, ob., 643. 

coarb of (ab. of Roscrea), 1042, 

1093. 
Mac Ui Chualne, ab. of Bangor, ob., 

691. 



Cronan. — cont. 

Mac U Loegdhe, ab. of Clonmac- 
noise, ob., 637. 

(mk.) of Moville, ob., 650. 

(mk.) of Balla, 694. 

s. of Silne, ob., 665. 

Crongall, f . of Cinaedh, 970. 

Crongilla, s. of Cuilennan, k. of Louth, 
died of grief, 937. 

Crop, f. of Auliun, 742. 

Crop, great, 760 ; great in all I., 1153 ; 
acorn-, see Acorn-crop ; nut-, streams 
closed by, 836 ; great of nuts, 1097. 

Crops, Autumn most destructive to, 858 ; 
destroyed by frost and snow, 1339 ; by 
hailstones, 1538 ; by murder, 1534 ; by 
continuous rain in Summer, 1487 ; by 
thunder and lightning, 1328, 1539; by 
wet weather, 1107, 1505. 

Crosmacron, ^ee Cross of Magh-cron. 

Cros-Caidhbenaigh {Crosscavanagh : in 
Dungannon bar., co. Tyrone), defeat 
of, 1498. 

Mailfhina(Crossmolina, Mayo), 1526. 

Cross, of Close door, Armagh, 1166. 

of Columba, Armagh, 1166. 

of bp. Eogan, Armagh, 1163. 

of Sechnall, Armagh, 1166. 

of Brigit, see Masan-Third. 

of Executions, Derry, 1197. 

Holy, appeared, 1482 ; inscribed 

tablet of, hidden by Helena, m. of Em- 
peror Constantine, found at Rome, 
1492. 

of Ballyboggan, burned, 1538. 

of Raphoe, blood from wrought 

miraculous cures, 1411, 

of Magh-cron (Crosmacron, Athenry 

bar., CO. Galway), defeat of, 1467. 

Crossa-cail {slender crosses : Crossakeel, 
Meath), on this side (relative to Ulster : 
5 miles N.W.) of Girley, 914. 

Crossakeel, see Crossa-cail. 

Crosscavanagh, see Cros-Caidhbenaigh. 

Crossmolina, see Cros-Mailfhina. 

Crosses of Brigit, Armagh, 1166, 1189. 



102 



INDEX. 



Crotraighi (Carey bar, ,co. Autrim), burned 

Arboe, 1166. 
Crozier of Jesus, see Bachall-Isu. 
of Patrick ( = Bachall-Isu, q.v.), pro- 
fanation of avenged, 1013. 

of patron (Ere), burned in Slane by 

Dublin Foreigners, 950. 
Cruach-Patraic(Croaghpatrick, co. Mayo) 
1351. 
See also Cruachan-Aighle. 
Cruachan, and Cruachan-Ai (the Plain in 
Roscommon containing Rathcroghan, 
near Belanagare, the seat of kk. of C), 
814, 815, 1110. 1265 (D); k. of {i.e. k. 
C), Tomaltach, 774. 

of Mac Ternan (in Rosclogher bar., 

CO. Leitrim), 1412. 

Aighle (Croaghpatrick = Cruach- 

Patraic, q.v.), see Thunderbolt. 
Cruachne (pi. of Cruachan, Roscommon 

plain), 78-3. 
Crui {of gore), Conall, 796. 
Cruinnen, f. of Lergus, 888, 
Cruithni (Irish Picts, whose territorj'^ was 
Dalaraide : s. half of Antrim co. and 
Castlereagh barr., Down co.), 446, 574; 
defeated, 563 ; defeated by Dalriata in 
btl. of Murlough, 731 ; fought Dalriata, 
741 ; fought btl. of Fertais, 668. 

kings of : — 

Cathasach, 682. 

Cathusach, 749. 

Cu-cuarain, 708. 

Dungal, 681. 

Dubhdainbher, 727. 

Eochaid larlaithi, 665. 

Flaithruae, 774. 

Locheni, G45. 

Maelcaich,s. of Scannal,629, 66d. 

Scannal, 64t). 

slew Cinaedh, 808 ; slew Fiachra, 

710 ; slew Fiachra Blind-eye, 608 ; 
wasted by Dalriata, 691. 

(Scottish, see Picts, 

Crunnmael, bp.-ab. of Kilmore (co. Ar- 
magh), ob., 770. 



Crunnmael. — cont. 

bp. -anchorite of Clonkeen, ob. 

881. 

Bolg-luath, f. of Colgu, 647. 

of Dromiskin, ab. of Clonard, ob., 

793. 
^Erbuilc ( = C. Bolg-luath?), k. L., 

ob., 656. 

f. of Cellach, 739. 

f. of Colgu, 787. 

f. of Eugen, 667. 

f. of Fergus, 671. 

f. of Maelcaich, 784. 

f. of Alaelcobho, 879, 888. 

f. of Moenach, 827. 

f. of Muiredach, 819. 

f. of Oengus, 783. 

f. of Suibhne, 730. 

gf. of Aurthuile, 700. 

herenagh of Glendalough, ob., 972. 

s. of, 688. 

s. of Ailill, ab of Duleek, ob., 819. 

s. of Colgu, ab. of Lusk, ob., 736. 

s. of Ferdacrich, ob., 797. 

g. of Fiannamal, steward of Durrow, 

si. by Mael-Sechnaill (k. of Meath), 

839- 
s. of Odhran, ab. of Clonard, ob. 

821. 
s. of Suibhne, defeated Cumascach, 

656. 
s. of Suibne, Menn, f. of Maeltuile, 

700. 
Crupat (Croboy, Meath), encampment of 

Mael-Sechnaill (k. I.), in, 849. 
Crusader, 1227. 
Cu-allaidh, si. in btl. of Magh-Elni, 709. 

-allain, ss. of, 1295. 

alta, f. of Focarta, 783 ; of Nia, 

776. 
Bretan, f. of Mael-Patraic, 956 ; of 

Suibne, 940. 

s. of Congus, ob., 740. 

cairrgi, f. of Ruaidhri, 1062. 

carat, f. of Lethaithech, 724. 

cathraige, f. of Cellach, 830. 



ÍÍÍDÉX. 



103 



Ou. — cont. 

-cen-mathair {cauis sine matre 

[notá]), ab. of Emly, ob., 888. 

k. M., born {text, died), 

604 ; ob., 665 ; f. of Ailill, 701 ; f. of 
Finnguine, 696. 

-cherca, k. of Ossory, ob., 713. 

Chiarain, vice-ab. of Clonmacnoise, 

ob., 809. 

f. of Suairlech, 744. 

chiche, s. of Eignechan, k, of Ceiiel- 

Enna, ob., 1036. 

cobha, si., 697. 

coirne, f. of Maelruanaidh, 1050 ; 

f. of Righbardan, 1058. 

coluim, ob., 684. 

-column, f. of Coirpri, 709. 

congalt, f. of Conall, 827. 

f. of Echaidh, 835. 

f. of Follomon, 765. 

k. of Rath-inbir, si. in btl. of Righe, 

781. 

priest of Dunleer, paragon of I, in 

personal accomplishments, ob., 923. 

s. of Ua Cathasaigh, escaped from 

btl., 745. 

-congelt Ua Conmelde, ob., 724. 

-Connacht, s. of Dunadach, chief of 

the O'Maddens, si. in stratagem by 
Brian (Boruma), 1007. 

-chothaigh, s. of Moinech, ob., 

750. 

-cruithne, scribe, ab. of Lynally, 

ob., 817. 

Cuailgne, f. of Gilla-Crist, 1052. 

s. of, k. of Iveagh, ob., 1028. 

slew Crinan, 1012. 

-cuarain, k. of (Irish) Cruithni, si., 

708. 
cuimne, sage, ob. ; verses respect- 
ing, 747. 

Culainn, 1197 ; eric of, 1466. 

cumbu, gf. of Aedhan, 792. 

dimerggo, ob., 719. 

dinaisc, f. of Cairbre, 747. 

f. of Ceithernach, 845. 



Cu-dinaisc. — co7it. 

gs. of Ciarraige, ob., 781. 

gs. of Fergus, ob., 750. 

si. in btl. of Magh-Elni, 709. 

s. of Conasach, ab. of Armagh, ob., 

791. 

s. of Rothectach, si., 721. 

duilig, s. of Cennetigh, companion 

of Brian, fell in btl. of Dublin (Clon- 
tarf), 1014. 
• s. of Eochaid, si. in btl. of Crew- 
Mount, 1004. 

gamna, f. of Loegaire, 813. 

gamhnae, s. of Noennenach, k. of 

Cenel-Coirpri, ob., 784. 

Macha, s. of Clairchu, (Patrician) 

steward of Dal-Cais, 1. in Cenel-Bin- 
nigh raid, 1053. 

mara, s. of Mac Liag, chief poet of 

I, ob., 1030. 

melde, f. of Laidgnen, 727. 

Midhe, s. of Lorcan, k. of Farney, 

ob., 1079. 

Muman, s. of Ruaidhri Ua Cet- 

fadha, ob., 1033. 

Ulad,s. of Congalach,Muiredach and 

Aiteidh burned in house ignited in 
Uachtar-tire by, 1046 ; k. of Uachtar- 
tire, died in penance (for the crime of 
1046), 1061. 

■ -Ulad, s. of Oengus, k. of Lecale, 

si. by Flaithbertach, 1007. 
Cualann and Ui-Briuin Cualann (Ballin- 
acor N. and Rathdown barr. , co. Wick- 
low and S. half of Rathdown bar., co. 
Dublin), Cellach of, see Cellach 
Cualann ; Delginis of (Dalkey Island, 
CO. Dublin), 733. 

kings of : — 

Aedh, 477. 
Cinaedh, 832. 
Guaire, 788. 
Flaitheman, 881. 
Tuathal, 778. 

wasted to Glendalough by Aedh 

(k. I.;, 819 



104 



INDEX. 



Cuailgne {Coohj : Lower Dundalk bar., 

CO. Louth), btl. of, 1178 ; raided by 

Niall, k. of Ailech, 1044. 
Cuan, anchorite of Lilcach, ob., 748. 

Squint-eye, sage, ob., 748. 

(Strangford Lough), meeting of 

Domnall O'Loughlin and Donnchad 

O'Haughey at, 1111. 
• -Umaill (Clew Bay, co. Mayo), 

1417. 
Guana (Conrad), succeeded Henry as k. of 

the world, 1023 ; k. of Foreign Saxons, 

defeated Otho, 1038. 
Guana, see Guanu. 
Cuanan of Glenn, ab. of Moville, ob., 747. 

(mk.) of Kildalkey, ob., 722. 

Guanda, s, of Eoganan, si., 677. 
Cuanna (mk.) of Rush, ob., 721. 
Guanu (Guana in a few instances), ab. of 

Louth, went to Munster with shrine of 

Mochta, 818. 

ab. of Monasterboice, ob. , 805. 

Book of, 467, 468, 471, 475, 482, 

490, 599,601,603, 611,629. 

f. of Airechtach, 742. 

f. of Bee, 598. 

f. of Becc, 645. 

f. of Conchad, 735. 

f. of Dimgal, 816. 

f. of Robhartach, 762. 

f. of Suibne, 816. 

gf. of Maeltuile, 877. 

gs. of Bessan, scribe of Trevet, ob., 

739. 

(mk.) of Drumcullen, ob. , 722. 

(mk) of Louth, sage and bp., ob., 

825. 

s. of Gellach, si., 670. 

s. of Ecned, si. at btl. of Forcalad, 

778. 
Gudgile, scribe and ab. of Louth, ob., 

742. 
Guerne, Mochonno of, 7 15. 
Cuidghal, anchorite, ob., 757. 
Guidin = Genred, q.v. 
Cuidine (Guthwine), f. of Echaid, 731. 



Cuil and Cuil-na-nairther (Goole bar., co. 

Fermanagh), 1450, 1460, 1486, 1490, 

1506, 1514, 1529, 1530 ; Maguire of, 

1538. 
Brighdin (MacBrady's patrimony, 

CO. Gavan), chief of, 1348. 
Gernu (Goolcarney, Gallen bar., co. 

Mayo), raided, 1412. 
Meg-Tighernain (N.E. part of Tir- 

kennedy bar. , co. Fermanagh), 1487, 

1532, 1536. 

-mic-in-ttrein (Castle Forward, on 

Lough Swilly, S.W. angle of W. Liish- 
owen bar., co. Donegal), 1456. 

vaXhin (ferny corner: Coleraine'N.E. 

Liberties, co. Londonderry), ab. of, 
Airmedach, 932 ; burned, 731, 1177 ; 
burned and massacre done there by 
Muircertach O'Brien and S.of I., 1101; 
cas. of, 1214, 1222, 1228, 1248, 1514 ; 
herenaghs of : — Cormac, 1110 ; Mac- 
leighinn, 989 ; Mac Quillin hung at, 
1513 ; pillaged, 1171 ; port of, 1376. 

in-tuaiscert {Corner of the North 

of Antrim, containing Goleraine),raided 
1171. 

uaine Ford, on the Erne, 1247. 

Cuilen (Gullen, co. Tipperary ?), btl. of, 
552. 

-rigi (Inch island, off co. Donegal), 

invaded by Dungal, 733. 

-tragh (Cullenagh, Queen's co.) cas. 

of, 1514. 

Guilene, f. of Gennfaeladh, 754. 
Cuilennan, f. of Congalach, 988. 

f. of Cormac, 901, 908. 

f. of Crongilla, 937. 

f. of Gilla-Crist, 999. 

f. of Maceitigh, 951. 

s. of Dergan, drowned in Magh-Itha 

raid, 1056. 
s. of Mael-Brighte, died at end of 

the year, 913. 
Cuilind, Mac, 831. 
Cuilne (perhaps Gulleen, Westmeath), 

618. 



INDEX. 



105 



Cuilnech-mor (in Connaught), massacre 

of, 763. 
Cuimnech, ab. of Finglas, ob., 825. 
Cuiiice-Robairgi (probably in N. of co. 

Louth), Ui-Neill destroyed at, 711. 
Cuinnche (Quin, Bunratty bar., co. Clare), 

church of burned, 1278. 
Cuinid, f. of Dolaissi (Molaissi), 639. 
Cuinned, f. of Soergus, 836. 
Cuinnidh, s. of Cathmugh, see Lusca, 

bishops of. 
Cuinniden (ab.) of Connor, coarb of Mac- 

Nisse and Colman-Ela, ob., 1038. 
Cuinnles, ab. of Clonmacnoise, ob., 724. 
Cuircne (Kilkenny W, bar., Westmeath), 

defeated Delvin, 822. 
Cuirrech {CiLvragh [of Kildare]), btl. of, 

782. 
Cuirrigh and Curraigh {of Curragh [of 

Kildare]), Cellach, 815 ; Conaing, 956 ; 

Flann, 732. 
Cul-coel, btl. of, 601, or 602. 

cire, alias for Emain-Macha, q.w 

-Conaire in Cera (Carra bar., co. 

Mayo), btl. of, 550. 
corra (Coolarn, near Galtrim, 

Meath), conflict of, 652. 
dreimne (near Sligo town), btl. of, 

560, 561, or 563. 
[Fir-] (Kells barr., Meath), kings 

of :— Congalach, 819 ; Dungal, 743. 

-mail, Cul-maile and Cul-maine 

Collooney, co. Sligo), 1346 ; cas. of, 

1516. 1526 ; church of burned, 1484 ; 

parson of, 1439 ; parson and vicar of, 

1536 : vicar of, 1455, 1499. 
-Maini (Clonmany, co. Donegal), 

encounter at, 677. 

uinsen in Teffia, btl. of, 561 or 562. 

Cula, m. of Becan, 1119. 

Culdees, see Ceili-De. 

Cale, attack at fort of, 730. 

Cidehad (altar- veil), of Columba lost at 

sea, 1034. 
sacred requisites and reliquaries, 

1128. 



Culen, s. of Etigan, si. in defeat of Glen- 
mama, 999. 
s. of Illulb (Indulf), k. of Scotland, 

si. in btl. by Britons, 971. 
Culene, s. of Forindan, (k. of Offaly) si., 

652. 
Culin, Patrick, bp. of Clogher, ob., 1534. 
Culleen, see Cuilne. 
CuUen (co. Tipperary) see Cuilen. 
Cumach, Conang, 728. 
Cumber, see Cell-combair and Comar. 
Cumascach, f. of Conchobur, 769. 

f. of Fogartach, 786. 

• s. of Aedh, si., 597. 

s. of Ailill, si., 656 

s. of Cernach, f. of Fogartach, 781. 

Cumene, gs, of Ciaran, ab. of Rahen, 

743. 
Cumraaene, gs. of Moenach, ab. of 

Dunleer, ob., 745. 
s. of Colman the Little, slew Baetan, 

586. 

s. of Libraen, slew Baetan, 586. 

Cummen, si., 654. 

s. of Colman, si., 628. 

Cummene the Fair, ab. of lona, ob., 669. 

f. of Ultan, 711. 

gs. of Becc, devout man of Egg, ob., 

752. 

(mk.) of Cremorne, ob., 696. 

Cummeni, ab. of Clonmacnoise, ob., 

665. 

bp. of Mahee Island, ob., 659. 

the Tall, born, 592 ; sage, ob., 662. 

Cummin, f. of Sillan, 610. 
Cummascach, s. of Ronan, ob., 672. 
Cumsad, f. of Fergail, 879. 
Cumscuth, scribe, bp.-ab. of Castlekieran, 

ob., 870. 
Cumsudh, s. of Derer, bp. -anchorite of 

Castledermot, ob., 843. 
s. of Ruamlus, ab. of Dunshaughlin, 

ob., 842. 
Cumsuth, anchorite, bp.-ab. of Clonard, 

ob., 858. 
Cumuscach, f. of Aedh, 863. 



106 



INDEX. 



Cumuscach. — conf. 

f. of Aedhan, 625. 

f. of Ailill, 849. 

f. of Becc, 783. 

f. of Cellach, 868. 

f. of Cernaclian, 866. 

f. of Cinaedh, 793. 

f. of Cinaedh, 828. 

f. of Donn, 757. 

f. of Maelmidhe, 871. 

f. of Maelruanaidhe, 914. 

gs. of Cernach, fought btl. against 

his b. Niall, at Galtrim, 777. 

j. -k. of Keenaght, defeated and put 

to flight by Dunchad, j.-k., 824. 

s. of Aengus, si., 635. 

s. of Ailill, steward of Armagh, ob., 

909. 

s. of Cathal, outraged ab., Eugan, in 

Armagh, 826 ; j.-k. of Oriel, defeated 
in btl. of Leth-cam by Niall, 827. 

s. of Cernach, steward of Armagh, 

ob., 817. 

s. of Conchobar, k. of Oriors, fell at 

btl. of iSered-magh, 743. 

s. of Congalach, defeated Ferrard, 

822 ; k. of Ciannachta (of Bregia), ob., 
839. 

s. of Domnall, k. of Cenel-Loegaire, 

ob., 883. 

s. of Fogartach, k. of S. Bregia, died 

a cleric, 797. 

s. of Flathroe, si. in btl, of Crew 

Mount, 1004. 

s. of Mael-mocherghi, si. in defeat 

of Ulidian crews, 913. 

s. of Muiredach, k. of Ferrard, si. by 

Ulidians, 896. 

s.of Muiredach, k.of Ui-Cremthainn, 

si. by Ulidians, 878. 

s. of Oengus, vice-ab. of Clonmac- 

noise, ob. , 835. 

s. of Tuathal, k. of Ferrard, si. by 

Murchadh, 822. 

ss. of one si. by the other, 777. 

Cunga, f. of Ultau, 065 



Cunga (Cong, co. Mayo), dying in pilgrim- 
age at, 1168. 
Cures, miraculous, see Holy Cross of 

Raphoe. 
Cureta, f. of Daircill, 678. 
Curia, Roman (Papal), 1258, 1274, 1328, 

1377. 
Curoi, f. of Cinaedh, 843. 

s. of Aedh, sL, 711. 

s. of Aldniadh, ab. of Inchcleraun, 

Lough Ree, and of Fochlaidh of Meath, 

sage and most versed in Scotic histories 

ob., 871. 
s. of Oenghus, k. of Cenel-Loeghaire, 

ob., 797. 
Curragh, see Cuirrech. 
Curragh of Cenn-eitigh (in Roscommon), 

1397. 
Curraigh, see Cuirrigh. 
Curse, of Men of I., deserved by outrage 

on coarb of Patrick, 112S. 

on violator of right of as^dum, 1162. 

Curthri, f. of Suibne, 657. 

Cusac, Adam, 1281, 1282, 1285; ob., 

1287. 
Colin, hostage of his b., Adam, 

1285. 
Cuscrath Menu, f. of Maelcaich, 784. 
Cusin, Thomas, Master of Law, school- 
master at Armagh, ob., 1462. 
Cussen, David, s. of Richard, 1256. 
Custantin (Constantine), s. of Aedh, 
Scotland, ob., 952. 

s of Cinaedh, k. of Picts, ob., 

f . of Domnall, 900. 

s. of Fergus, k. of Pictland, ob.,820. 

Custody of Domnall, coarb of Patrick, 

hostages of Men of I., in 1102. 
Cutlach, Colman, 744. 
Cycle, Decemnovennal, 1st j'ear of, 1178 
2nd year of, 1179 ; 8th year of, 1014. 

great Paschal (of 532 years), first 

year of 11th from Creation ; of 3rd from 
Licarnation, 1064. 
Cyril (St., bp. of Alexandria), flourished, 
435. 



k.of 



876 



INDEX. 



107 



D, 

Da-Sinchill {Ttvo Sinchells .-sen. and jun.), 
coarb. of (ab. of Killeigh), 983. 

Daball {Tall r., co. Armagh), 955, 963; 
100 oz. of Mass-requisites of Cellach 
abp. of Armagh) lost and Cellach en- 
dangered in 1118. 

Dabeoc (St.), avenged pillaging of his 
Termon before end of year, 1070 ; miracle 
of, 1196 ; Termon of (Termonmagrath, 
CO. Donegal), 1499, 1504, 1528. 

Dachonna (founder) of Daire(-Dachonna), 
ob., 706. 

the Pious, bp. of Conor, ob., 726. 

(founder) Assylyn, 1210. 

Daethe, btl. of, 587. 

Dagan of Eneriley, feast of, Sep. 13, fell 
on Tues,, moon 13, 908. 

Daig [St.], s. of Gairell, ob., 587 ; Imiis- 
keen (co. Louth) of, 784, 789, 873, 882, 
884, 949, 1022, 1085, 1166. 

Daigre, foster-f, of Diarmait, 814. 

Daile (Inber- : estuary of Dail — Redcross- 
river : Eneriley, Arklow bar,, co. Wick- 
low), Dagan (St.) of, see Dagan. 

Daimene, gf. of Dunchad, 785. 

Daimen, Clochar-Mac-n- (or Clochar, q.v.), 
869, 1127. 

Daimin, f . of Conall, 609, 

Daimairgit, died, 565. 

Daintech, f. of Conall, 813. 

Dair-inis (pak-idand : Molana island in 
Black water, near Youghal), ab. of, 
Ferdacrich, 747 ; flooded, 786. 

Daircill, s, of Cureta, bp, of Glendalough, 
ob., 678. 

Daire, gf. of Duinechaidh, 796. 

Daire and Daire-calgaigh (Derry), ab. of 
made mitred ab., 1158. 

abbots of : — 

Cinaedh, 921. 
Diarmait, 908. 
Donnchad (coarb of), 1066. 
Finnechta, 939. 



Daire. — cont. 

Fogartach, 975. 

Mael-Eoin, 1025, 

Muircertach, 882. 

Gilla Mac Liach O'Branan, 1175. 

1198. 
Flaithbertach O'Brolchain, 1158, 

1163, 1164, 1175. 
Flann O'Brolchain, 1220, 
Fonachtan O'Bronain, 220. 
Ainmire O'Coffey, 1214. 
O'Ferrall, 1204. 
Gilla-Crist O'Kearney, 1198. 
Robartach (coarb of Colum-cille), 
954. 
atonement to community of for homi- 
cide in, see O'Carolan, Donnchadh. 

bishops of : — 

James Mac Mahon, 1519. 
Henry Mageraghty, 1297. 
Florence O'Carolan, 1230. 
„ (2)1293. 
Germanus, 1246, [--] Gilla-in- 

Coimded, O'Carolan 1279, 
Muiredach O'Coftey (bp.of Cenel- 

Eogain), 1173. 
Domnall O'Fallon, 1486 1500. 
Hugh O'Neill, 1319. 
Sir Nicholas Weston, 1484. 
burned, 788 ; burned with its Peni- 
tentiary, 1168; part of burned, 1204; 
church of, 1250 ; church of built in 90 
days, 1164; clergy si. in, 1261 ; Colum- 
ban abbacy of, 1174 ; community of, 
1205, 1214 ; community of slew Ardgar, 
1124; Domnall Mac Loughlin, k, I., 
died at, 1121 ; door of church of made 
by ab,, Flaithbertach O'Brolchain, 1155 ; 
Foreigners defeated in, 833 ; founded, 
546. 

herenaghs of : — 

Cleirchen, 950. 

Congalach Mac Conchaille, 1112. 
Geoffrey O'Deery, 1233, 
Mac-Craith O'Deery, 1180. 
Mael-Isu O'Deery, 1219, 



108 



inde: 



Daire. —cont. 

Eogan O'Kearney, 1096. 

Muircertach O'Milliigan, 1207, 
1220. 

Domnall O'Murray (chief lector), 
1207. 

Mael-Isu O'Murray, 1185, 

Mael-Cainnigh Ua Fercomais, 
1185, 1189. 

Flann Ua Tachaiii, 1022. 
Hermitage of, 1122 : houses of sepa- 
rated from churches ; 80 houses of razed 
thereb}^ ; centre of enclosed and right of 
asjdum given to, with ciu-se on violator, 
1162 ; mon. of, 121.3 ; mon. of Friars of, 
1281 ; penitentiary of, 1195, 1214, 1216 ; 
penitentiary of Columba in, 1173 ; 
pilgrimage to, 1188, 1212, 1214; pil- 
laged by Danes, 990; port of, 1197; 
profanation of by abduction, 1223 ; 
scribe of, Caech-scuili, 724 ; slaying in, 
1180; great storm at, 1178; head of 
students of, 1166: other references, 
669, 1188, 1192, 1196, 1197, 1199, 1421, 
1512, 1514. 

-Brosga ( = Airedh-Brosga, q.v.), 

1536. 

-Cenain (Derrycannon, co. Ferman- 
agh), 1486. 

[-Dachonna], and Daire-Disirt- 

Dochonna {Oak-wood of htrmitage of 
Dodionna : Dysart, Ferrard bar., co. 
Louth), 706; defeat of Gentiles by 
Tigernach (k. of Lagore) at, 848. 

-dubain (in Leitrim), 1380. 

eithnigh (probably Derr^-navlan, 

Graystown, par., Slieveardaghbar., co., 
Tipperary), ab. of, Maelochtaraich, 
800. 

-laegh (Derrylegh, co. Donegal), 

1495. 

-Lubrain (Derr3doran, co. Tyrone), 

herenagh of Mael-Muire, 1123. 

Maelain (Derryvullen par., Lurg 

and Tirkennedy barr., co. Fermanagh), 
1420, 1484; herenagh of, 1495 ; parson 



Daire. — cont. 

of, 1495, 1504 ; vicar and herenagh of, 
1500. See aisoAirech-Maelain. 

-Meilli (perhaps on the border of 

LoughMehnn, CO. Leitrim), (St.) Tiger- 
nach, founder of, 810. 

mor(in Ossory), plain of, 1156. 

-murchaisi (Derrybrurchaise or 

Killyman, co. Armagh), 689. 

-Patraic (Derrj^atrick.Meath), castle 

of razed, 1176. 

Daithgus, s. of Baeth, k. of Desies, si., 
732. 

Dalach of Dj^sartale, coarb of Feichin and 
Tola, died old, 1011. 

f. of Coimhan, 868. 

f. of Eicnech, 999 ; of Eicnech and 

Murchad, 963. 

f. of Eicnechan, 906. 

s. of Congus, ab. of Duleek, ob., 

820. 

s. of Muircertach, chief of Cenel- 

Conaill, si. by his sept, 870. 

Dalaraide {see under Cruithni), be- 
headed Oengus, royal-heir of M. of I., 
883; bishops of, see under Condere ; 
defeated Ulidians at Ardagh, 1095; 
defeated with great slaughter by Mael- 
Finnia, 897 : defeated by Ulidians, 1014, 
1016, 1104; kept by Domnall 0"Lough- 
lin, 1113; foray into b}" Flaithbertach, 
962; Foreigners of, 1189; forts of 
Foreigners between and Cenel-Eoghain 
sacked by Aedh (k. I.), 866; fought 
domestic btl. at Duma-achadh, 783 ; 
fought 2 domestic btls., 776 ; fought 
Ulidians, 972 ; hosting to by Nial, s. 
of Aedh, 914 ; hosting into and hos- 
tages of taken by Domnall (k. I.), 9G0 ; 
with Concobar on hosting in Iveagh 
and Bregia, 1128; invaded, 1177. 

kings of : — 

Aedh, 1130. 
Aedh of Ard, 698. 
Aedhan, 616. 
Bee, 909. 



INDEX. 



109 



Dalaraide. — cont. 

Bresal, 792. 

Cellach, 943. 

Cinaedh, 832. 

Domnall, 1016. 

Donnchad, 1004. 

Fiachna Lurga, 625. 

Flannacan, 849. 

Lethlabar, 828. 

Lethlabar, 979. 

Loingsech, 914, 932. 

Domnall Mac Dunlevy, 1177. 

Mac Etigh 900. 

Maelbresail, 825. 

Muiredach, 897. 
kings of O'Lynch sept : — 1077. 

Concobar, 1046. 

Domnall, 1065. 

Donnchad, 1114. 

Finnchaise, 1113. 
kings of : — 

Tomaltach, 790. 

Ua Eochaiden, 1070. 

massacred Ulidians, 790 ; pillaged by 

Muircertach, 1103; raided, 1178; raided 
by Ardgar and Tyrone, 1059 ; raided by 
Niall, 1056 ; slew Domnall, k. of Fir- 
Li, 1036 ; submitted to Domnall 
O'Loughlin, 1114 ; other references, 
483, 1199, 1216. 
Dal-Buinne (Upper Massareene, bar., co. 
Antrim, and Drumbo and Kilwarlin 
par., CO. Down), k. of, Gilla-Patraic, 
1130. 

-Cais (tribe name of the O'Briens 

and of their territory, Thomond), 
1528 ; O'Deas' castle in, 1114 ; defeated 
and slaughtered with Torlogh O'Brien 
at btl. of Lackan, 1117 ; k. of, Muire- 
certach O'Brien, 1168 ; O'Brien of, 
1524; O'Gunning of, 1105 ; stewards 
(Patrician) of :— Cu-Macha, s. of Clair- 
chu, 1053, Oengus, gs. of Clairchu, 
1108. 
Fiatach (a sept in co. Down), ste- 
ward of, Assid Ua Amhradhain, 1100. 



Dal. — cont. 

-riata (Antrim co., N. of Slemish), 

Armoy (in Gary bar.) of, 1247 ; Danes 
came to, 986 ; defeated by Cruithni,629 ; 
defeated Cruithni in btl. of Murlough, 
731 ; Dunbo in, 1182. 

Itings of : — 

Aedh the Fair, 778. 
Donncorci, 792. 
Fergus, 781. 
Fiannamail, 700. 

raided, 1165 ; slew Muircertach, s. of 

Aedh, 1013 ; wasted Cruithni and 
Ulidia, 691 ; won btl. of Ard-Corann, 
627. 

Scottish (in Argyle), defeated by 

(Picts of) Fortrenn, 736 ; defeated Bri- 
tons, 711, 717; defeated by Oengus, 741. 

kings of : — 

Ainfcellach, 698. 
Gonad Cerr, 629. 
Domangart, 673. 
Domnall Brecc, 650. 
Ferchar, 694. 
Selbach, 714, 723, 730. 

slaughtered, 704 ; slew Gofraidh, k. 

of Hebrides, 989 ; wasted by Oengus, 
736. 
Dalkey Island, see Delginis-Cualanu. 
Dalta (pupil in monastic life), 893. 
Dalton, joined O'Farrell in war, 1386. 

Edmund, s. of Piers, the Dalton, 

ob., 1487. 

Henry, s. of John, gs. of Piers, si., 

1495. 

descendants of Henry, 1495. 

Margaret, d. of Andrew, w. of O'Far- 
rell, ob., 1488. 

Miles, cas. of taken, 1386. 

Nicholas, s. of Edmond, s. of Piers, 

sL, 1495. 

Philip, ob., 1379. 

Thomas, the Dalton, s. of Edmund, 

gs. of Piers, w. of eloped with O'Meag- 
her, 1491. 
Thomas, s. of Edmund, s. of Piers, 



110 



INDEX. 



Dalton. — cont. 

taken 1495 ; ransomed for 300 marks 
and 280 cows, 1496. 

William, 1373 (si.), 1374 ; s. of, 1386. 

William the Rough, s. of Maurice, 

gs. of Piers, 1482. 
Daltons, 1452 : slew O'Melaghlin, 1386. 
Dall, f. of Aedh, 608. 
Damage, much, done to Armagh by 

Amhlaim, 869. 
Damascus, btl. of, 1299. 
Dam-cluain {meadow of oxen : in Leins- 
ter), btl. of, 605. 

derg {red ox: in Fir-cul, g.r.), btl. 

of, 742. 

inis {ox-island : Devenish Island, 

Lough Erne), abbots of : — 
Ciaran, 921. 

Colman (coarb of Molaisse), 957. 
Cormac (coarb of), 996. 
Diarmait (coarb of Molaisse), 974. 
Laisre (Molaisse, founder), 564. 

571. 
Flann Mac Clancj- (coarb of 

Molaisse), 1114. 
:SIaelachidh, 896. 
Maelmordha, 924. 
Maelodhor, 870. 
Mart an, 868. 
Colman O'Connoly (coarb of 

Molaisse), 1038. 
Mael-Cainnigh OTully (coarb of 

Molaisse), 1049. 
Rechtabra, 818. 

burned, 1360 ; burned with its 

churches, 1157 ; coarb of, 1390. 

herenaghs of : — 

Cathalan, 1002. 
Fogartach, 985. 
Maelbethach, 946. 
O'Scanlan, 1012. 
O'Tully, 1328. 

Molaisse (founder) of, 1 107 ; monks 

of, Cele-Dulassi, 751, Derir, 722 ; par- 
sons ofjO'Flanagans, 1450, 1520; priore 
of, 1379, 1419, 1462, 1505, 1521 ; razed 



Dam-inis. — cont, 

by Gentiles, 837 ; sacristan of, 1479 : 
Gilla-Crist, k. of Fermanagh, si. in, 
1076 ; vicar of, 1489 ; other references, 
1411, 1538. 
Damliacc and Damliacc of Ciannan 
(Duleek, Heath), abbots of :— 

Cathnia (MS., Cathina), 810. 

Coimhan, 868. 

Crunnmael, 819. 

Dalach, 820. 

Eochaidh (coarb of Ciannan), 

1098. 
Fedhach, 789. 
Finsnechta, 849. 
Moenach, 900. 
Muiredach, 9.35. 
Oengus, 783. 

bp. -abbots of : — 

Cormac, 885. 
Gnia, 872. 

anchorite of, Gnia (bp.-ab.), 872. 

bishops of : — 

Colman, 907. 

Fergus, 783. 

Finchar, 920. 

Gilla-Mochua Mac Camchuarta, 

1117. 
Tuathal, 929. 

burned, 1169 ; church of pillaged by 

Gentiles, 832 ; Domnall (coarb of Pat- 
rick (brought ill to and died at, 1105 ; 
herenaghs of : — Aedh, 1093 ; Oengus, 
955 ; 81 houses burned, and many si. 
in b}^ Morgallion, 1123 ; monks of : — 
Aldchu, 725 ; Cerpan, 754 ; oratory of 
Ciannan at, 881 ; pillaged by Fer- 
managh, 1028. 

scribes of — 

Colman (bp. ), 907. 
Finchar (bp.), 920. 
Gnia (bp.-ab.), 872. 
Tuathal (bp.), 929. 

stewards of : — 

Eicnech, 781. 
Loingsech, 92iJ. 



INDEX. 



Ill 



Danes, at Ualriata in three ships : 140 of 

hung, others sold, 986 ; pillaged Derry, 

990; pillaged lona Christmas Eve: slew 

ab. and 1 5 seniors, 986 ; 360 of same 

Danes si., 987 ; won btl. of Man, 987. 
Daniel, ab, of Glendalough and Tallaght, 

ob., 868. 

bp. of Kingarth, ob., 660. 

f. of Noe, 675. 

. gs. of Foilene, scribe of Letuba, ob. , 

773. 
(mk.) of Cluain-coirpthe, eminent 

historian, ob., 918. 
s. of Colman the Mild, ab. of Ard- 

braccan, ob., 736. 
Darcy, ss. of Edmund, 1484. 
Dare(St.), Laiooi, promulgated overCon- 

naught, 812 ; accepted by Ui-Neill, 

813 ; promulgated in Connaught again, 

826. 
Darerca (foundress) of Killery, called 

Moninne, ob., 517, or 519. 
Dargart, s. of Finnguine, si., 686; f. of 

Nectan, 710. 
Dark year, 912, 913. 
Darkness, year of, 625. 
Dartin, k. of Ui-Bresail, si. by Ui-Meith 

and Farney, 1109. 
Dartree, see Dartraighe of Coninis. 
Dartrighe of Coninis and of Oriel (Dartree 

bar., co.Monaghan), burned, 1432, 1457. 

kings of : — 

Scolaighe, 947. 
Trenfher, 1007. 
lords of, Mac Mahons, 1486, 1492 ; 

parson of, 1486 ; raided, 1502 ; wasted 

1505. 
of Mac Clancy (Rosclogher bar., co. 

Leitrim), chiefs of, Mac Clancys, 1274, 

1281, 1301, 1333, 1337, 1349, 1366, 1418. 

kings of : — 

DomnaU, 998. 
O'Rourke, 1271. 
Ualgarc, 961. 
other re^rences, 1278, 1330, 1337. 

1496, 1499 



Dathal, s. of Dublene, anchorite, bp., 

scribe, ob., 817. 
Dathi, f. of Ailill Molt, 463, 467. 
Dating, A. M. , (falsely) ascribed to Bede, 

Dionysius Exiguus, Hebrews and 

Seventy Interpreters. See Mundane 

Reckonings. 
Daughter of Got. See Got, d. of. 

of Lulach, m. of Oenghus, 1130. 

of Mac Dunlevy, hostage to 

O'Loughlin, 1165. 
of Mael-Sechnaill, see Mael-Sech- 

naill (Muirgel). 
of O'Melaghlin, w. of Tigernan 

O'Rourke, see Gold, 60 oz. 

of Oswy, died in mon. of Hilda, 713. 

sold for food by f . in I. , 965. 

David, s. of Guaire, gs. of Faranan, bp. 

of Armagh, (papal) legate of all I., ob., 

551, or 553. 
De Burgh, si., 1374. 

of Camlin, si., 1375. 

Clanricard of, see Clann-Ricaird. 

Clan-William of, see under Clann- 
Ricaird. 
Dabug (David) the Brown, Mac 

William, ob., 1.329. 
David, s. of Edmond, s. Hubert, 

taken, 1385. 

Edmond, 1416. 

ss. of, 1480. 

Mac William, 13.35, 1336^ 1337, 

1338, 1339, 1342. 
the Scotsman, Mac William, 

ob. : succeeded by his son, 1375. 
s. of Ricard, Mac William, took 

off w. of O'Loughlin, 1487 ; lord of Kil- 

maine, si., 1513. 

100 gallowglasses of si. , 1467. 

gs. of earl, made prisoner in Con- 
naught, 1349. 
Henry, s. of Ulick, s. of Ricard, ob., 

1359. 

Hubert, s. of David the Brown j Mac 

William, 1342, 1343 ; s. of si., 1342. 
■ Jenkin, si, 1342. 



112 



INDEX 



De Burgh. — cont. 

John, s. of Edmond, s. of Hubert, 

ob., 1369. 

s. of Edmond, s. of Hubort, sL, 

1406;ss.of, 1469. 

of Ricard, ob.. 1397. 

ss. of, 1536. 

Mac David : — 

John, 1347. 

William Bimilis, si., 1347. 

Mac William, 1217, 1235, 1262, 1809, 

1328, 1329, 1331, 1332, 1341, 1342,1349, 
1351, 1366, 1368, 1377, 1379, 1420, 1435, 
1440, 1486. See also under Clann- 
Ricaird. 

Oliver, w, of, 1537. 

Philpin, s. of, 1351. 

Sir Redmond, ob., 1361. 

Redmond of the Muine, s. of, ob. , 

1361. 

Ricard, defeated, 1467 ; ss. of, 1480. 

descendants of, 1526. 

jun., invaded, and defeated by 

Mac Namaras, 1377. 

s. of Ricard, ob., 1397. 

s. of Thomas. sL, 1469. 

s. of William, Justiciary of I., 

1228 ; took O'Conor prisoner, 1232. 

Richard, sL, 1377- 

leg of broken, 1409. 

Red Earl of Ulster, invaded 

Connaught, 1288 ; invaded Tyrone, 
Tyrconnell, and Connaught, 1291 ; led 
hosting to Roscommon, 1292 ; taken 
prisoner, 1294 ; liberated, 1295 ; on 
Scottish invasion, 1296 ; w. of, ob., 
1304 ; defeated by Edward Bruce, 
1315 ; ob., 1326 ; other references, 
1297, 1300, 1301, 1303, 1305, 1310. 

the Fair, s. of, 1289. 

Theobald, 1296 ; ob., 1303. 

ob., 1336. 

1367 ; heir of Mac William, si., 

1374. 

Mac William, head of kern, si., 

1377. 



De Burgh, Theobald. — cont. 

s. of Walter, Mac William, 

ob., 1503. 

Thomas, si. 1342. 

Mac William, 1399. 

s. of Walter, constable of 

Buninna, and his b., sL, 1308. 

Ulick, made Upper (Clanricard) 

Mac William, 1402. 

s. of Ricard, s. of William the 

Grej^ ob., 1343. 

s. of Richard, s. of Thomas, 

taken, 1486 ; ss. of, 1505. 

s. of Ulick, Mac William of 

Clanricard, w. of, 1498. 

Walter, 1328, 1329 ; defeated, 1330 ; 

invaded Moylurg, 1331 ; taken and 
starved to death in prison, 1332 ; d. of, 
w. of Aedh O'Conor, ob., 1364. 

earl of Ulster, invaded Tyrcon- 
nell, 1265 ; took custody of Mac 
Sweeney, 1267 ; defeated, 1270 ; lord of 
Connaught, ob., 1272. 

gs. of earl of Ulster, defeated 

and taken, 1407 ; w. of, 1421 ; ob, 
1432. 

heir of Ricard, ob., 1304. 

made (Lower) Mac William, 

1402. 

8. of Sir David, ob., 1377 

s. of Ricard, aided Conn 

O'Donnell with fleet, 1497; ss. of, 1513. 

William, 1201. 

invaded Connaught, 1230; 

built Galway cas., 1232. 

Blind-eye, si., 1467. 

earl of Ulster, defeated O'Brien, 

1328 ; took and imprisoned Walter 
de Burgh {q. v.), 1332 ; si., 1333. 

the Grey, s. of William Mor, 

ob., 1322 or 1324 ; two ss. of 1311. 

jun., taken, 1270. 

Mac William, invaded Munster, 

defeated De Clare, but was taken, 
1311 ; defeated O'Connor ; raided Moy- 
lurg, 1316. 



INDEX. 



113 



De Burgh, William — conf. 

the Rough, s. of David, taken 

in btl., 1419. 

the Saxon, ob., 1368. 

s. of Sir Edmond, ob., 1384. 

s. of earl Richard, won btl. of 

Berna-in-mil, 1332 ; took O'Hara ; 
raided by Edmond Mac William, 1335 ; 
made peace with O'Brien, 1337 ; w. of, 
d. of O'Brien, taken by O'Conor, k. C, 
1339. 

De Clare, defeated, 1311. 

De Clare, Richard, si., 1318. 

De Cogan, Milo, defeated Irish at Dublin, 
1171 ; defeated in Connaught, 1177 ; 
si., 1182. 

si., 1316. 

De Courcey, John, destroyed Down, built 
castle at, defeated Ulidia, Cenel- 
Eogain and Oriel ; invaded Dalaraide, 
Ui-Tuirtre, Fir-Li and burned Cole- 
raine and other churches, 1177 ; raided, 
and defeated in, Louth, Dalaraide and 
Ui-Tuirtre, 1178 ; invaded Connaught, 
1188 ; pillaged Armagh, 1189 ; went 
against Foreigners of Leinster and 
Munster, 1195 ; invaded Keenaght, 
Tyrone and Inishowen, 1197; invaded 
Inishowen, 1199 ; aided Cathal Red- 
hand O'Conor, and defeated, 1201 ; 
expelled to Tyrone, 1205. 

De Exeter, Clann- Jordan, 1412. 

ss. of John, 1394. 

Jordan, si., 1258. 

Jordan, invaded Corran, 1273. 

Meyler, si., 1289. 

lord of Ballylahan, slew 

O'Hanly, 1131; si., 1317. 

— : Mac Jordan, ob., 1336. 

Slevin, si., 1316. 

De Gray, John, bp. of Norwich, 1212. 

De Lacy, Hugh, si. ; censure on, 1186. 

Hugh, s. of Hugh, went against 

Foreigners of Leinster and Munster, 
1195; aided Cathal Red-hand O'Conor, 
and defeated, 1201 ; expelled De 



De Lacy — cont. 

Courcy from Ulidia, 1204, 1205; invaded 

Tullyhog and Keenaght, 1207 ; came 

to I., and raided Foreigners, 1222. 

Hugh, si., 1412. 

Meyler, 1203. 

Walter, 1203. 

William, si., 1233. 

De Marisco, Adam, si., 1318. 

Geoffrey, 1225. 

Walter, constable of Carrickfergus, 

1268. 
William, s. of Justiciary of I., 

taken, 1227. 
De Spinellis, Octavian, abp. of Armagh, 

held synod in Drogheda, 1486 ; ob., 

1513. 
De Valle, Stephen, bp. of Meath, 1374. 
De Verdon, s. of, si., 1271. 
Deacon, outrage on bp. by, 1123. 
Deagh-duirn, s. of Reochadh, f. of Flag, 

514. 
Dean (of Derry Chapter ?), 1525. 
(rural) of Lough Erne, 1390, 1414, 

1498, 1518. 
Dearth, great, 764, 1317, 1496 ; caused 

by frost and snow, 1115 ; Tyrone 

churches desolated by, 1179. 
Deasy, Gerald, ob., 1494. 
Death, from : — emeroids, 808 ; grief, 909 ; 

hunger and thirst, 824. 
of Domnall (coarb of Patrick) at 

Duleek, 1105 ; premature, 796, 869 : 

sudden, 800 (by fall from horse), 807, 

812, 814, 878, 888, 1124 ; whilst doing 

penance, 890 ; without Communion, 

836. 

ss. of = malefactors, 847. 

Decemnovennal Cycle, see Cycle. 

Decies, see Desi of Munster. 

Decision of abp. of Armagh respecting 

Derry lectorship, 1220. 
Deece, see Desi of Bregia. 
Decrees of Cloenad Synod, see (1) 

Episcopal Order ; (2) Alumnus of 
Armagh, 

H 



114 



INDEX. 



Dedication of St. Patrick's Church, 

Dublin, 1254. 
Dedime, gs. of Ligan, sage of Clonmac- 

noise, ob., 752. 
Deer, wild, hunted on Lough Neagh in 

frost, 818. 
Defeat of A.'ihe.^, 1171. 
Defeat of : — Muicertach O'Brien by Oriel, 

at Ard-Monain, 1075. 
O'Rourke at Ath-na-croise ; quatrain 

relative thereto, 1024. 
Keenaght by O'Melaghlin and Men of 

Magh-Itha, at Balteagh, 1076. 
Brefnians, with loss of (k.) Flann and 

many nobles, by Flann (k. I.) and 

his ss., 910. 
Brefnians, 1009. 
Caman, 960. 

Cathal at Moylena, 1078. 
Muircertach O'Loughlin's cavalry by 

Foreign cavalry in Magh-Fitharta, 

1162. 
O'Rourke's cavalry by cavalry of Con- 

cobar O'Loughlin, 1128. 
Cenel-Conaill, 978 ; bj^ Cenel-Eogain, 

1043 ; by Cenel-Eogain at Fersad- 

Suilidhe, 1098. 
Cenel-Enna, 1175. 
Cenel-Eogain, Oriel and Ulidia bj' De 

Courcy, 1177. 
Connaught cavalr\^ by cavalry of Con- 

cobar O'Loughlin, 1131. 
Connacians, 838 (by Gentiles), 1009, 

1018 (by O'Muldory). 
Connaught, i.e., Tirawley and Owles, 

with many si. and captive, by Niall, 

s. of Aedh, 913. 
Craib, 1295. 
Crinach, 1086. 
Dalaraide by Ulidians, 1041 (with great 

slaughter), 1016, 1104. 
Dal-Cais by Brian O'Brien and gs. of 

Cathal 0' Conor, 1117. 
N. Decies by Gentiles, 836. 
(and death) of Domnall, 965. 
Domnall, k. L., 983. 



Defeat — conf. 

Donnchad, s. of Brian (Boruma), by 

his b., Tadhg, 1014; Donnchad, at 

Sliab-Crot by Diarmait, 1058. 
Eochaill, 1086. 
Fermanagh by Domnall O'Loughlin, 

at Ergal Ford, 1080. 
Ui-Cremthainn b}' Famey, at Fews, 

1078. 
Fermanagh by Cenel-Eogain of Tully- 

hog, at Mailderg, 1077. 
Finvoy, 1054. 
Flann (k. I.) by Foreigners, in which 

fell Aedh, k. C, Lergus, bp. of Kil- 

dare, and Donnchadh, ab. of Kil- 

dalkey, 888. 
Fogartach, k. of iS. Bregia, and Lor- 

can, k. L., bj^ Donnchad and Mael- 

mithidh, with great loss in slain and 

captives, 913. 
Black Foreigners by Saxons, with 

immense loss, 893. 
Foreigners of Dublin b^- Niall, in 

naval btl., -with, great slaughter and 

enslavement of survivors, 1022. 
Gentiles by k. of Dalaraide and by 

k. of S. Leinster, with family of 

Taghmon, 828. 
Gentiles at Dublin fort, 902. 
Gilla-Crist and Iveagh by Ruaidhri, 

1057. 
Iveagh by Oriors, 1086 ; by Ui- 

Meith and Famey, 1109; at Cenn- 

daire, 1118 ; on Kilmore Plain, 

1120. 
Clanricard and O'Brien at Knock doe 

(%vith great slaughter), by Gerald, 

earl of Kildare, 1504. 
Lagenians and Foreigners at Dublin 

(Clontarf), by Brian and Mael- 

Sechlainn, 1014. 
Lagenians by Domnall O'Brien and 

Dublin Foreigners, 1115. 
Loch-monan, 1522. 
Longford by 0" Conors, at Ros ; vice 

versa, at Magh-Brengair, 1110. 



INDEX. 



115 



Defeat. — cont. 
Louth, Cremorne and N. Bregia in 

vale of Newry r., 996. 
Louth, Ui-Dorthain, and Ui-Meith, 

with slaughter, by Sitriuc, 1032. 
Magh-Lughad, 1160. 
Midians, by Foreigners and La- 

genians, 1013. 
Donnchad O'Rourke at Moin-cruin- 

neoice, by S. of I., 1084. 
Monaghan bar. (with loss of k.), at 

Sruveel, 997. 
Morgallion and Carbury, by Bre- 

gians, 1060. 
Muircertach and Conaing, by Fergal 

and Sichfridh, in Magh-Uatha, 933. 
Munstermen, by N. of I. and Leins- 

termen in btl. of Ballaghmoon, 908. 
Niall, s. of Dubthuinne (k. of Iveagh), 

by Niall, s. of Eochaid (who became 

k.), 1012. 
Norsemen, by Saxons at Brunanburh, 

937. 
Murchad O'Brien by Torlogh, 1055. 
Concobar O'Melaghlin by Murchad, 

1033. 
Oriel (with great slaughter), by Niall, 

1022 ; Oriel in Louth, 1041. 
Ossory, 974. 
Ossory and Ormond by Carthach, 

1043. 
Otho, k. of Franks, by Conrad, 1038. 
Picts by Black Foreigners, 875. 
N. Saxons by Black Foreigners, at 

York, 867. 
Scots, Britons and Saxons, by 

Foreigners, 952. 
Scots (with slaughter), by Saxons, 

1006. 
Sithbe, 1068. 
Sitriuc by Ugaire, 1020. 
Thomond by O' Conors, 1094 ; by Con- 

naught, in btl. of Latteragh, 1117. 
Ualgarc, gs. of Ruarc, (and death), 

970. 
Ui-Cennselaigh, 974. 



Defeat. — cont. 
Ui- Maine by Garry castle, 1038. 
Ui-Meith (with slaughter), by Ui- 

Bresail, 1107. 
Ulidians and Dalaraide (with great 

slaughter), by Mael-Finnia, 897. 
crews of Ulidians fleet (with many 
si. around s. of k. of Lecale), in 
Saxon haven, by Gentiles, 913. 
Ulidians and Iveagh at Loughbrick- 

land, 1005. 
Ulidians by Oriel, 1032; at Ardagh, 
1095 ; by Concobar O'Loughlin, 1130. 
Defender, O'Dowda, si., 1162. 

of Tara, 1197. 

Deileroth, f. of Finnguire, 711 ; f. of 

Garnat, 716. 
Ueilgne-Mogoroic (Delgany, co. Wick- 
low), Sitriuc defeated at, 1021. 
Deirgge (gen. sg. of Deirgg), Flann, 758. 
Delbna (Delvin bar., Westmeath), barons 
of, 1399, 1429, 1430, 1452, 1458, 1473, 
1475, 1478, 1493, 1494, 1530; de- 
feated, 822 ; raided by, but few of slew, 
larnan and massacred raiders, 1035 ; 
treacherous massacre of, 828 ; slew 
Cinaedh, k. of Cenel-Loighaire, 843 ; 
town of (Castletown-Delvin), burned, 
1475. 

(-Bethra : Garry castle bar.. King's 

CO.), defeated Ui -Maine, 1038; 30 boats 
of wrecked on Lough Ree, 756. 

kings of : — 

Cerball, 829. 
Cochlan, 1053. 
Diumasach, 756. 
Gilla-Ossen, 1096. 
Mac Coughlan, 1292. 
Mac Coughlan, 1386, 

martyred Maelachidh, 896 ; wasted 

by Ossory, 742. 

Lodot (a district between Shannon 

and Suck, in S. of co. Roscommon), 
btl. in 818. 
Delend (Tclenn, co. Donegal ?) btl. of, 
657. 

h2 



116 



INDEX. 



Delgany, see Deilgne-Mogoroic. 
Delginis-Cualami [thorny island of Cna- 

lann, q.v. : Dalkey island), lusus 

naturae in, 733. 
Deluge, wetness like, 1491. 
Delvin, see Delbna. 
Dema, gf. of Setna, 976. 
Deman, f. of Fiachna, 602, 627. 
(perhaps same as preceding) s. of 

Cairell, died, 572. 
Demand (of Patrician cess), of coarb of 

Patrick given by Munster, 973. 
full, of Patrick's congregation and 

coarb, given by Brian (Boruma), 1006. 
Deoninne, in Mughdoirn of Bregia, de- 
feat of Foreigners at, 837. 
Deposition of : — 

Donnchad, s. of BrianBoruma,as k. M., 
1064. 

Domnall O'Conor, as k. C, 1105. 

Son of Torlogh O'Conor by Lagenians 
and Foreigners 1127. 
Depth of grave, see Shrine of Colman, 
Deputy, see Justiciary. 
Derb[f]ail, d. of Tadhg, k. C, ob., 1010. 
Derbfail, d. of Mael-Finnia, q. of Tara, 

ob., 931. 
Derbforgaill, gd. of Brian (Boruma), w. 

of Diarmait, k. L., died in Emly, 1080. 
Der[b]forgall, ob., 684. 
Derc-bruach (Grange, co. Londonderry), 

pillaged, 1197. 
Ferna (apparently, a fort overlooh- 

ing Ferns), razed by Foreigners, 930. 
Dercan, f. of Niall, 1015. 
Derer, f. of Cumsudh, 843. 
Derg (rec?-complexioned), Diarmaid, 862; 

Donnchad, 1039 ; Snedgus, 727. 
Dergan, f. of Cuilennan, 1056. 
Derile, f. of Bruide, 706 ; of Ciniod, 713; 

of Nectan, 726. 
Derir, gs.of Colla, (mk.) of Devenish, ob., 

722. 
Derlas (Bright, co. Down), kings of :— 
Domnall, 1000. 
Dubdarach, 984. 



Derlas. — conf. 

Furudhran, 964. 
Maelgarb, 933. 
O'Flynn, 1216. 
Cu-maighi O'Flynn, 1121. 
Dermagh and Dairmagh (Durrow, Queen's 

CO.), abbots of : — 

Blathraac, 811. 
Cinaedh, 793. 
Soergus, 836. 
Tuathal, 850. 
and its books burned, 1095 ; cas. of ; 

date of foundation of church of, 1186 ; 

church of, «ee church, stone, of Durrow. 
community {family) of, defeated by 

community of Clonmacnoise and lost 

200, 764 ; community of in btl. between 

(S.) Ui-Neilland Momonians, 776: " of 

Britons," Bregia S. despoiled to byGen- 

tiles, 836 ; given to Columba, 589. 
herenaghs of : — Mael-Muire, 973 ; 

Scothine, 950 ; mk. of, Robartach, 872. 
scribe of, Robartach (mk.), 872 ; 

steward of, Crunnmhael, 839 ; termon 

of community of burned to church door 

by Feidhlimidh, k. of Cashel, 833. 
Derrybruchaise, see Daire-murchaisi. 
Derrybrusk, see Airech-Brosga. 
Derrycannon, see Daire-Cenain. 
Derrjdegh, see Daire-laegh, 
Derryloran, -see Daire-Lubrain. 
Derrynavlan, .see Daire-eithnigh. 
Derrypatrick, .see Daire-Patraic. 
Derryvullen, see Airech-Maelain and 

Daire-Maelain. 
Des-Muman {South ofMimstei\- Desmond), 

70 churches of destroyed by Torlogh 

O'Conor, 1121. 

earl of, 1402. 

disinterred body of David Barry 

after 20 days and burned it, 1500. 
Gerald, earl of, defeated and taken, 

1369 ; ob., 1398. 
Gerald, s. of James, s. of Thomas, s. 

of James, s. of Gerald, s. of Maurice, s. 

of earl Thomas, earl of, ob., 1486. 



INDEX 



117 



Des-Muman. — cont. 

s. of Gerald, earl of, 1411 ; came to 

I., 1414 ; at war with Mac Carthy, 

1430 ; ob., 1463 ; w. of, 1435. 
James, s. of Thomas, s. of James, s. 

of Gerald, s. of earl Maurice, earl of, 

si, 1487. 

James, earl of, 1510. 

James, s. of earl of, defeated Piers 

Butler ; defeated by earl of Kildare, 

1514 ; took Aney cas. ; besieged and 

driven off from Lough Gur cas., 1515. 
Joan, d. of earl of, w. of Tadhg Mac 

Carthy Mor, ob., 1411. 

John, earl of, drowned in Suir, 1399. 

John, s. of earl of, lost Aney cas. to, 

and besieged in Lough Gur cas. by, 

James, s. of earl of, 1515. 
John, the Toothless, s. of Thomas, 

s. of James, s. of Gerald, s. of earl 

Maurice, slew his b., James, and si. by 

his b. Maurice, 1487. 
Maurice, s. of Thomas, s. of James, 

s. of Gerald,s.of earl Maurice, made earl 

of, 1487; defeated O'Brien, 1488 ; took 

Murchad Mac Sweeney and slew Diar- 

mait Mac Carthy, 1489. 
Thomas, s. of James, s. of earl 

Gerald, earl of, beheaded in Drogheda ; 

eulogium of, 1468. 
Thomas, s. of earl John, expelled 

from L, 1411. 
Thomas, jun., s. of earl Thomas [g]s. 

of earl Gerald, defeated and slew some of 

the Mac Carthys, O'Sullivans, and Mac 

Sweeneys, 1498. 
given to Mac Carthy by Torlogh 

O'Conor, 1118 ; hostages of si. by Tor- 

logh O'Conor, 1124 ; invaded, 1510. 

kings of : — 

Fergal, 779. 

Mac Carthy, 1209. 

1302, 1303. 
„ 1381. 

Cormac Mac Carthy, 1359. 
Diarmait „ 1176, 1229. 



Des-Muman. — cont. 

Domnall jun. Mac Carthy, 1391. 
Son of Murchad MacCarthy, 11 68. 
Tadhg ,, 1124. 

Tadhg, s. of Domnall Mac 

Carthy, 1391. 
Maelmhuaidh, 978. 

future k. of, MacCarthy, 1300 ; Men 

of, 1204, 1261 ; raided and countless 
cattle-spoil taken from by Torlogh 
O'Conor, 1126; raided by Torlogh 
O'Conor, 1127 ; slew Brian O'Brien, 
1118; laid waste, both church and land, 
from Magh-Feimen to Tralee by Tor- 
logh O'Conor, 1121. 
Descendants, two of Aedh Slane, fought 
against each other, 712. 

of Aedan (k. of Scottish Dalriata), 

war of, 649. 

of Conn [of 100 btls.] { = Ui-Neill), 

738. 
Desertcreaght, see Disert-da-crich. 
Desi (of Bregia : Deece bar., Meath), 
kings of : — 

Conall, 701. 
Daithgus, 732. 
Gilla-Fulartaigh, 1034. 
Niallghus, 758, 
of Munster {Decies barr., co. Water- 
ford, and Iffa and Offa bar., co. Tip- 
perary), kings of : — 
Cormac, 920. 
Faelan, 966. 
Maelcron (j.-k.), 858. 
Mothla, 1014. 
Muircertach, 1051. 

royal-heirs of, two O'Bricks, 1103 ; 

slew Flann, 896 ; wasted Corcomroe, 
744 ; wasted by Muircertach (k. of 
Ailech), 941 : by Gentiles, 836. 
Desmond, see Des-Muman. 
Desolation, of churches, forts and terri- 
tories of L by famine-pestilence, 1116. 

of Tyrone churches, 1179. 

Despoiling of Armagh, 793. 
Destitution, great, throughout I., 1099. 



118 



INDEX. 



Destruction of : — Ailen-daingeii, 714 ; 
Ardstraw and Raphoe cliurtlies, 1199; 
birds, cattle and people by frost and 
snow, 1115; Brecrighe, 752; Callraiglie 
of Lurg by Ui-Briuin, 752 ; camp of 
Lagenians, -svith heav}' loss, b3'^ Gen- 
tiles, 827 ; Irish cattle in snow, 748 ; 
large number of cattle, birds and sal- 
mon, by great snow, cold and unpre- 
cedented frost, 917 ; large number of 
cattle in raid of Leinster by Torlogh 
O'Conor, 1128 ; large number of cattle 
and large amount of crops by frost and 
snow, 1339 ; cattle, 1524 ; 70 Desmond 
churches by Torlogh O'Conor, 1121 ; 
Meath churches and forts, 971 ; Con- 
nor, 970 ; large number of cows, 1321, 
1324, 1325 ; crops by wet weather, 
1107 ; Dunleer in foray on Bregia by 
Donnchad (k. I.), 940 ; Dun-leithfinn, 
734 ; Dunseverick by Foreigners of 
Strangford Lough, 926 ; very many by 
famme-pestilence, 1116 ; Kilclonfert, 
by Oengus (k. of Offaly), 789 ; lake- 
islands (crannogs) by storm, 857 ; land 
and sea produce, fair weather and peace, 
by murder, 1534 ; island (crannog) of 
Lough Ramor by Mael-iSechnaill (k. L), 
against malefactors of Lune and Moi- 
gallion, pillaging like Gentiles, 847 ; 
(crannogof)Loughrealake, co. Galway, 
by Muirghis (k. C), 802 ; monasteries, 
churches, houses and cattle by storm, 
1478 ; oratory of Bangor by Gentiles, 
824 ; many people, 1225, 1262 ; many 
people and cattle, 1207 ; men and cattle 
by snow-fall, 799 ; people, cattle and 
tillage, 1425 ; many trees by storm, 
857; Trevet, 903; tame and wild 
animals by frost and snow, 1111 ; 
Ui-Neill at Cuince-Robairgi, 711 ; many 
woods by storm in L, 1121. 

bnow of, 1179. 

Destructive, Autumn most, to crops, 858. 

Detna, in Bregia, btl. of, 520, or 523. 

Devastation of : — Armagh by Foreigners 



Devastation. — conf. 

of Amiagassan, Jul}- 10, 852 : S. Bregia 
and E. Meath by Flann (k. I.), 914 ; 
Brefn}- by Domnall, 955 ; all islands of 
Britain by Gentiles, 794 ; Ciannachta by 
Cxentiles, 827 ; Ciaraidhe by Muirghis 
(k. C), 805 ; Clonmacnoise by Momo- 
nians, 1092 ; all Connaught by Gentiles, 
836 ; Comiaught b}- Domnall (k. I.), 
965 ; Comiaught by Mael-Sechnaill 
(k. I.), 998; Connaught, 1186: Con- 
naught, by dissension, 1296 ; S. Con- 
naught by Muirgis, s. of Tomaltach, 
k. C, 812 ; Cremorne by Aedh, s. of 
Xiall, 794; Fore and Kells, 1176; 
Leinster : — by (Aedh) s. of Niall, k, I., 
twice in one month, 804 ; by same, 819; 
from Dublin to near Mullaghmast, by 
Donnchad, k. I., and Muircertach, k. 
of Ailech, 938 ; by Brian (Boruma), 998 ; 
Louth, 1176 ; Meath to Lough Ree, b}- 
ss. of Flann (k. I.), 915; Meath, Offaly 
and Decies by Muircertach, s. of Niall, 
941 ; Munster, from (lowran to Lime- 
rick, by Flann (k. I.), 906 ; Offaly and 
Forth bar. (co. Carlo w), 971 ; Oriors as 
far as Navan fort, 821 ; Skye island by 
Gentiles, 795 ; Westmeath by Domnall 
0"Loughlin and Doimchad O'Melaghlin, 
1106. 

Devenish, see Dam-inis. 

Devlinite (fostered by O'Devlin), Feidhli- 
mid, s. of Art, s. of Comi O'Neill, 1532. 

Devotee, of Connaught, O'Fallon, ob., 
1092. 

Devotional versifier, Philip O'Higgin, 
1487. 

Diarmait, third ab. of Clonard, ob., 615. 

ab. of Derry, ob., 908. 

ab. of Zona, went to {Scotland with 

reliquaries of Columba, 829 ; came to I. 
with same, 831. 

f. of Aedh, 714. 

f. of Art, 826. 

f. of Bodbcath, 704. 

f. of Brotudh, 1002. 



INDEX 



119 



Diarmait. — cont. 

f. of Coirpri, 876. 

f. of Catlial, 755. 

f. of Cellach, 1003. 

f. of Diarmait, 870. 

f. of Domnall, 1014. 

f. of Enna, 1091, 1092, 1098. 

f. of Finsiiechta, 849. 

f. of Fogartach, 994. 

• f. of Iron-knee, 1070. 

f. of Mael-Moedhoic, 917. 

• f. of Maelmorda, 874. 

f. of Mog]n-on, 846. 

f. of Muiredach, 1004. 

f. of Murchad, 1070, 1112. 

f. of Murecan, 863. 

f. of Niall, 826. 

f. of Sochlachan, 867, 912. 

f. of Tadhg, 865. 

f. of Uatha, 828. 

gs. of Aedh K/oen, anchorite and 

religious teacher of all I., ob., 825. 

gs. of Conaing, si. in btl. of Lagore, 

786. 

gs. of Sechnusach, coarb of Sech- 

naill (ab. of Dunshaughlin, Meath), ob., 
1040. 

gs. of Tighornan, or Tigernach, re- 
placed by Forindan as ab. of Armagh, 
835 ; went to Connaught with Lato 
and ensigns (vexillis) of Patrick, 836 ; 
replaced Forindan in abbacy of Armagh, 
839, 848 ; with Fethgna and covnicil of 
community of Patrick, at Armagh royal 
conference, 851 ; coarb of Patrick, 
sagest of doctors of Europe, ob., 852. 

(mk.) of Cell-can {recte^ Kilcash, co. 

Tipperary), ob., 848. 

-- — s. of Aedh Slaine, slew Conall, s. of 
Suibne, 635 ; won btl. of Cuil-Caelain, 
635 ; began reign (as k. I.), 643 ; won 
btl. of Carn-Conaill, 649 ; slew Conall, 
k. L, 654 ; died of plague, 665, or 668 ; 
f. of Cernach Sotal, 664, 667, 724. 

s. of Ailill, ab. of Kilcullen, died 

old, 937. 



Diarmait. — co)if. 

the Fleet, the Midian, s, of Airme- 

dach Blind-eye, si., 689 ; f. of Murchad 

the Midian, 715, 763, 862. 
s. of Becc, k. of Teffia, si. in btl, of 

Ard-abla, 791. 

s. of Cerball, k. of Ossory, ob., 928. 

s. of Clothgne, si. in btl. of Forca- 

lad, 778. 

s. of Conaing, won btl. of Righe, 781. 

s. of Concobar, defeated Maelrua- 

naidh, s. of Donnchad ; si. same day 

by Mael-Sechnaill (s. of Maelruanaidh), 

841. 

s. of Diarmait, slew a man in 

Armagh, before door of house of Aedh, 
k. of Tara, 870. 

s. of Dochartach, coarb of Molaise 

(ab. of Devenish), ob., 974. 
s. of Domnall, k. of Ui-Cennselaigh, 

ob., 996. 
the Black, s. of Domnall, fell at btl. 

of Arggaman, 764. 
the Dun, s. of Domnall, fell in btl. 

of Drumree, 797. 
s. of Donnchad, si. in defeat of 

Ossory, 974. 

s. of Donnchad, ab. of Russagh 

(Meath), ob., 823. 

s. of Eitirscel, k. of Lagore, si. in 

btl. of Killineer, 868. 

s. of Enna, k. L. , si. by ss. of Mur- 
chad, 1098. 

s. of Enna, k. L., died in Dublin, 

1117. 

the Ruddy, s. of Fergus Wry-mouth, 

began reign (as k. I.), 544, or 545 ; 
defeated, 561, 562 ; held Assembly of 
Tara, 558, or 560 ; murdered, 565, or 
572 ; f. of Aedh Slaine, 604, 643, 664 ; 
f. of Colman the Little, 568, 586, 587, 
593 ; f. of Colman the Big, 555, 558, 
563, 600, 763, 862. • 

s. of Mael-na-mbo, (k. L.) expelled 

Echmarcach and thereby got kingship 
of Dublin, 1052 ; defeated Donnchad, 



120 



INDEX. 



Diarmait. — cont. 

s. of Brian (Boruma), at Sliabh-Crot, 

1058 ; k. of L. and Foreigners, si. in 

btl. by Concobar O'Melaghlin, 1072 ; 

Derbforgaill, w. of, 1080. 
s. of Mael-Brenainn, coarb of Bren- 

ann (bp. of Ardfert), ob., 1074. 
s. of Niall, (k. of S. Bregia), went 

secretly and gave hostages to Murchadh. 

k. of Cenel-Eogain, at Druim-Fergusso, 

822 ; ob., 826. 
s. of Riiaidhri, k. of Airther-Liplii, 

ob., 832. 

s. of Simon of the Strand, si. 1315. 

s. of Tomaltach, k. C, defeated 

Ui-Fiachrach of Murresk, burned and 

pillaged Foibren, 816 ; k. of Ui-Briuin, 

won btl. of Forath, 818 ; won btl. of 

Tarbga, 822 ; ob., 833. 
s. of Torpath, herenagh of Lismore, 

ob., 953. 
foster-s. (in religion) of Daigre, made 

ab. of Kells, 814. 
Diathrabh, Cellach of, 718 ; Congalach, 

k. of, 760. 
Dibcheine, ss. of, sL, 711. 
Diccolan, sage, ob., 711. 
Dicholl, f. of Eudus, 798. 
Dicuill and Dichuill, ab. of Clones, ob., 

701. 

f. of Ultan, 682. 

s. of Fergus Tuile, si., 632. 

s. of Menide, ab. of Inishmurray, 

ob., 752. 
Dighlach, s. of Dubliss, fell at btl. of 

Arggaman, 764. 
Dillon, Dabug, s. of Ulick of Owle, ob., 

1352. 
Edmond, the Dillon, s. of Thomas, 

s. of Richard, ob., 1490. 
Henry, s. of Hubert, s. of James, 

slew his f., 1491. 

Hubert, si. by his s., 1491. 

Dima, bp., ob., 663. 

the Black, bp. of Connor, ob., 659. 

Diman, s. of Sarau, f. of Tuatau, 561. 



Dimman of Arra (co. Tipperary), Munster 

anchorite, ob., 811. 
Dimensions, of lime-kiln, 60 feet square, 
1163. 

of woman cast ashore, see Woman 

cast ashore. 
Dindagad (alias of Dindanach, q.v.), 806. 
Dindanach, f. of Gormgal, 793. 
Dindatach (alias of Dindanach, q.v.), 799. 
Dinertac, s. of Mogadach, anchorite, ob., 

791. 
Diocletian, 246th [_rectt 248th] year [of 

Era] of, 532. 
Dionysius [Exiguus], wrote [a.d. 525, 
five 19-year] Paschal Cycles, [beginning 
with] 532. 
Dirath, bp. of Ferns, ob., 693. 
Diseases : — 

Bloody Flux, 764, 770, 772, 774, 

777, 778, 951. 
Colic, 1012. 
Cutaneous : — 
Clam-trusca, 951. 
Sam-throsc, 554. 
Scamach, 783, 786. 
Emeroids, 808. 
Glandular, 1375. 
Influenza, 1328. 
Jaundice (Cron- or Buidhe-Co- 

naill), 556, 664, 665, 668. 
King's Game, 1361, 1369, 1504. 
Leprosy, 576, 680, 742, 769, 951. 
Muscular (Lameness), 709. 
Paralysis, 860, 867. 
Small-pox, 779, 1327, 1416, 1488, 

1497, 1498, 1535, 1536. 
Sweating, 1492. 

grievous, 814 ; many prevalent, 777. 

Disembowelling, 1525. 
Disert-Ciarain and D. -C. of Belach-duin 
(Castlekieran, Meath), bp. -ab. and scribe 
of, Cumscuth, 870 ; Siadhal (mk.) of, 
857. 

da -crich(Desertcreaght, Dungannon 

bar., CO. Tyrone), btl. of, 1281. 
-Diarmata (Castledermot, co. Kil- 



INDEX. 



121 



Disert. — conf. 

dare), abbots of :— Fedach, 876 ; Mael- 

callan, 923 ; two bp. -anchorites, Ciimsudh 

and Moinach, of died same night, 843 ; 

burned with its oratory, 1106; pillaged 

by Gentiles from Narrow Water, 842. 
Ternoic (probably W. of Barrow), 

ab. of, Muiredach, 819. 
Tola (Dysartale, Delvin bar., West- 

meath), Dalach, coarb (ab.) of, 1011 ; 

3 killed by lightning at, 1056. 
Dishonouring, of Irish clergy and his 

oaths by O'Gormley, 1160. 
of Eogan, ab. of Armagh, in Armagh, 

827. 

of Paul, Peter, and Patrick, 1201. 

Dispersion of Gailenga in Assembly of 

Teltown by Concobar (k. I.), 827. 
Dispute, respecting abbacy of Derry, 1220. 
respecting Derry lectorship, decided 

by abp. of Armagh, 1220. 
Distinguished, most, of Irish, Domnall 

Mac Loughlin, 1121. 
Districts round Lough Erne, pillaged by 

Foreign Fleet, 924. 
round Lough Neagh, pillaged by 

Foreign Fleet, 928. 
Disturbance of Teltown Assembly, 717, 

831. 

great, in N. of L, 1186. 

Ditch, made round Armagh, 1264, 
Diumasach, chief of Garrycastle, wrecked 

on Lough Ree, 756. 
Division of Meath between 2 sons of 

Donnchad, by Aedh (k. I), 802. 
Dluthach, f. of Indrectach, 755. 
s. of Ailill, f. of Aedh, 695, 701, 711, 

712, 718. 
— — of Fithchellach, burned, 712. 
Doadan, gf. of Encorach, 769. 
Dobécocc (mk.) of Clonard, ob., 690. 
Doccus, bp,-ab. of Britons, ob., 473. 
Dochartach, f. of Diarmait, 974. 
Dochinne, (mk.) of Derrybrughis, ob,, 689. 
Dochonna, shrine of broken by Gentiles, 

798. 



Dochuma-Conoc, ab. of Glendalough, ob., 

687. 
Dochume, sage, ob,, 748. 
Bolggan, anchorite of Armagh, ob., 

733. 
Dochutu, anchorite of Slane, ob,, 838. 
Doctor, 806, 825, 870, 

apostolic of all I., 928, 929, 

of Munster, 1110. 

Doctors of Europe, sagest of, Diarmait, 

ab. of Armagh, 852. 
Doctrinal of Alexander de Villedieu, 

1209. 
Dodder, see Doithre and Dub-Doithre. 
Dodimoc, anchorite, ab. of Clonard and 

Kildare, ob., 748. 
Doelgus, ab. of Kilskeer, ob., 755. 
Doergart, f. of Congal, 712, 
( = Dargart, q.v. ?), s. of Finnguine, 

ob., 693. 
Dogra, s, of Dunadhach, k. of O'Maddens, 

si. on hosting of Donnchad, s. of Brian 

(Boruma), into Ossory, 1027. 
Dogs (large number of) drowned, 776. 
Doilgen, eminent priest of Armagh, ob., 

1053. 
Doimtech, ab. of Trevet, ob., 793. 
Doinennach, f. of Laidgnen, 744. 
Doir, s. of Aedh Aldan, ob., 624, 
s, of Maeldubh, k, of Ciannachta, si., 

674. 
Doire, Brian (O'Conor) of the, 1249. 

lothair = Moin-daire-lothair, q. v. 

Doithre (genitive sing, of Doithair, [r.] 

Dodder), Dub-, 743. 
Dolaissi (Molaissi), s, of Cuinid, ab, of 

Leighlin, ob,, 639. 
Dolfinn, s. of Finntur, (Saxon) si, in btl. 

with Scots, 1054. 
Dolo, {read dolo, 

treachery), 709. 
Domangart, s. of Aedan, si., 
s. of Domnall Brecc, k. 

Dalriata, si., 672, or 686. 
s. of Ness, began reign (as k. of 

Scottish Dalriata), 507 ; f. of Comgall, 



by stratagem or 



596. 

of (Scottish) 



122 



INDEX. 



Uomangart. — cont. 

538, 545 ; f. of Gabraii, 558, 560, 582, 
606 ; obit of wrongly given, 466. 

Dominicans, in England, 1221 ; in I., 1224. 

Dominatrix, abbess, 732, 743, 758, 771, 
773, 780. 

Dominatus, abbac}^ 782. 

Dominic, St., died 1221 ; translation of 
body of, 1233 ; church of, Bologna, 
1348, 1383. 

Domnach-Maighen (Church of Plain: 
Donaghmoyne, co. Monaghan), shrine 
of Adamnan carried off" from by Gen- 
tiles, 832 ; cas. of roofed with stone, 
1244. 

Mor (Donaghmore, Lower Navan 

bar.. ]Meath), ab. of, Robartach, 845 ; 
pillaged by Tigernach and Flann, 954. 

of Airther-Emhna (Donagh- 
more, Katoath bar., Meatli), Domnall, 
coarb of Patrick, brought ill to and 
anointed at, 1105. 

of Magh-Imclair (Donagh- 
more, Dungannon bar., co. Tyrone), 
1200 ; burned, 1539. 

of Magh-Itha (Donaghmore, 

Raphoe bar., co. Donegal), herenaghs 
of (O'Deerys), 1064, 1206 ; other re- 
ferences, 1177, 1179. 

Patraicc (Donaghpatrick, Meath), 

ab. of, Conaing, 846 ; burned, 750 ; 
herenagh of, ^lael-Finnia, 985 ; pillaged 
by Gothfrith, 951 ; pillaging of by 
Dublin Foreigners and Muircertach 
avenged by God in death of Muircer- 
tach at end of same month, 995 ; pro- 
fanation of, 746 ; Eicnech, k. of Lune, 
si. in abbot's house of, 993. 

-Sechnaill (Dunshaughlin, Meatli), 

abbot's of : — 

Cumsudh, 842. 

Diarmait (coarb of Secluiall), 

1040. 
Donnchad (coarb of Sechnall), 

1027. 
Fergil, 879. 



Domnach — conl. 

Ruamnus, 801. 
Scannal, 851. 
Scannal, 886. 
Tipraiti, 833. 

herenagh of, Scannal, 952. 

Domnall, defeated and si. by Ui-Can- 

annain, 905. 

of Aran, Scottish leader, si. , 1494. 

of Decies, chief confessor of I. , ob. ; 

quatrain relative thereto, 1060. 
Cloen, k. L., defeated by Mael- 

Sechnaill and Iron-knee, 983 ; si. by Ui- 

Cennselaigh, 984. 

f. of Arttagan, 843. 

f. of Bran, 954. 

f. of Cathal, 1014 ; (2) 1078. 

f. of Concobar, 1005. 

f. of Cumuscach, 883. 

f. of Diarmait, 996 ; of Domichad, 

999. 
the Midian, f. of Donnchadh, 1182, 

1183, 1184. 

f. of Dubdabairenn, 959. 

f. of Flaithbertach, 919 ; (2) 1014. 

f. of Flann, 906. 

f. of Flathruae, 777. 

f. of Gartnaidli, 663. 

f. of Gilla-Patraic, 1052. 

f. of Mael-Coluim, 954 ; (2) 997. 

f. of Maelcron, 901. 

f. of Matudhan, 1007. 

f. of Murchad, 799, 802. 

f. of Muiredach, 924. 

f. of Tuathal, 816. 

the Fat, f. of Donnchad, 1089 ; gf. 

of Murchad, 1091 ; s. of, fettered by 

O'Brien, 1077. 

maternal gf. of Uathmaran, 933. 

the Red, gs. of Brian (Boruma), si. 

by O'Heyne, 1055. 
gs. of Cellach, k. of Forth (co. 

Carlow), si., 1022. 
gs. of Domnallan, k. of Bright, si., 

by Aedh, 1000. 
gs. of Flann [gs. of Mael-Sechnaill, 



INDEX 



123 



Domiiall. — cont. 
k. I.], royal-heir of Tara, si. by Bref- 
nians, 1036. 

gs. of Loingsech, k. of Dalaraide, 

si. in defeat of Dalaraide, 1016. 

[s. of Flann, k. I.] gs. of Mael-Sech- 

lainn, meetly si. in stratagem by his b., 
Donchad [k. I.], 921. 

gs. of Ualgarg, chief of Ui-Duibinn- 

recht, died in penance, 1073. 

herenagh of Louth, ob., 1065. 

• best scribe, bp. of Cork, died svid- 

denly, 876. 

s. of Aedh, ab, of Dunmurraghill, ob., 

838. 

s. of Aed, slew Muiredhach, vice-ab. 

of Armagh, 863 ; hosting by, with N. 
of I. and Foreigners, to S. Ui-Neill, 
889 ; dissuaded by Cenel-Eogain from 
fighting with his b., Niall, 905 ; host- 
ing of Cenel-Eogain, and Hill of Ward 
burned, by, 908 ; took (palmer's) staff, 
911 ; k. of Ailech, died in penance at 
vernal equinox, 915 ; f . of ab. Cinaedh, 
921 ; of Donnchad, 928 ; of Fergal, 
921, 933, 938. 

s. of Aedh, defeated : began reign (as 

k. I.), 628 ; wasted Leinster, 628 ; won 
btl. of Dun-Ceithirnn, 629 ; encamped 
inDruim-Nao, 641; ob., 642; successor 
of doubtful, 643 ; f. of Aihll Flanessa, 
666 ; of Colgu, 663 ; of Conall, 663 ; of 
Fergal, 658 ; of Fergus of Fanad, 654, 
710 ; of Oengus, 650, 703, 732 ; gf. of 
Echu, 697 ; w. of, Duinsech, 639. 

s. of Aedh, k. of Slievemargy, si. by 

Gilla-Patraic and Macraith, 1042. 

s. of Aedh, royal-heir of Ailech, si. 

by Oilla-Mura, 1024. 

s. of Aedh of Leinster, ob., 759. 

s. of Aedh the Little, si. by s. of Se- 

nan, 1023. 

s. of Aedh Red-neck, hostages of 

taken by Donnchad (k. I.), 779 ; won 
btl. over Cenel-Boghaine, 784 ; de- 
feated and fled, 787 ; escaped from btl. 



Domnall. — cont. 
of Cloitech, 789 ; k, of N. of I., ob,, 
804. 

s. of Amalgaidh, coarb of Patrick, 

born, 1047 ; succeeded Mael-Isu as coarb 
of Patrick, 1091 ; made circuit of Ty- 
rone, and got cess, 1092 ; on Munster 
circuit first time and got full cess and 
donations, 1094 ; prevented btl. between 
Muircertach O'Brien and Domnall 
O'Loughlin by sort of peace, 1097; made 
year's peace between Munster and N. of 
L, 1099 ; hostages of Irish in custody 
of to secure year's peace between 
Muircertach O'Brien and Domnall 
O'Loughlin, 1102 ; went to Dublin to 
make peace between Muircertach and 
Domnall ; got ill ; taken to and anointed 
at Donaghmore ; taken to and died at 
Duleek ; body taken to Armagh : suc- 
ceeded by Cellach, 1105. 

s. of Auen, k. of Dumbarton, ob., 

694. 

s. of Cathal, (k. C), si., with other 

nobles, by his b,, Tadhg, by stratagem, 
925. 

s. of Cathal (k. C), si. in hosting 

to Magh-Ai, 1014. 

s. of Cathal (the Cat), royal heir of 

Connaught, si. in Connacian defeat, 
1013. 

s. of Ceithernach, k. of Ui-Carrcon, 

died a cleric, 783. 

— — s. of Cellach, si. by Ossory, 974. 

s. of Cellach, k. C, ob., 728. 

s. of Cinadu, k., first won, then io&u, 

and fell fighting in, btl. of Ferrard, 
749. 

s. of Cinaedh, k. of Cenel-Loeghairc^ 

died a cleric, 885. 

s.of Colgu, fell in btl. of Teltown, 791. 

s. of Concobar, f. of Fergal, 1017. 

s. of Conall Crandamne (k. of Irish 

Dalriata), si. 696. 

s. of Congalach, k. of Bregia, slew 

Muircertach, 964 ; slew Fergal, 966 ; 



124 



INDEX. 



Domnall. — cont. 

slew Cerball, 967 ; won btl. of Kilmona, 

970 ; slew Fogartach, 972 ; ob., 976. 
s. of Custantin, k. of Scotland, ob., 

900. 
s. of Diarmaid, k. of Corco-Baiscinn, 

fell in btl. of Dublin (Clontarf), 1014. 
s. of Donnchad, si. by his b., Goll of 

Gowran, 1113. 
s. of Donnchad, si. in treachery by 

his brothers, 799. 
s. of Donnchad, f. of Ladhmunn, 

1116. 
s. of Donnchad, k. of Ui-Faelain, si. 

by Domnall, 1039. 
s. of Donnchad, royal-lieir of Tara, ob., 

952 ; f. of Mael-Sechnaill or Mael-Sech- 

lainn, k. I., 948, 980, 983, 985, 1014, 

1022. 
s. of Donnchad the Fair, defeated 

Monaghan bar. ; blinded by Mael-Sech- 

lainn, 997. 
s. of Donncothach, k. of Morgallion, 

si., 1032. 
s. of Donncuan, k. of Rosclogher, si. 

by Gallen, 998. 
s. of Dubdabairenn, defeated and 

slew Cathal, Cian and Roghallach 

with slaughter, 1014 ; si. in btl. by 

Donnchad, s, of Brian (Boruma), 1015. 
s. of Dubtuinne, k. U., si. by Muire- 

dach and Uargaeth, 1007. 
s. of Dunlaing, blinded Cadhasach, 

1031. 
s. of Echaidh, fell in domestic btl. 

between Ui-Cremthainn, 804. 
Brecc, s. of Echu, (k. of Scottish Dal- 

riata) defeated at Calathros, 678, ob., 

686 ; wrongly given as si. , 642 ; f . of 

Cathasach, 650 ; of Domangart, 673 ; of 

Drost, 678 ; gf. of Cathasach, 689. 

Brecc, s. of Eocha, ob., 686. 

s. of Eimhen, Great Steward of Mar, 

fell in btl. of Dublin (Clontarf), 1014. 
s. of Eochaid, si. in btl. of Crew 

Mount, 1004. 



Domnall. — cont. 

s. of Eogan, k. of Britons, died in 

pilgrimage, 975. 

s. of Faelan, f. of Mothla, 1014. 

s. of Fergal, k. of Imail, fell in btl. 

of Dublin (Clontarf), 1014. 

s. of Flaithniadh, k. of Offaly, si. in 

Cloncurry, 783. 

s. of Flann Deirgge, ob., 758 

s. of Flannacan, k. of Fir-Li, ob., 1004. 

s. of Gilla-Crist, si. by k. of Fir-Rois, 

1052. 

s. of Lorcan, k. of Ui-Forga, fell in 

btl. of Carn-fordroma, 990. 

s. of [Muircertach] s. of Ere, won 

btl. of Sligo, 543, 547, or 548 ; won 
btl. of Cul-Conaire, 550 ; won btl. of 
Cul-dreimne, 561 ; won btl. of Moin- 
doire-lothair, 563 ; began reign as j.- 
k. I., 565 ; won btl. of Gabair-Liphe 
and died, 566 ; or died, 573 ; f. of Aedh 
Aldan (or Uaridnech), 612 ; of Colgu, 
580 ; of Eochaid, 572. 

s. of Macnia, herenagh of Monaster- 

boice, ob., 1005. 

s. of Mael-na-mbo, si. by Lagenians, 

1041. 

s. of Mael-Coluim, k. of Scotland, 

died by mischance, 1085. 

s. of Mael-Coluim, slew his b. [j^ecte 

nephew], Donnchad, 1094. 

s. of Maelruanaigh, k. of Fermanagh, 

slew Domnall, 1057. 

s. of Mael-Sechlainn, coarb of Fin- 

nian and Mocholmoc (ab. of Moville 
and Dromore), ob., 1019. 

s. of Muircertach, slew Lough Neagh 

Foreigners and destroyed their fleet, 
945 ; overtook and defeated Muircer- 
tach and Ui-Cremthainn in Morgallion, 
953 ; began reign (as k. I.), 956 ; host- 
ing by with ships from mouth of Bann, 
on Lough Neagh, on Blackwater, across 
Oriel, on Lough Erne, on Lough Ough- 
ter, so that he wasted Brefny and took 
off hostages of [Fergal] gs. of Ruarc, 



INDEX. 



125 



Domnall — cont. 

955 ; hosting to, and hostages taken 
from, Dalaraide by, 960 ; carried ships 
from Blackwater, across Fews moun- 
tains, to Lough-Ennell, — a deed not 
done from ancient times, 963 ; k. of 
Tara, led hosting, wasted Connaught 
and took hostages of [Fergal] gs. of 
Ruarc, 965 ; led hosting to, and pil- 
laged Leinster from Barrow to sea ; 
brought great cattle-spoil ; besieged 
Foreigners and Leinstermen for 2 
months, 968 ; pillaged Monasterboice 
and Dnnleer ; lost btl. of Kilmona, 970 ; 
led hosting and destroyed churches 
and forts of Meath and wasted Offaly 
and Forth bar. (co. Carlow) ; expelled 
from Meath by Clann-Colmain, 971 ; 
slew Gilla-Coluim, 977 ; arch-k. of L, 
died at Armagh, after penance, 980 ; f. 
of Aedh, 993, 996, 999, 1002, 1004 ; of 
Concobar, 935 ; of Congalach, 977 ; of 
Domnall, 977; of Donnchad, 950; of 
Mael-Sechnaill, 980 ; of Muircertach, 
977; gs. of Niall (Black-knee), 960, 
965, 968, 970, 971, 977, 980, 1004. 

s. of Muirecan, k. L., si. by his 

associates, 884. 

s. of Murchad, fortress of attacked, 

730 ; routed Cathal at (Assembly of) 
Teltown, 733 ; retinue of burned, 739 ; 
became a cleric, 740 ; won btl. of Sered- 
Magh, in which fell Aedh Aldan, k. I., 
and became k. I., 743 ; became cleric 
again, 744 ; established Lmo of Col- 
umba, 753 ; led Leinster hosting against 
Niall (the Showery), 756; ob., 763; 
called of Meath, 753, 795 ; f. of Diar- 
mait the Black, 764 ; of Diarmait the 
Dun, 797 ; of Donnchad, 733, 765, 770, 
784, 789, 797, 862 ; of Eithne, 795 ; of 
Finsnechta, 797 ; of Innrechtach, 797 ; 
of Murchad, 765 ; slaying of Aedh 
(Aldan) by (743) avenged in btl. of 
Drumree, 797 ; sons of, in btl. between 
(S.) Ui-Neill and Momonians, 776. 



Domnall — cont. 

s. of Murchad, k. of Dublin, ob., 

1075. 
s. of Niall, [Domnall of the Poor) k. 

of Ailech, si. in defeat of Sithbe by his 

b., Aedh, 1068. 
s. of Senchan, si. on hosting, of 

[Donnchad] s. of Brian (Boruma), into 

Ossory, 1027. 

s. of Suibne, si. by Ultonians, 679. 

s. of Totholan, ob., 663. 

Domnallan, f. of Dubdarach, 984. 

gf. of Conaing, 961 ; of Domnall, 

1000. 
Donaghmore (co. Donegal), see Domnach- 

mor of Magh-Itha. 
Donaghmore (Lwr. Navan bar., Meath), 

see Domnach-mor. 
Donaghmore (Ratoath bar., Meath), see 

Domnach-mor of Airther-Emhna. 
Donaghmore (co. Tyrone), see Domnach- 
mor of Magh-Imclair. 
Donaghmoyne, see Domnach-Maighen. 
Donaghpatrick, see Domnach-Patraic. 
Donation to Patrick, see Finnfaidhech. 
Donations, of Cenel-Eogain, got by Cel- 

lach, coarb of Patrick, 1106. 

of Henry VIII. to O'Donnell, 1511. 

of Munster, got by coarbs of Pat- 
rick :—Cellach, 1106; Domnall, 1094; 

Mael-Isu, 1068. 
Donegal, see Dun-na-nGall. 
Donennach, f. of Conall, 701. 
Donit, f. of Condmach, 800. 
Donn, gs. of Donncuan, k. of Teffia, ob., 

992. 
s. of Cumuscach, k. of S. Ui-Briuin, 

si., 775 ; f. of Coscrach, 799. 
s. of Oengus, of Oriel, si. by Ulidians, 

1094. 
Donnacan, f. of Cele, 1076. 

f. of Fogartach, 949. 

s. of Cetfad, k. of Ui-Cennselaigh, si. 

in treachery by his associate, 869. 
s. of Fogertach, k. of Farney, slew 

and si. by Lorcan, k. of Oneilland, 882. 



126 



INDEX. 



Donnacan — cont. 

s. of Mael-Muire, herenagh, fell in 

btl. of Kilmona, 970. 

s. of Maeltuile, scribe and anchorite, 

ob. in Italy, 843. 

Donnan, of Egg, martyred by burning, 
617. 

Donnbo, si. in btl. of Navan fort, 759. 

Donnchad, ab. of Dunkeld, si. in btl., 
965. 

f. of Diarmait, 823 ; (2) 974. 

f. of Domnall, 1039. 

f. of Mael-Coluim, 1058, 1093. 

gs. of Cellachan, royal-heir of Cashel, 

si. by Ossorians, 1053. 

gs. of Congalach, royal-heir of Tara, 

si. in stratagem by Mael-Sechlainn 
(k. I.), 991 ; f. of Donnchad, 1017. 

gs. of Erulb, Foreigner, fell in btl. 

of Dublin (Clontarf), 1014. 

gs. of Gilla-Patraic, k. of Ossory, si. 

by his sept, 1089 ; f. of Domnall and 
Goll, 1113. 

gs. of Loingsech, k. of Dalaraide, si. 

in stratagem by Cenel-Eogain, 1004. 

gs. of Mael-na-mbo, k. of Ui-Cenn- 

selaigh, fell in defeat of Leinster, 1115. 

the Fair, k. of Meath, si. by Agda, 

974 ; f. of Domnall, 997 ; of Donnchad, 
1013. 

s. of Aedhaccan, si. in treachery by 

Flann, 877. 

s. of Brian (Boruma), slew Cathal, 

k. of (Munster) Iveagh ; defeated by 
his b., Tadhg, s. of Brian, 1014 ; slew 
Domnall in btl., 1015 ; attacked and 
right hand of cut off by the Mac 
Namaras, 1019 ; led hosting to and got 
hostages of Meath, Bregia, Foreigners, 
Leinster, and Ossory, 1026 ; led host- 
ing to, but lost very many in, Ossory, 
1027 ; led hosting to Ossory, but it 
was slaughtered, 1031 ; pillaged all 
Ossory, 1034 ; biu-ned Ferns, 1042 ; 
slew O'Donoghue, k. of Cashel, and 
p'Fogarty, k. of S. Eli, 1057 ; defeated 



Donnchad — cont. 
b\' Diarmait, s. of Mael-na-mbo, at 
Slaibh-Crot, 1058 ; arch-k. M., deposed 
and died at Rome in pilgrimage, 1064, 
or 1065. 

s. of Cellach, k. of Ossorj^ ob., 976 ; 

f. of Gilla-Patraic, 996 ; f."^ of Tadhc, 
991. 

s. of Cellachan, k. of Cashel, ob., 

963. 

s. of Crinan, k. of Scotland, si. by 

his people, 1040. 

s. of Domnall, (k. I.) born, 733 ; 

defeated by Fartullagh at Dun-bile, 
764 ; aided by Fallomon, defeated his 
b., Murchad, at Carn, 765 ; banished 
[his rival] Coirpre, s. of Fogartach [and 
became k. I., after Niall the Showery], 
769 ; led Ui-Neill into Leinster against 
k., Cellach ; eluded by Lagenians, 770; 
hosting by, into N. of L, 771 ; to Cnoc- 
Bane, 772 ; Assembly (of Telto^^^l ?) 
disturbed by, 774, 777 ; with (S.) Ui- 
Neill defeated and slew many Momo- 
nians and wasted their territories ; had 
conflict with Clonard community, 775; 
hosting of Leinster into Bregia by ; at 
war with Congalach (k. of Bregia), 777; 
war ended by fall of Congalach in btl. 
of Forcalad, 778 ; promulgated Law of 
Columba, 778 ; hosting by to N. of 
Ireland ; brought hostages from k., 
Domnall, 779 ; defeated Leinster N. and 
S. in btl. of Ochtar-Ocha ; pursued them 
and wasted and burned their lands and 
churches, 780 ; had (abortive) meeting 
with Fiachna (k. U.), 784 ; avenged 
slaying of Febordaith, ab. of Dulane, 
786 : fought clan of Aedh Slaine at 
Liac-find, 786 ; profaned Crozier of 
Jesus and reliquaries of Patrick at 
Oristown Assembly, 789 ; defeated and 
pursued Aedh Ningor from Teltowni to 
Carn-Mic-Cairthin, 791 ; hosting by to 
aid Leinster against Munster, 794 ; k. 
of Tara, ob. ; quatrain dating obit of 



INDEX. 



127 



Donnchad . — cont. 
by A.M., 797 ; f. of Ailill, 802, 803 ; of 
Concobar, 802, 803, 808, 821, 822, 827, 
831, 832, 864 ; of Conn, 795 ; of Dom- 
nall, 799; of Eugmis,802; of FoUaman, 
799, 830 ; of Gormlaith, 861 ; of Mael- 
ruanaigh, 799, 841, 843, 862, 944; of 
Oengus, 830 ; q. of, Befail, 801. 

s. of Domnall, si. by Norsemen, 928. 

s. of Domnall, k. L., taken prisoner, 

999. 

s. of Domnall the Fat, k. L., si. by 

his sept, 1089. 

s. of Domnall, k. of Meath, si. by 

his bb., 950. 

s. of Domnall, the Midian, defeated, 

1182 ; sL, 1183, or 1184. 

s. of Donnchad, royal-heir of I., si. 

by his sept, 1017. 

s. of Donnchad the Fair, royal-heir 

of Tara, si. in Morgallion defeat, 1013. 

s. of Dunlaing, k. L., blinded by 

Donnchad, and died thereof, 1036. 

s. of Ercadh, k. of Clare-Galway, ob. , 

961. 

s. of Flann[k. L], k. of Meath, Kells 

profaned by his f. attacking him there, 
904 ; defeated Fogartach, k. of S. 
Bregia and Lorcan, k. L. : slew and 
captured many, 913 ; with Concobar, 
his b., opposed their f. : wasted Meath 
to Lough Ree ; met by Niall, k. of 
Ailech, with army of N., who made 
them guarantee obedience to Flann,and 
made truce between Meath and Bregia, 
915 ; blinded his [elder ?] b. Aedh [and 
became k. I. after death of Niall in 
defeat of Dublin], 919 ; defeated and 
slew very many Gentiles, 920 ; slew his 
b., Domnall, by stratagem, 921 ; Tel- 
town Assembly disturbed against by 
Niall : no blood shed, 927 ; slew Mael- 
ruanaigh [his nephew], 928 ; hosting by 
to Liathdruim against ( Muircertach) s. 
of Niall : quatrain relative thereto, 929 ; 
averted from btl.with(said)Muircertach, 



Donnchad. — cont. 
938; k. of Tara, led hosting with Muir- 
certach to besiege Dublin Foreigner's : 
wasted from Dublin to Mullaghmast 
(co. Kildare), 938 ; hosting by into 
Bregia, 939 ; hosting by against Lage- 
nians and Momonians, and took their 
hostages ; foray in Bregia and destruc- 
tion of Dunleer by, 940 ; Cellachan, k. 
of Cashel, brought to do homage to by 
Muircertach, 941 ; k. of Tara, reigned 
25 years and died, 944 ; f. of Domnall, 
952, 1022 ; of Dubgall, 980, 994 ; gs. 
of Mael-Sechnaill(k. I.), 913, 920, 921, 
927, 938. 

s. of Folloman, pillaged by Mael- 

Sechnaill (k. I.), 845. 

s. of Gilla-Faelain, k. of Offaly, si. 

1050. 

s. of Gilla-Mochonna, ab, of Dun- 

shaughlin, sagest of Scoti, died in 
Cologne, 1027. 

s. of Gilla-Patraic, slew Donncuan 

and Tadhg in centre of Leighlin, 1016; 
f. of Gilla-Patraic, 1042. 

s. of Mael-Coluim, k. of Scotland, 

si. by his bb. by stratagem, 1094 ; f. of 
Domnall, 1116. 

s. of Maelduin, ab. of Kildalkey and 

other monasteries, fell in defeat of 
Flann (k. I.), 888. 

s. of priest Megdem, si., 1386. 

s. of Torlogh [s. of Brian Boruma], 

si in Dalaraide, 1103. 

Donnclochair, s. of Artri, won domestic 
btl between Ui-Cremthainn, 804. 

Donncorci, k. of (Irish) Dalriata,ob.,792. 

Donncothaidh, k. C, ob., 773. 

Donncothaigh, f. of Domnall, 1032. 

Donncuan, f. of Becc, 951 ; gf. of Donn, 
992. 

f. of Domnall, 998. 

f. of Flannacan, 1120. 

s. of Cennetigh, f. of Ceilechair, 1008 ; 

of Cennetigh, 1054 ; of Conaing, 1014, 
1019 ; of Longarcan, 1045. 



128 



INDEX. 



Donncuan. — cont. 

s. of Condalach, k, of Keenaght of 

Glengiven, ob., 884. 
s.of Dunlang, k. L., si. by Donnchad, 

1016 ; f. of Gilla-Comgaill, 1041. 
s. of Flannacan, si. in treachery by 

Conaing, 873. 
Donngal, f. of Ailgenan, 853. 

f. of Cellach Tosach, 809. 

f. of Cleircen, 981. 

f . of Maelduin, 810. 

f. of Muircertach, 805. 

f. of Slogadach, 759. 

s. of Beoan, herenagh of Tomgraney, 

ob., 1003. 

s. of Bocliall, k. of Oriors, ob., 791. 

s. of Congal, ob., 731. 

s. of Doret, fell in btl., 766. 

s. of Laithgnen, k. of S. Leinster, 

fell in btl. of Gowran Pass, 761. 

s. of Nuadha, ab. of Louth, ob. , 775. 

s. of Selbach, manacled by Oengiis, 

736. 
s. of Tuathal, k. of Ferrard, ob., 

817. 
Donngus, bp. of Dublin, ob., 1095. 
Donnsleibe, s. of Brogorban, k. of Oflfaly, 

si. by his sept, 1029. 
s. of Maelmordha, k. of Ui-Faelain, 

forcibly took house containing, and 

slew, Ugaire and Maelmordha ; si. by 

O'Tooles, 1024. 
Donore, see Dun-uabhair. 
Doohy-Hanly, see Cenel-Dobhta. 
Doonamurry, see Dun-na-mona. 
Doon Glady, see Dun-cloitighe. 
Door, of house of Aedh (k. I.) in Armagh, 

man si. before by Diarmait, 870. 

of Close, Armagh, see Masan-Third. 

of Oratory, Armagh, man si. at, 789. 

of Derry church, made byFlaithber- 

tach O'Brolchain, 1155. 
of Penitentiary refectory, Derry, 

made, 1192. 

Golden, opened at Rome, 1500. 

Doorkeeper of Maguire, 1436. 



Dorbeni, 5 months ab. of lona, ob., 713. 

f. of Faelchu, 716, 724. 

Doret, f. of Donngal, 766. 

Dorraidh, Druim-, 957. 

Dorsum Brittanniae (Druim -Bretain : the 

mountain ridge between Perth and 

Argyle), 717. 
Dothadh, f. of Ceithernach, 760. 
Doubt as to successor of Domnall,k.I.,643. 
Down and Downpatrick, see Dun-da- 

lethglaissi. 
Dragon, huge, seen (in sky), 735. 
Dragons, seen in sky, 746. 
Draighnen (thorny place: Drinan, co. 

Dublin), defeat of Midians, with loss 

of 150, at, 1013. 
Draignu, f. of Conligan, 916. 
Drawing to death between steeds, 1275. 
Dreich (probably, in Fermanagh), defeat 

of 1379. 
Drew, David, si. 1249. 

Philip, si., 1307. 

Drimnagh, see Druim-ind-eich. 

Drinan, see Draignen. 

Drinking, fighting after; dying after, 1013. 

Drobhais (Drowse r., from Lough Melvin 

to Donegal Bay), 1420, 1522, 1536. 
Droctech (hridge-maker), Cilleine, 752. 
Drochait-atha (Drogheda), monks of, 1 1 70 ; 

mon. of, 1297 ; pilgrimage to, 1186 ; 

synod of N. of I. held in, by abp. of 

Armagh, 1486. 
towiiland at, given to clergy by 

O'Loughlin, 1157 ; Thomas, earl of 

Desmond, beheaded in, 1468 ; other 

references, 1175, 1193, 1449, 1484,1495, 

1522, 1532, 1535. 
Drogheda, see Drochait-atha. 
Droma-Bregh {Ridges of Bregia ; the hillj' 

districts in N. of Lower Kells, Mor- 

gallion and Lower Slane barr., Meath), 

Detna in, 520, 523. 
Dromachose (a par. in Keenaght bar., co. 

Londonderry), abbots of : — Cathusach 

(coarb of Cainnech in Keenaght), 1056, 

Ua Calmain, 1207. 



INDEX. 



129 



Dromahaire, see Druim-da-ethar. 

Dromin, .see Druim-ing. 

Dromiskin, .see Druim--in-asclaind. 

Dromore, 6'ee Druim-mor. 

Drost, dethroned, 672 ; s of Domiial, ob., 

678. 
Drostan [anchorite] of the oratory, ob. in 
Ardbraccan, 719. 

f. of Finguine, 729. 

f. of Tolarg, 713 ; of Talorgan, 734, 

739. 
Drought, great, 714 ; unusual, 748, 773 ; 

excessive, 764. 
Drowning of : — 

Airmedhach, ab. of Moville, 831. 
Richard Barrett and many of his 

force, in the Moy, 1412. 
Large party of Cavan friars, 1516. 
Ciannachta of Meath, after 

defeat at Dublin, 770. 
Cinaedh, s. of Conaing, k. of 
(Meath) Ciannachta ; quatrain 
respecting, 851. 
Conaing ; quatrain respecting, 

621. 
Concobar, j.-k. of Meath, by 
Amlaiphjk. of Foreigners, 864, 
Cuilennan and 48 cows, in Magh- 

Itha raid, 1056. 
29 boats' crews of Garry castle 
bar., King's co., in Lough Ree, 
756. 
John, earl of Desmond, in Suir, 

1399. 
(Large number of) dogs, 776. 
Many in defeat of Domnall, 

(k. L.), 983. 
Crews of Dublin fleet, 1100. 
Faelbe, ab. of Applecross, with 
22 of his sailors, in the sea, 737. 
18 persons in Finnloch, 1505. 
Skiffs crew of lona community, 

641. 
Six of lona community, 691. 
Mac Dermott's w. and 700 per- 
sons, in Lough Key, 1187. 



Drowning of. — cont. 

Many in Lough Key, 1402. 

Somairle Mac Donnell by Brian 
Mac Mahon ; quatrain respect- 
ing, 1365. 

Mac Grilla-Coisgle and his con- 
sort, at Ard-Ui-Luinin, 1448. 

Edmund Mac Manus at Trory, 
1487. 

Macnia, lector of Kells, Cidebad 
of Columba, 3 reliquaries of 
Patrick, and 30 men, 1034. 

Mael-Muire, herenagh of Dur- 
row, in Assaroe, 973. 

The Magauran in Killywillin 
Lake, 1495. 

Niall Maguire in r. Finn, 1462. 

14 of the Maguires who raided 
Shanad, 1492. 

100 ozs. of Mass-requisites of. 
Cellach, coarb of Patrick, 1118. 

Niall, k. I., in r. Callan ; quatrain 
respecting, 846. 

Niall, s. of Fergal, by Muircer- 
tach, s. of Niall, 940. 

Ruaidhri O'Conor, 1243, or 1244. 

O'Dowda, 1126. 

O'Fallon, 1092. 

18 of the O'Flahertys in Clew 
Bay, 1417. 

O'Malley and his ship's crew, 
1396. 

7 ships' crews of O'Malley, oft' 
N.W. of L ; O'Malley, his 2 ss. 
and their attendants escaped, 
1413. 

Domnall O'Neill's raiders, — some 
between Bunowen and Inis- 
more ; 9 at Carryvanan, 1512. 

Richard O'Reilly, k. of Brefny, 
his s., and two priests of the 
name (his wife escaped by 
swimming), in Lough Sheelin, 
1418. 

Ruidhgus, ab. of Monasterboice, 
855. 



130 



INDEX. 



Drowning of. — cont. 

]\Iany, in defeat of Slane, 947. 
Talorg, by (Scottish) Picts, 734 ; 
Talorgan, k. of Athol, by 
Oengus, 739. 
Turges, by Mael-Seclmaill, s. of 
ISIaelruanaigh, (k. I.) in Lough 
Owel, 845. 
Drowse, see Drobhais. 
Drucan, s. of Tadhg, k. of Ui-Meith, ob., 

829. 
Druids, trhe (charm) of, 561, 
Druim-benncair (Drumbanagher, co. 

Armagh), defeat of Ub'dians at, 1032. 
bo {Ridge of coic : Drumbo, co. 

Down), 1004. 
(Drumboe, near Stranorlar, co. 

Donegal), 1490. 
-cain (Drumquin, co. Tyrone), 

burned with its church, 1213. 
caro, Druim-cara of Ard-Ciannachta 

and Druim {Drumcar, Ardee bar., co. 

Louth), ab. of, Cellach, 816 ; anchorite 

of, Condla, 870 ; herenagh of, 1065. 

Cathail (in Scotland), btl. of, 741. 

Cepais, btl. of, 671. 

ceta (on the Roe, near Newtown- 

limavad}^ co. Londonderry), Conven- 
tion of, 575. 
cliabh (DrumclifiF, co. Sligo), abbots 

of, Mael-Patraic, 923 ; Ua Beollain 

(coarb of Columba in Drumcliff), 1252 ; 

Carbury of, 703 (note), 1187 ; herenagh 

of burned, 1029 ; herenaghs of, Flann, 

952; Murchad, 1053 ; hosting to, 1012 ; 

pillaged ; O'Concannon decoyed from, 

1188 ; other references, 1258, 1279, 

1296, 1306, 1355. 
Conaille (in Moylurg), church of, 

burned, 1487. 

. -Corcain, btl. of, 728. 

cuilinn {hazel-ridge : Drumcullen, 

King's CO.) ; abbot of, Cennfaeladh, 

745 ; mk. of, Guana, 722. 
-da-ethar and (phonetically) Druim- 

da-shiar {Ridge of two furrows : Droma- 



Druim. — cont. 

haire, co. Leitrim), burned, 1458 ; mon. 
of 1532 ; mon. of burned, 1536 ; Friars 
Minor of, 1512. 

dearbh (peihaps in Armagh co.), 

513. 

-derg (near Downpatrick), btl. of, 

1260. 

derg-blathug {red-hlossomed ridge : 

Drumderg, Forfar), btl. of, 729. 

derge and Druim-dergaidhe (ap- 
parently in Leinster), btl. of, 516 or 
517. 

dorraidh (probably in Armagh co.),- 

Cathusach of, 957. 

fota {long ridge), Cell-achaidh 

(Killeigh, King's co.) of, 549, 796, 889. 

-fornocht [very bare ridge : near 

Newry), btl. of, 727. 

goise, in Connaught, btl. of, 789. 

in-asclaind {Ridge of the under tcood: 

Drominisklin, or Dromiskin, Louth 
bar. and co.), abbots of : — 
Cormac, 891. 
Muirchu, 828. 
Muiredach, 912, 913. 

bp.-ab. of, Tigernach, 879 ; burned, 

833 ; Crunnmael (ab. of Louth) of, 
793 ; refectory (abbot's house, 913) of 
ignited, and JSIuiredach, ab., and 
Gairbeth, roj'al-heir of Louth, perished 
in ; two quatrains respecting, 912 ; 
perpetrator, Congalach, k. of Louth, 
si. by his sept, 9 months after, 913 ; 
Niall, k. L, died at, 897 ; pillaged by 
Matudhanand Niall, 949 ; by Murchad, 
970 ; Ronan (patron) of, 801. 

ind-eich {ridge of the horse : pro- 
bably Drimnagh, near Dublin), host- 
ings of Murchadh (k. of N. Ui-Neill) 
to, 820. 

-ing (Dromin, Meath), monk of, 

Maelcorgais, 722. 

iung (Drumin, co. Limerick, or 

Dromin, co. Meath), pillaged by 
Foreigners, 835. 



INDEX. 



131 



Druim. — cont. 

-Laidggin, monk of, Sidal, 722. 

lethan {broad ridge : Drumlane, 

Lower Loughtee bar., co. Cavan), ab. 
of, O'Farrelly (coarb of Moedhoc), 1368 ; 
choral college of, 1490 ; future coarb 
(ab.) of, Niall O'Farrelly, 1357 ; com- 
munity and church of, 1484 ; herenaghs 
of, O'Farrellys, 1025, 1059; other 
references, 1314, 1391, 1407. 

lias (Drumlease, co. Leitrim), 

burned, 1360. 

Lochmuidhe (apparently, on con- 
fines of Leinster and Ulster), btl. of, 
503. 

-=- — -M.ÍG-Fivca, {Ridge of[Muircertach] .^. 
of Ere : probably in Meath), btl. of, 
580, 581, or 586. 

Mic-U-Blae (perhaps Drumsnat, 

Monaghan bar. and co.), church of, 
pillaged by Gentiles, 832. 

mor in Iveagh (Dromore, co. 

Down), abbots of : — 
Cellach, 842. 
Domnall (coarb of Mocholmoc), 

1019. 
Maelcothaidh (coarb of Mochol- 
moc), 953. 

anchorite-ab. of, Cormac, 908 ; bp. 

of, Riagan, 1101 ; two O'Neills hanged 
in, 1528. 

-nao (probably in Leinster), Dom- 
nall, k. L, encamped at, 641. 

-ralach {Ridge of [large] oaks: 

Drumralla, Coole bar.,co. Fermanagh), 
1495. 

ratha {Ridge of fort : Drumrat, co. 

Sligo), ab. of, Flathgel, 793 ; herenagh 
of, Cormac, 1017. 

-righ {Ridge of kings : Drumree, 

Meath), btl. of ; quatrain respecting, 
797. 

-robaigh (in Connaught) btl. of, 758. 

-tairsech (near Coleraine), castle and 

mansion of built, 1248. 

-tuama (Drumhome, Tirhugh bar,, 



Druim. — cont. 

CO. Donegal), ab. of, Cinaedh, 921 ; 

O'Muldory, k. of Cenel-Conaill, buried 

in, 1197. 
urchaille (Dunmurghill par., Ikea- 

thy and Oughterany bar., co. Kildare), 

ab. of, Domnall, 838. 
Drumbanagher, see Druim-bonncair. 
Drumbo, see Druim-bo. 
Drumboe, see ,, 
Drumcar, see Druim-caro. 
DrumclifF, see Druim-cliabh. 
Drumcullen, see Druim-cuilinu. 
Drumderg, see Druim-derg-blathug. 
Drumhome, .see Druim-tuama. 
Drumin, see Druim-iung. 
Drumlane, see Druim -lethan. 
Drumlease, .see Druim-lias. 
Drumquin, see Druim-cain. 
Drumralla, see Drum-ralach. 
Drumrat, see Druim -ratha. 
Drumree, see Druim-righ. 
Drumsnat, see Druim-Mic-U-Blae. 
Drung (in Connaught) domestic btl. of, 

776, 836. 
Drunk, death whilst, 1168. 
Drust, f. of Simul, 725 ; fettered Nectan, 

726 ; k. of (Scottish) Picts, si. in btl. 

of Druim-derg-blathug, 729. 
Duach, alias of Dubtach, q.v. 
alias Fergus Long-head, s. of Conall 

Gulban, 586 ; f. of Feradach, 583, 584 ; 

of Nainnid, 561, 563, 586. 
the Valorous, s. of Brian, f. of Eogan 

Sreib, 577. 
Dub, s. of Mael-Coluim, k. of Scotland, 

si. by Scots, 967 ; f. of Cinaedh, 1605. 
(Duff r., Leitrim), defeat of Camman 

at, 960 ; other reference, 1536. 
Dub-chablaigh, d. of k. C, w. of Brian 

(Boruma), ob., 1009. 
calgaidh, s.of Laidgnu, fell in btl. of 

Ferns, 769. 

cenn, f. of Agda, 974. 

• -combar, f. of Lergus, 772. 

f. of Reohtabra, 787. 

i2 



132 



INDEX. 



Dub. — cont. 

-cuile, s.of Bran, si. in btl. of Emlagh; 

lamented in verse, 688. 

■ cuilind, ab. of Russagh, si. in ignited 

house by Lune, 901. 
- — f. of Gilla-Crist, 1028. 

dabairenn, ab. of Clonard, visited 

affiliated monastic houses (parochia) of 
Munster, 787. 

ab. of Fore, ob., 740. 

coarbof Buite(ab.of Monasterboice), 

ob., 966. 

■ f. of Aedh, 860. 

f. of Guaire, 867. 

f. of Dunchad, 888. 

gs. of Beccan, ab. of Clones, ob. , 746. 

gs. of Duban, ab. of Clonmacnoise, 

ob., 805. 

■ herenagh of Both-Conais, ob., 988. 

[eponymous head of O'Davorens] s. 

of Domnall, k. of Cashel, si. by his 
sept, 959 ; f. of Donnchad, 1013 ; f. of 
Domnall, 1014, 1015 ; f. of Dunlang, 
988. 

da-crich, f. of Aedh, 845. 

f. of Cormac, 792. 

great-gs. of Cellach, si. in btl. of 

Ballyshannon, co. Kildare, 738. 

(k. of Ferrard) si. in btl. of Allen, 

722 ; f. of Ailill, 749. 

s. of Laidhgnen, slew and si. by 

Mugron, at btl. of Curragh, 782. 

s. of Maeltoli, ab. of Killeigh, ob., 

823. 

da-doss, s. of Murgail, fell in btl. of 

Ailen-da-berrach, 744. 

da-inber, f . of Macnio, 709. 

k. of Ferrard, si. in btl. of Emlagh ; 

lamented in verse, 688. 

s. of Congalach, k. of (Irish) Picts, 

rsl.,727. 

s. of Cormac, ab. of Monasterboice, 

ob., 767. 

daingen, k. C, si. by his sept, 1034. 

da leithi, ab. of Kilskeery, ob., 750. 

Book of, 963, 1004, 1021. 



Dub. — co7if. 

replaced Muiredachasab.of Ai-magh, 

965 ; coarb of Patrick, took coarbship 
of Columba (presidency of Columban 
Order), 989 ; on circuit of Munster and 
got his demand, 973 ; coarb of Patrick 
and Columba, ob., 998. 

s. of Dunchu, ob., 732. 

s. of Mael-Muire, took lectorship of 

Armagh, 1046 ; from lectorship, took 
abbacy of Armagh on day Amalgaidh, 
ab., died, 1049 ; on circuit of Tyrone 
and got 300 cows, 1050 ; defeated ab. 
of Clonard and Kells in btl. of Martry 
(Meath), 1055 ; fought by Cumuscach 
respecting abbacy, 1060 ; died in pen- 
ance ; succeeded by Mael-Isu, 1064 ; 
f. of Aedh, 1108. 

s. of Sinach, ab. of Armagh, promul- 
gated iyaiy of Patrick on Croaghpatrick, 
783 ; ob., 793 ; f. of Condmach, ab. of 
Armagh, 807. 

s. of Tomaltach, chief of Namna, 

ob., 816. 

-da-tuath, bp.-ab. of Rahue, ob., 788. 

f. of Dunchadh, 784. 

f. of Murchadh, 780. 

s. of Flaithgus, chief of the 3 tribes 

[i.e., all] of Connaught, si. in btl. of 
Ath-rois, 790. 

da-thuile, ab. of Leamokevoge, ob., 

870. 

dara, f. of Cathal, 1010. 

darach, gs. of Fiachna, si. by Cenel- 

Eogain, 991. 

s. of Domnallan, k. of Bright, si. by 

his sept, 984. 

deilge, sage, ob., 764. 

dibeirg, f. of Flaithgus, 732. 

s. of Cathal, slew, and si. by, Cath- 

mugh, 787. 

s. of Dungal, si., 703. 

-dil, coarb of Brigit (abbess of Kil- 
dare), ob., 1072. 

duin, coarb of Columba (ab. of Icna), 

ob.. 959. 



I 



I 



INDEX. 



133 



Dub. — cont. 

f. of Coblaith, 916. 

f . of Conang, 752. 

gs. of Bee, si. in btl., 714. 

gs. of Faelan, bp.-ab. of Clonard, 

si., 718. 
k, of Cenel-Coirpri, slew Sechnu- 

sach, 671. 

s. of Irgiis, ob., 805. 

-Doithre (clark [-vuayed man] of the 

[r ] Dodder), k. of Ui-Briuin [-Cualann, 

q.v.], si., 743. 

drumman, ab. of Dulane, ob., 759. 

emna, s. of Cinaedh, v.-ab. of Clon- 

feacle, si. in Cenel-Binnigh raid, 1053. 
esa, d. of Amalgaidh, coarb of Pat- 
rick, w. of k. of Oriors, ob., 1078. 

gall, f. of Aedh, 1069. 

■ f. of Ua Maelchothaigh, 1096. 

s. of Aedh, k. of Ulidia, si. by his 

sept, 925. 
s. of Amlaim, Foreigner, fell in btl. 

of Dublin (Clontarf), 1014. 
s. of Donnchad, royal-heir of Ailech, 

si. by his b., Muiredach, 980 ; f. of 

Aedh, 994. 

gilla, f. of Bruatar, 937. 

s. of Amlaim, f. of Mathgamain, 

1013. 
s. of Robucan, chief of Ui-Cormaic, 

si. by stratagem, 934. 

guala, ab. of Glendalough, ob., 712. 

innrecht, vice-ab. of Kilmore (co. 

Armagh), wounded whilst under pro- 
tection of herenagh, by Leinstermen, 

818. 

f. of Maelduin, 770. 

s. of Artgal, k. of Cenel-Coirpri, si. 

in btl. of Fennor, 799. 
s. of Cathal, k. C, won btl. of 

Shrule, 766 ; died of bloody flux, 767. 
s. of Dunchad, k. of Ui-Briuin-Al, 

ob., 666. 

s. of Fergus, ab. of Ferns, ob., 781. 

innse, ab. of Inishkeen (co. Louth), 

ob., 882. 



k. of 



Dub. — cont. 

lachtnai, s. of Maelgualai 

Cashel, ob., 895. 

lene, gf. of Dathal, 817. 

linn {Black-pool: Dublin), abbot of, 

Siadail, 790 ; Niall Black-knee, k. I., 

defeated and slain by Foreigners at, 

919. See Ath-cliath. 

liss, f. of Dighlach, 764. 

littir, presided over Tara Assembly 

of monastic seniors, 780. 
ab. of Clones and Tyfernan, ob. ; 

quatrain in praise of as historian, 880. 

(mk.) of Finglas, ob., 796. 

priest of Armagh, martyred in Kil- 

lery by Gentiles from Carlingford 

Lough, 923. 
sage and anchorite of Inishbofin, 

ob., 736. 
loch {Black lake : in Stradbally bar.. 

Queen's co), house attacked at, 1024. 

roa, f. of Goach, 927. 

rois, si. in domestic btl. between 

Ui-Cremthainn, 804. 

run (in Tyrconell), 1452. 

senile, s. of Cinaedh, coarb of 

Columba (ab. of lona), ob., 964. 
sidhe, lector of lona, one of those 

sent to offer the abbacy to Flaithbertach 

O'Brolchain, 1164. 

-sinach, f. of Maelcraibi, 919. 

sinna, s. of Eilge, k. of Magh-Itha, 

ob., 907. 
slanga, s. of Aedh, si. in btl 

Crew Mount, 1004. 

sleibhe, f. of Nuadha, 751. 

s. of, si. at Teltown, 717. 

sloit, slew Colman the Big, s 

Diarmait the Ruddy, 555, or 558. 
tholarg, k. of (Scottish) Picts south 

of Mounth, ob., 782. 
trian (Dufferin bar.,co. Down) 1433, 

1470. 
tuinne, s. of Eochaid, si. in btl. of 

Crew Mount, 1004 ; f. of Domnall, 

1007 ; of Niall, 1010, 1011, 1012, 1016. 



of 



of 



134 



INDEX, 



Dubad, f. of Maelruanaidh, 1006. 
Dubadh (Dowth, Meath), Fert-Beodain 

over, 863 ; herenagh of slew herenagli 

of Slaiie, ]0r2. 
Duban, f. of Cathal, 852. 

gf. of Dubdabairenn, 805. 

gf. of i^larthii, 758. 

Dublin, .see Ath-cliath and Dub-linn. 
Diibtach, alias Duach, of race of Colla 

Uais, ab. of Armagh, ob., 548. 
coarb of Columba and Adamnan (ab. 

of lona and Raphoe), ob. , 938. 
Scotsman, chief confessor of I. and 

Scotland, died at Armagh ; quatrain 

in praise of, 1065. 

s. of Becc of Mourne, si. in btl., 712. 

s. of Maeltuile, most learned Latinist 

of all Europe, ob., 869. 
s, of Milidh, coarb of Cainnech (ab. 

of Aghaboe), ob. , 1050. 
Duceta (mk.) of Lorrha, ob., 763. 
Duchua Lochra {of Lochair), ab. of Ferns, 

ob., 654. 
Dudubad, f. of Tuathal, 814. 
Duff, .s-ee Dub. 
Dufferin, see Dub-trian. 
D'Ufford, Robert, Justiciary, built Ros- 
common cas., 1269. 
Duilgen, f. of Cernachan, 912. 
Duiligu, f. of Fergus, 926. 
Duinechaidh, f. of Tomaltach, 732. 

gf. of Colggu, 796. 

gs. of Daire, k. of Ciaraidhe [-Ai], 

ob., 796. 

s, of Orcdoith, si, 690. 

s. of Tobath, in btl. between (S.) 

Ui-Neill and Momonians, 776. 
Duinsech, w. of Domnall (k. I.), ob., 639. 
Dulassi [alias of Molassi, gs. of Molasse 

or Molaisse, q.v.], Cele-, 751. 
Duleek, ,see Dam-liacc. 
Dulgu, f. of Cathusach, 957. 
Duma-achadh (perhaps, Dunaghy, co. 

Antrim), btl. of, 783. 
-achir (probably in Leinster), btl of, 

468. 



Dun-ached (near Croom, co. Limerick), 

plain burned from Limerick to by 

Domnall ]SIac Loughlin and Ruaidhri 

O'Conor, 1088. 
att (Dunad, Argyle), siege of, 683 ; 

seized by Oengus, 73(3. 

— Baitte (in Scotland ?), siege of, 689. 

bile (in Westmeath), btl. of, 964. 

-bo (Dunboe, Coleraine bar, co. 

Londonderry), church of, 1532. 

bo in Dalriata, btl. of, 1182. 

bolg (a fort near Donard, co. Wick- 
low, btl, of, 598; Leinster pillaged to 

by Cerball (k. of Ossory), 870. 
droma and Dun-a-droma (Dundrum, 

CO. Do^vn), cas. of, 1517, 1538. 
near Armagh (Dundrum townland, 

Keady par., Armagh bar. and co.), 

Brian (Boruma) marched to, 1007. 
Buchat (Dunboyke, co. Wicklow), 

547. 

buinne (Dunboyne, Meath), 1306. 

Cairbri (Duncarbry, at mouth of r. 

Duff, CO. Leitrim), burned, 1522. 

Caillen (Dunkeld), abbots of : — 

Cronan, 1045. 
Donnchad, 965. 
Flaithbertach, 873. 
bp.-ab. of, Tuathal, 865 ; all burned, 

1027. 

cal (in Tyrone), 1531. 

Ceithirnn (Giant's Sconce, Dunboe 

par., CO. Londonderry), btl. of, 629 ; 

kings burned in, 681. 
-Cermnai [Fort of Cerman : Old Head 

of Kinsale, co. Cork), in Munster, 858. 
Ciaraidhi (in Connaught), burned 

by Muircertach O'Loughlin, 1159. 
Cloitighe (Doon Glady rath, near 

Maghera, co. Londonderry), Murchad, 

k. of Ailech, died in, 974. 
Cremtain (probably in Meath), btl. 

of, 650. 
Cruithne (Duncrun, Keenaght bar., 

CO. Londonderry), 1185, 1207. 
cuair (Rathcore, Meath), monastic 



INDEX. 



135 



Dun. — cont. 

Assembly at, 804 ; hosting by Aedh 
(k. I.) to, 805 ; hostings led by Aedh 
(k. I.) to, 818. 

chuile, cas. of built, 1251. 

da-lethglaisi (Downpatrick), abbots 

of :— 

Cathusach (coavb of Dun), 972. 
Dungal, 790. 
Loingsech, 800. 
Scanlan, 882. 
Scanlan, 1010. 

btl. of, 1260. 

bishops of : — 

Amlaim, 1175. 
Fergus, 584. 
Gaithene, 956. 

Mac Cormaic(bp.ofUlidia),1175. 
Mael-Coemghin, 1086. 
Mael-Isu (bp. of Ulidia), 1175. 
Mael-Muiie, 1117. 
bp. of [Reginald] assisted at conse- 
cration of cemetery of Friars, Armagh, 
1266 ; all burned, 1016 ; burned, 1040, 
1069; Close and Third [i.e., all] of 
burned by lightning, 1111 ; chalice of 
Patrick given to, 553 ; Brigit's church 
in, 1007 ; defeat of, 1375 ; destroyed : 
cas. built at, 1177 ; herenagh of, 1067. 

herenaghs of : — 

Cernach, 1015. 

Echmarcacli, 1057. 

Cu-Maighi,0'Carroll(UaCairill), 

1102. 
Muircertach 0' Carroll (Ua Cair- 

ill), 1083. 
Domnall O'Casey, 1068. 
Diarmait Ua Maelathgen, 1099. 
— ; — mon. of burned, 1538 ; mk. of, 
Scannlan, 753 ; pillaged by Gentiles, 
825 : by Foreigners, 942 ; pillaged and 
burned by Foreigners, 989 ; priest of, 
. Oenacan, 941 ; right of sanctuary of 
violated, 1010; O'Mahony, k. U., si. 
in, 1081 ; stormed, 496, or 498 ; other 
references, 1170, 1178. 



Dun. — con. 

Deavae, seige of, 692. 

delgan, (Dundalk), Friars Minor of, 

1253 ; hosting of Brian and Mael- 

Sechlainn to, 1002 ; other references, 

1297, 1318, 1321. 
Domnain (Dundonnell, Erris bar., 

CO. Mayo), 1386. 
duirn (Dundurn, Perth), seige of, 

683. 

-Echdach (Duneight, Blaris par., 

Upr. Castlereagh bar., co. Down), 
fighting extended from Crew Mount 
to, 1004 ; hosting by Flaithbertach, k. 
of Ailech, to, 1011. 

-Foither (Dunnottar, Scotland), 

seige of, 681, 694. 

Forgo (in Oriel), 677. 

na-Gall (Donegal town), burned by 

Muircertach O'Loughlin, 1159; burned, 
1496 ; Chapter of Friars at, 1488 ; com- 
munity of got Carrickfergus mon., 1497; 
Guardian of broke down Purgatory of 
Patrick, Lough Derg (co. Donegal), 
1497 ; mon. of, 1481, 1503, 1506, 1512; 
other references, 1494, 1495, 1498, 1513, 
1539. 

ganiba (in Connaught), domestic btl. 

of, 799. 

-geimhin (Dungiven, co. London- 
derry), priors of : — 

Flaithbertach O'Laverty, 1207. 
Mael-Pedair O'Murray, 1253. 
Mael-Poil ,, 1216. 

Gennain (Dungannon, co. Tyrone), 

cas. of, 1498, 1500, 1509, 1513, 1517, 
razed, 1532 ; other references, 1430, 
1512, 1517. 

leithfinn (in Scotland), destroyed, 

734. 

-Leodha (Dunlo, near Ballinasloe, 

CO. Gal way), hosting of Domnall 
O'Loughlin to, 1114. 

libsi (Dunluce, co. Antrim), cas. of, 

1513. 
locha, btl. of, 678. 



136 



INDEX. 



Dun. — cont. 

Maeletuile {Fort of Maeltuih : pro- 
bably near Cashel), defeat of Gentiles 
at, 848. 

-masc (Dunamase, Queen's co.), 

pillaged by Gentiles, 843, 

na-niona (Doonamurry, Tirerrill 

bar., CO. Sligo), cas. of, 1516. 
mor (Dunmore, co. Gal way), burned 

by Muircertach O'Loughlin, 1159. 
Nechtain (Dunnichen, Forfar?), btl. 

of, 685. 
ollaigh (Dunolly, Argyle), burned, 

686, 698 ; destroyed by Selbach, 701 ; 

[rejbuilt by Selbach, 714 ; Talorgan 

taken and manacled near, 734. 
na-sciath [Fort of shields : in Tlio- 

mond), O'Brien, k. of Dal-Cais, si. at, 

1168. 
Sobairce (Dunseverick, co. Antrim), 

capture of for first time by Foreigners 

and Cenel-Eogain, 871 ; destroyed, with 

many si., and taken, b}'^ Foreigners of 

Strangford Lough, 926. 
uabhair (Donore, Moycashel bar., 

Westmeath), 1310. 
Dunacan, s. of Cormac, ab. of Monaster- 

boice, ob., 884. 

s. of Tuathcar, chief of Gailenga- 

Collumrach, si. by Morgallion, 884. 

Dunad, see Dun-att. 

Dunadhachof Columba's church, Armagh, 
ob., 1011. 

f. of Dogra, 1027 ; of Eocho, 1014. 

k. of Owles, si. in massacre of Owles, 

813. 

s. of Rogaillnech, k. of Cenel- 

Coirpri-moir, ob., 873. 

s. of Scannlan, k. of Ui-Fidhgente, 

defeated Gentiles witli heavy loss, 834, 
ob., 835. 

Dunaghy, see Duma-achadh, 

Dunamase, see Dun-masc. 

Dunan, abp. of Dublin Foreigners, ob., 
1074. 

f. of Maeltuile, 945. 



Dunboyke, see Dun-Buchat. 
Dunboyne, see Dun-buinne. 
Duncarbry, see Dun-Cairbri. 
Duncath, gs. of Ronan, si., 647. 

s. of Conall, si., 576. 

s. of Conang, sL, 654. 

s. of Eugan (k. of Picts), ob., 621. 

Dunchad, became ab. of Zona, 707. 

ab. of Terryglass, ob., 965. 

f. of Aedh, 841. 

f. of Cellach, 1035. 

f. of queen Cellach, 732. 

f. of Cernach, 804. 

f. of Conaing, 701. 

f. of Conall the Slender, 681. 

f . of Congal, 639. 

f. of Dubinnrecht, 666. 

f . of Gormgal, 822. 

(and Donnchad), f. of Lorcan, 913, 

925, 942. 
■ f. of Nuadha, 722. 

gs. of Bran, coarb. of Ciaran (ab. 

of Clonmacnoise), best scribe and most 
religious man, died in Armagh in 
pilgrimage, 989. 

gs. of Daimene [=: Dunchad, s. of 

Dubdatuadh, q. r. .^], k. of Ui-Maine, ob., 
785. 

gs. of Ronan, ob., 670. 

the Little (k. of Cantyre), defeated 

Selbach, 719 ; ob., 721, 

j.-k. of Keenaght, defeated Cumus- 

cach, j.k., 824. 

s. of Aedh Slaine, ob,, 659 ; f. of 

Finachta the Festive, 675. 

s. of Alene, si, in btl. of Forcalad, 

778. 
s. of Blathraac, si., 651. 

s. of Cathal, si. in btl. of Foleng, 

760. 

s, of Cennfaeladh, ab. of Zona, ob., 

717. 

s. of Conang, k: of Ciannachta, ob., 

831. 

s. of Conghal, k. of Loughgall, si. 

in treachery by his brothers, 803; 



INDEX. 



137 



Dunchad. — cont. 

s. of Cormac, si. in btl. of Druim- 

Corcrain, 728. 
(and Donnchad) s. of Dubdabairenn, 

k. of Cashel, ob., 888 ; gf. of Cathal, 

1013; gf. of Macraith (O'Donoghue), 

1042, 1052. 
s. of Dubdatuadh [ = gs. of Daimene, 

q.v.^, k. of Ui-Maine, assumed pil- 
grim's staff, 784. 

s. of Euganan, si. 680. 

of Muirisc, s. of Maeldub, si., 683 ; f. 

of Innrechtach, 707, 784 ; gf, of Ailill, 

758, 764 ; of Airechtach, 735. 
s. of Moenach, si. in btl. of Tarbga, 

822. 
s. of Murchad, won domestic btl. 

of Lagenians, 727. 
si. in btl. of Allen by his younger 

b., Faelan, 728 ; f. of Cellach, 770, 776. 
s. of Suthainen, bp. of Clonmac- 

noise, ob., 942. 

s. of Ultan, (k. of Oriel) si., 677. 

Dunchu, ab. of Tullylish, si. beside shrine 

of Patrick, in abbot's house, Tullylish, 

809. 

f. of Cernach, 831. 

f. of Dubhdaleithe, 732. 

f. of Dunlang, 733. 

f. of Dunlang, 747. 

Duncrun, see Dun cruithne. 

Dundalk, see Dun-delgan. 

Dundonnell, see Dun-Domnain. 

Dundrum, see Dun-droma. 

Dundurn, see Dun-duirn. 

Duneight, see Dun-Echdach. 

Dunflaith, d. of Flaithbertach [k. I.], ob., 

799. 
Dungal, burned Tarbert in Cantyre, 731 ; 

wounded and fled to Ireland, 734. 

ab. of Leighlin, ob., 879. 

bp. -ab. of Glendalough, ended long 

life, 904. 

f. of Dubdibeirg, 703. 

f. of Dunlang, 1048. 

f. of Fiachra, 710. 



Dungal. — cont. 

Feille, slew and si. by Muircertach, 

746. 
gs. of Conang, si. in btl. of Navan 

fort, 759. 
gs. of Fergus Forcraidh, si. in btl. 

of Drung, 776. 

s. of Cathan, ob., 944. • 

s, of Conaing, f. of Conaing, 781. 

s. of Cuanu, k. of Magheross (co, 

Monaghan), ob., 816. 
s. of Fergal, k. of Ossory, ob., 842 ; 

f. of Cerball, 847, 853, 870, 888; of 

Flann, 890. 
s. of Flaithniadh, k. of Imail, ob., 

781. 
s. of Flann, k. of Fir-cul, si. in btl. 

of Dam-derg, 743. 
s. of Loegaire (ab. of Downpatrick), 

ob., 790. 

s. of Maeltuile, fought btl., 672. 

s. of Moenach, ab. of Inishkeen (co. 

Louth), ob., 873. 
of Eilen, s. of Scannal, k. of (Irish) 

Picts, burned in Giant's Sconce, 681 ; 

f. of Ailill, 690. 
s. of Selbach, profaned Tory, took 

Brude therefrom, invaded island of 

Inch, 733. 
Dungalach, s. of Congal, ob., 781 ; f. of 

Guaire, 788. 
s. of Taichlech, chief of Leyny, ob., 

771. 
Dungannon, see Dun-Gennain. 
Dungiven, see Dun-geimhin. 
Dunlaing and Dunlang, f. of Ailill, 871. 
f. of Cathal, 817, 819. 

f. of Fiangalach, 800 ; of Oengus, 

812. 

s. of Cathusach, ab. of Cork, died 

without Communion, 836. 

s. of Dubdabairenn, royal-heir of 

Cashel, slew and si., by Muirghis, 988. 

s. of Dunchu, si., 733. 

s. of Dunchu, k. of Cenel-Arddgail, 

ob., 747. 



138 



INDEX. 



Dunlaing. — cont. 

s. of Dungal, si. by his bb., 1048. 

s. of Enna Niadh, 495, 527 ; f. of 

Ailill, 495 ; of Illand, 527. 
s. of Tuathal, k. L., ob., 1014 ; f. of 

Domnall, 1031 ; f. of Donnchad, 1036 ; 

of Domicuan, 1016, 1041 ; of Gilla- 

Coemgin, 1019 ; of í^íurchad, 1042 ; of 

Ugaire, 1021, 1024. 
Dunlaith, d. of Fogertach, ob., 774. 
Dunleer, see Lann-leire. 
Dunlo, see Dun-Leodha. 
Dunluce, see Dun-libsi. 
Dunmore, s^ee Dun-mor. 
Dunmurghill, see Druim-iirchaille. 
Dunncothach, f. of Cathmugh, 787. 
Diumichen, .see Dun-Neclitain. 
Dunnottar, see Dun-Foither. 
Dunolly, see Dun-ollaigh. 
Dnnseverick, .see Dun-Sobaii'ce. 
Dunshaughlin, see Doninach-Seclmaill. 
Durlus (Thurles, co. Tipperary), btl. of, 

1174. 
Durrow, -see Dermagh. 
Dursey Island, .see Inis-Tarbnai. 
Dux, president of monastic Assembly, 780, 

804. 
Dwellings of Gallen burned by Feidh- 

limidh, k. M., 823. 
Dying (in pilgrimage), at Cologne, 1027, 

1052. 
Dysart, see Disert-Daclionna. 
Dysartale, see Disert-Tola. 
Dysentery in Ireland, 709. 



E. 



Earl, d. of, w. of earl of Kildare, 1503. 

Saxon, (Strongbow) ob., 1176. 

Sicfrith, 893. 

(Foreign) Torulb, 932. 

of Ulster, 1301. 

Earls, at war with Edward II., 1322. 
Ottir and Graggabai, took Foreign- 
ers of Waterford Harbour to Scotland ; 



Earls. — cont. 

led and fell in one of the three bat- 
talions which were defeated in btl. of 
Tyne, 918. 

Earthquake, at Alps, shook many cities 
and killed many persons, 1118. 

in Britain, 664. 

in Gaul, 618. 

in Ireland, 601 (in Mourne, co. An- 
trim), 685, 721, 730. 

• in Italy, 740. 

Earthquakes, two in N. of I., 707. 

East of Ireland, Royal champion of, 869. 

Easter, changed [from being computed 
according to the Cycle of 84 to being 
computed according to the Alexandrine 
Cycle of 19] in lona, 716. 

on Ap. 24, 451 [recte, 455]. 

on Ap. 25, 919, [1014] 1109. 

Day [Ap. 24], Ecbericht died on, 

729. 

Eve. (Ap. 18), Clonard burned on, 

789. 

Fri. [Mar. 24] before, cloud like rain- 
bow appeared, and moon became blood- 
red, on night of, 674. 

Sat. of [i.e. before] (Ap. 5), 1119. 

Little (Low Sun.), on 2nd day of 

Summer (May 2), 919, 1109. 

in Summer (May 2), 1014. 

house, fell on k. of Tara and his 

retinue, 1119. 
tide [Eas., Ap. 21], (St.) Carthach 

fled from Rahen (to Lismore) at, 636. 
Ebdonn, k. of Lochlann, ob., 1263. 
Eblinne (probably in Leinster), btl. of, 

533. 
Ebriety, Iron-knee si. in, 989. 
Ecbericlit, soldier of Christ, ob. Easter 

Day [Ap. 24], 729. 
Ecclesiastics, countless, slaughtered of 

the family of Cork, 807. 
3,000, at Fiadh-Mic-Oengusa synod, 

1111. 
Ecgferth [Etfrith, MS.], s. of Oswy, k. of 

Saxons, si., 686. 



INDEX. 



139 



Ech-druim-Mac-Aedho [Ech-druim of ss. 

of Aedh] and Ech-druim of Tir-Briuin 

(Aughrim par., Roscommon bar. and 

CO.), burned, 790 ; church of burned, 

1398. 
Ech-druim and Ech-druim of Ui-Maine 

(Aughrim, co. Galway), ab. of, Rech- 

tabra, 787 ; bishops of : — 
Flann Aighle, 746. 
Mael-imorchair, 751. 
burned, 1307 ; bp.-herenagh of, 

Maelduin, 814. 
-inis (Aughnish par., Kilmacrenan 

bar., CO. Donegal), raided, 1232. 
marcach, s. of Cernach, herenagh 

of Downpatrick, went on pilgrimage, 

1057. 
s. of Ragnall, k. of Dublin Foreign- 
ers, expelled by Diarmaid, 1052 ; ob., 

1064. 
-milidh, s. of Ronan, k. of Oriors, 

si. by Louth, 989. 
-ros (Aughris, co. Sligo), btl. of, 

602, or 603. 

tigern, f. of Aedh, 1003. 

f. of Eogan, 1117. 

s. of Flann of Monasterboice, here- 
nagh of Monasterboice, ob., 1067. 
s. of Guaire, k. of S. Leinster, si. 

in treachery by Bruatar and Cerball, 

853. 
Echa Dry-flesh (Tirm-carna), f. of Aedh, 

561, 577. 

Laibh, f. of Eugan, 611. 

f. of Fergus, 781. 

s. of Muiredach, 605 ; f. of Bran- 

dubh, 590, 597, 598, 605. 
Echaidh, bp., anchorite, ab. of Tallaght, 
. ob., 812. 
descendants of si. in btl. of Magh- 

Itha, 734. 
f. of Aedh, Oengus and Muiredach, 

839. 

f. of Aedh the Fair, 778. 

f. of Cathal, 791. 

f. of Cellach, 813. 



Echaidh. — cont. 

f. of Cernach, 869. 

f. of Cinaedh, 832. 

f. of Concobar, 1028. 

f. of Congalach, 833. 

f. of Domnall, 804. 

f. of Flannacan, 849. 

f. of Lethlobur, 709. 

f. of Maelgoan, 847. 

f. of Muiredhach, 819, 827. 

(mk.) of Kiltoom, 751. 

s. of, si. in brawl on Pentecost in 

Armagh, 819. 

Cobo, s, of Bresal, si., 733. 

s. of Conall Menn, ab. of Foibran, 

ob., 759. 
s. of Cuchongalt, k. of Ui-Tuirtri, 

ob., 835. 
s. of Cuidine, k. of Saxons, became 

cleric, and put in fetters, 731. 
s. of Cernach, slew Conang in treach- 
ery, 829. 
s. of Colggu, anchorite of Armagh, 

ob., 731. 
s. of Comgan, bp.-mk. of Lynally, 

ended long life, 887. 
s. of Fiachna, won btl. of Drung, 

776 ; (k. U. ) defeated Tomaltach, 789 ; 

defeated by his b. Cairill, 809 ; k. U., 

ob., 810. 

• s. of Fiachra, sage, ob., 759. 

s. of Focartach, ab. of Faughley and 

Iniscloghran, ob., 785. 

s. of Moinach, k. of Moygoish, 753. 

Echt-gal, f. of Maelduin, 822. 

s. of Baeth, ab. of Muccert, 788. 

Echtgus, ab. of Tallaght, ob., 827. 

f. of Bodbchad, 774. 

s. of Baeth, fell in btl. of Galtrim, 

777. 
Echu, f. of Becc Baili, 749. 

gs. of Domnall, sL, 697. 

s. of Ailill, k. of Iveagh, si, in btl., 

801. 
s. of Anluan, k. of Loughgall, ob., 

957. 



140 



INDEX. 



Echu. — cont. 

s. of Cathal, si. in domestic btl, 

between Ui-Cremthainn, 804. 

s. of Cernach, steward of Armagh, 

died prematurely, 796. 

s. of Cernach, k. of Fir-Rois, si. by 

Gentiles, 851. 
Eclipses, Lunar: — 

Nov. 11, 692 [recie 691]. 

at full moon [Nov. 12], 718. 

Dec 15 Irtcte Dec. 24], 725. 

Jan. 22 [recte Jan. 24], 734. 

[Jan. 15], 762. 

Dec. 4, 773. 

Feb. 18 [27], 788. 

[Feb. 26], 807. 

Jan. [15], 865. 

Moon 14, vigil 3 [4.30 a.m.], 

Wed., Oct. 15, 878. 
Dec. 18 [rede 17], 921. 
Moon 14, Thurs., Jan. 10 [Wed., 
Jan. 9], 1023. 

Solar :— 

[Oct. 22], 496. 
[June 29], 512. 
in the morning [Sep. 23, 11 

a.m.], 591. 
in the morning [March 19, 9 

a.m.], 592. 
May 1, 3 p.m., 664. 
689 [July 3], 688. 
[Jan. 9], 753. 

9 a.m., 763 [June 4, 11 a.m. 764]. 
Jan. 1, 865. 

Moon 28, about 1 p.m., [1.30 
p.m.], Wed., Oct. 29, 878. 
[June 16, 10 a.m.], 885. 
Ecned, f. of Cuanu, 778. 
Ecomras, s. of Congal, si., 697. 
Eculp, gf. of Ernaine, 741. 
Ed, hill beside Kells, abandoned to 

Flaith[)ertach, k. of Ailech, 1013. 
Edan-daire (Edenderry, King's co.], cas. 
of, 1427. 

dub-cairgi {Edenduffcarrick : Shane's 

castle, CO. Antrim) 1470;cas. of, 1490, 1535. 



Edairgne, f. of Saerghal, 781. 
Edenderrj', see Edan-daire. 
EdendufFcarrick, see Edan-dub-cairgi. 
Edgar, s. of Edmond, k. of Saxons, ob., 

975. 
Edmond, f. of Edgar, 975. 
Edward I., k. of England, invaded France, 

1297 ; invaded Scotland, 1301, 1303 ; 

ob., 1307. 
II., crowned, 1307 ; at war with earls, 

1322 ; with k. of France, 1326 ; with 

his q. ; deposed by his q. ; ob,, 1327. 
I III., made k. by his mother and 

English, 1327 ; ob., 1377. 
• IV., made k., 1461 ; donative of (48 

yards of scarlet and collar of gold) to 

the O'Neill, 1463. 
s, of Scottish k., Mael-Coluim, si. by 

Franks, 1093. 
Eg (Eigg island, off Inverness), ab. of, 

Oan, 725 ; martyrs of, 617 ; Donnan of, 

burned, 617; religious of, Cummene, 752. 
Eicnech, ab. of Inisheer, ob., 918. 

f. of Congal, 745, 748. 

gs. of Leogan, k. of Lune, si. by 

Mael-Sechlainn, k. L, 993. 
s. of Colgu, k. of Oriors, si. in btl. of 

Allen, 722. 
s. of Dalach, k. of Oriel, and his s., 

Dubdara, si. by his b. , Murchad, 963 ; 

s. of si., 999. 
s. Eistenach, steward of Duleek, 

ob., 781. 
Eicnechan, f. of Concobar, 1017. 

f. of Cuchiche, 1036. 

f. of Muiredach, 956. 

s. of Dalach, k. of Cenell-Conaill, 

ob., 906 ; f. of Flann, 964. 
Eilge, f. of Dubsinna, 907. 
Eilne (in Antrim), burned, 563 ; Dungal 

of, 690. 
Eiluun (Elphin, co. Roscommon ?), conflict 

in, 618. 
Eilpin, k. of Saxons, si., 780. 
Eimhen, s. of Cainnech, f. of Domnall, 

1014. 



INDEX. 



141 



Eimer (w. of Cuchulainn), 1528. 
Eiremhon, s. of Aedh, j.-k. U., si. by 

Eloir, 886. 
Eirennach, s. of Eichen, ab. of Leighlin, 

ob., 774. 
Eiriu (a hill, co. Kildare), 462. 
Eirne, Lakes of, 818. 
Eistenach, f. of Eicnech, 781. 
Eitguine, f. of Congaltach, 813. 
Eithigen, s. of Fingin, ab. of Trevet, 

ended aged life, 911. 
Eitigu, f, of Ruadhacan, 953. 
Eitilbrith = Ethelfrid, q.v. 
Eithilfleith (Ethelfled), most famous q. of 

Saxons, ob., 918. 
Eitirscel, f. of Diarmait, 868. 
Eithne, d. of Aedh [k. of Bregiaj, died in 

true penance at Martinmas, 917. 
d. of Bresal of Bregia, q. of kk. of 

Tara, ob., 768. 
d. of Domnall of Meath, q. of Biami 

High-head, si, 795. 
Eithni, d. of Cinadhu [k. of Scottish 

Picts], ob., 778. 
Eladach, f. of Cormac, 869. 

f. of Fergal, 779. 

gs. of Maeluidhir, si. in btl. of Bally - 

shannon (co. Kildare), 738 ; f. of 

Gormgal, 789. 
Elarius, anchorite and scribe of Mona- 

hincha, ob., 807. 
Elchomach, f. of Soerlaidh, 969. 
Elders of commmiity of Patrick, taken 

with Forindan, ab. of Armagh, 836. 
Election, episcopal, defended at Apostolic 

See, 1261. 
Elend, captivity of, 678. 
Elfwine [Ailmine, MS.], s. of Oswy (k. of 

Northumbria), sL, 680. 
Eli and Eli of 0' Carroll [Eliogaxty and 

Ikerrin barr., co. Tipperary and Bally- 

brit and Clonlisk barr.. King's co.), 

domestic btl. in, 1033 ; burned Cashel, 

1102; invaded, 1432, 1532. 

kings of : — 

Maelruanaidh, 1050. 



Eli — cont. 

O'Carroll, 1451. 
Amergin O'Carroll, 1033. 
Fer-gan-ainm O'Carroll, 1532. 
John O'Carroll, 1489. 
Maelruanaigh O'Carroll, 1532. 
Tadhg O'Carroll, 1400, 1401. 
O'Fogarty, 1072, 1076. 
Domnall O'Fogarty, 1171. 
Maelruanaidh O'Fogarty, 1057. 
Mael-Sechlainn O'Fogarty, 1115. 
Righbardan, 1058. 
Son of Cerball, 1022. 

Men of, 1532 ; slew Domnall O'Quin- 

lan and Caismidhe, steward of Mael- 
Sechnaill (k. I.), 1018 ; slew Tadhg, s. of 
Brian (Boruma), 1023; tanist of , O'Car- 
roll, 1488 ; other references, 573, 1318. 
Ella (Duhallow bar., co. Cork), invaded 

1510. 
Ellbrigh, abbess of Clonbroney, ob., 785. 
Elphin, see Ail-finn and Eiluun. 
Eloir, s. of Ergne (lercne ? q.v.), slew 

Eiremhon, 886. 
Elpin, k. (of Scottish Picts), many of his 
si. in btl. of Moncrieffe ; defeated in 
btl. of Boot-hill (Perth), 728 ; f. of 
Bile, 722. 

(mk.) of Glasnevin, ob., 758. 

Elvin, s, of Corp, captured, 673. 
Emain, bardic name of Bregia, 903. 
Emain-Macha [Navaii fort, near Armagh), 
btl. of ; quatrains respecting, 759 ; 
Muircertach O'Brien marched to, 1103; 
Oriors devastated as far as, 821 ; house 
built at by O'Neill, to entertain the 
learned of I., 1387. 
Emasculating, 1194, 1481, 1490, 1496, 

1503, 1504. 
Embolism, 1128. 
Emeroids, death from, 808. 
Eminent in history, jurisprudence, and 
Order of Patrick, Mael-Isu Ua Conne, 
1126. 
Emlagh, see Imlech-Ua-Rochadha. 
Emly, see Imlech. 



142 



INDEX. 



Emperor of all Europe, Charles [the 
Great], ob., 813. 

of Franks, Floriacus [Ludovicus 

Pius], 840. 

Roman, Constantine, Helena, m. of, 

1492. 

Theodosius jun., 9th year of, 

432; ob., 449 [450]. 
Emperors (of the East) : — 

Constantme, s. of Constantine, 
(gs. of Heraclius) reigned 28 
years, [beginning with] 643. 

s. of Constantine, (great gs, 

of Heraclius), reigned 17 years, 
[beginning with] 673 [671]. 

s. of Heraclius, reigned 6 

months, 642. 
Heraclius, reigned 26 years, 
[beginning with] 613 ; fifth 
year of, 617. 
Heracl[on]as, reigned 2 3-ears 
with his m., Martina, [begin- 
ning with] 639 [640]. 
Justin, declared Justinian, his 
nephew, his successor; ob., 527. 

jun., reigned 11 years, 

[beginning with] 566. 

Justinian, succeeded Justm, his 
uncle, 527. 

jun., s. of Constantine, 

reigned [firstly] 10 years, [to 
his deposition; beginning with] 
690 [688] ; [secondly] six years 
with his s., Tiberius, [begin- 
ning with] 710 [708]. 

Leo [I.], began to reign, 457 ; 

ob., 473 [474]. 
[II-]> s. of Zeno, began [and 

ended] his reign, 473 [474]. 
Marcian, began to reign, 449, or 

452 [450] ; ob., 457. 
Mauricius, reigned 21 years, 

according to Bede and Isidore, 

[beginning with] 584 [585]. 
Phocas, reigned 7 [8] 3'ears, 

[begimiing with] 605 [606]. 



Emperors — CQut. 

Theodosius [Theodorus, MS.], 

reigned 1 year, 720. 
Tiberius Cesar, reigned [firstly] 
7 years, [beginning with] 702 
[701] ; [secondly] 6 years vnth. 
his f., Justinian jun., [begin- 
ning with] 710 [708]. 
Empress, [Henry IL] s. of, failed to sub- 
due Welsh, 1165; came to I., 1171; 
left I., 1172; people of, defeated in 
btl. of Thurles) 1174; ob., 1189. 

Martina, 639. 

Enach (Enagh, N. of Londonderry to\\'Ti), 
pillaged, 1197. 

dathe, monk of, Comman, 769. 

dubh (Annaghduff par., on Leitrira 

side of Lough Bofin), ab. of, Mac-indsair, 
767 ; fleet of Brian (Boruma) and Mael- 
Sechlainn, k. I., at, 1011 ; Soermhugh 
(mk.) of, 792. 

duin (Enaghdune or Annaghdown, 

Clare bar., co. Galway), bishops of : — 
Murchadh 0" Flaherty, 1241. 
O'Mellaigh, 1202. 
Thomas O'Mellaigh, 1250. 
Thomas O'Mellaigh, 1328. 

canon choral of, 1328. 

house of John [the Baptist] at, 1491. 

Enagh, see Enach. 
Enaghdmie, see Enach-duin. 
Encampment : — of Dublin Foreigners at 
Cluainandobuir, 845 ; of Foreigners 
in Dublin, whence territories and 
churches of Leinster and (S.) Ui-Neill 
were pillaged to Slieve Bloom, 841 ; 
of Foreigners on Lough Ree, whence 
they pillaged Connaught and Meath, 
burned Clonmacnoise and its oratories, 
Clonfert, Terry glass, Lorrha and other 
monasteries, 845 ; of Foreigners at 
Annagassan, whence territories and 
churches of Teffia were pillaged, 841 ; 
of Foreigners at mouth of Main r. (co. 
Antrim), 930 ; of Mael-Sechnaill (k. I.) 
in Croboy, 849. 



INDEX. 



143 



Enclosure of centre of Derry by stone 

wall, 1162. 
Encounter at Clonmany, 677. 
Encorach, gs. of Doadan, ab. of Glenda- 

lough, ob., 769. 
Enda (St.), Aran of, 760 ; coarbs of (abbots 

of Aran), Flann O'Hea, 1110 ; Mael- 

Coluim Ua Cormacain, 1114. 
Enemy, of churches, s. of Radhgann, 703. 

of (St.) Comgall, Brodur, 1065. 

England, Angles came to, 464 ; Preachers 

(Dommicans) first came to, 1221 ; k. of, 

Uter Pendragon, ob., 467 ; see under 

Saxon-land and Saxons. 
English, woman learned in, Margaret w. 

of Thomas O'Reilly, 1490. 
Enna Cennsalech [eponymous head of 

Ui-Cennselaigh], s. of Bresal Belach (s. 

of Labraidh, s. of B. B., 605), f. of 

Crimthann, 483; f. of Fedhlimidh, 605. 
Niadh, s. of Bresal Belach, 527 ; f. 

of Dunlang, 495, 527. 

s. of Cathboth, ob., 456. 

s. of Diarmait, k. of Ui-Cennselaigh, 

si. by his sept, 1092 ; f. of Diarmait, 

1098, 1117. 
Ennai, s. of Mac Murchadha, k. L., ob., 

1126. 
Ennisboyne, see Inis-Baitheni. 
Enniskillen, see Inis-Ceithlinn. 
Enshrining of relics of : — Conlaed (of 

Kildare), 800 ; Ronan (of Dromiskin), 

801. 
Ensigns (vexilla), of Patrick taken to 

Connaught, 836. 
Enslavement of Foreigners, 1022. 
Envy, slaying through, 915, 943. 
Eocha, f. of Domnall Brecc, 886. 
s. of Cairpre, won btl. of Granard, 

494. 
s. of Crimthand, f. of Cairpre Daim- 

argit, 514. 
Eochaidh, coarb of Ciannan (ab. of 
Duleek), died after penance, 1098. 

f. of Mael-Muire, 963, 1001, 1006, 

1014 1020. 



Eochaidh. — cont. 
f. of Tadhg, 1028. 

larlaithi, k. of (Irish) Picts, ob., 

666. 

k. of N. Dalaraide, si. by his asso- 
ciates, 824. 
(mk.) of Lismore (Scotland), ob., 635. 

Mughmedhoin, f. of Fiachra, 445. 

467. 

s. of the Abbot, si. by the Ore by 

stratagem, 1030 ; slaying of avenged 
by slaying the slayer, 1038. 

the Tawny, s. of Aedan, k. of Picts, 

ob., 629. 

[eponymous head of O'HaugheysJ 

s. of Ardgar, k. U. hosting by to 
Cenel-Eogain, 989 ; gave pledge to 
Brian and Mael-Sechlainn to keep 
peace with Aedh, k. of Ailech, 1002 ; 
si. in btl. of Crew Mount, 1004 ; f. of 
Cu-duilig and Domnall, 1004 ; f. of 
Niall, 1012, 1016, 1020, 1022, 1031, 
1062, 1063 ; gf. of Eochaidh, 1062 ; of 
Flaithbertach, 1020. 

s. of Blathmac, ob., 660. 

■ s. of Domnall, si., 572. 

s. of Niall, royal-heir of Ulidia, died 

in penance, 1062. 

Eochaill (apparently, on confines of Ar- 
magh and Down cos.), defeat of Oriel 
and O'Rogan at, 1086. 

Eochoccan, s. of Aedh, j.-k. U. , si. by his 
nephews, ss. of Anfith, s. of Aedh, 
883 ; f. of Aedh, 914 ; f. of Muiredach, 
895. 

Eocho, ab. of Armagh, ob., 598. 

s. of Dunadhach, companion of Brian 

(Boruma), fell in btl. of Dublin (Clon- 
tarf), 1014. 

Eochu Lamhdoid, s. of Messincorb, f. of 
Fothach, 495. 

s. of Scannal, herenagh of Emly ob., 

941. 

Eogain, Gilla-epscoip-, 1121. 

Eogan, bp. [of Ardstraw], Cross of, Ar- 
magh, 1166. 



144 



INDEX. 



Eogan. — coiit. 

bp of Rasbec, ob., 618. 

. f. of Conracb, 1102. 

f. of Cormac, 561. 

f. of Domnall, 975. 

gs. of Cadan, coarb of Brenanii (ab. 

of Clonfert), ob., 981. 
and Eiigen, k. C. , si. in btl. of Sligo, 

543, or 547. 

s. of Cellach, lierenagh of Ard- 

braccan, ob., 1003. 

s, of Cleirech, bp of Comiaiight 

[Tuam], ob., 969. 

Srebli, s. of Duacli the Valorous, f. 

of Muiredach, 577. 

s. of Echtigern, coarb of Bute 

(ab. of Monasterboice), ob., 1117. 

s. of Niall (of the Nine Hostages), 

ob., 465 ; f. of Muiredach, 534, 561, 
580 ; blood \i.e. descendant] of, 1517. 
Eoganach (apparently, the part of the 
Lagan r. dividing Monaghan and 
Louth cos ), 1457, 1475, 1476, 1502. 
Eoghanacht of Cashel (branch of race of 
Eoghan Mor, seated near Cashel), 
defeated Gentiles and slew 500, at 
Dun-Maeletuile, 848 ; kings of : — 
Carthach, 1045. 
Donnchad Mac Carthy, 1093. 
Muiredach Mac Carthy, 1092. 
Dungal O'Donoghue, 1057. 
Macraith O'Donoghue, 1042, 
1052. 

massacred by Ossorians, 896. 

of Loch-Lein (a branch of the Cashel 

Eoghanacht settled to the E. of Lower 
Lake of Killarney, Magunihy bar., co. 
Kerry), massacred Foreigners, 917 ; 
kings of : — 

Maelsuthain, 1010. 
Aedh O'Donoghue, 1400. 
Oengus, 1033. 
Scannlan, 1014. 
Eoganan, f. of Congal, 701. 

f. of Cuanda, 677- 

s. of Maeldithraibh, 692. 



Eothail, Strand of (Trawohelly, near 

Ballysadare, co. Sligo), 1367. 
Epiphan}^ frost and snow from to Lent, 

818. 
Episcopal Order, old rule that coarb of 

Patrick was to be in, revived by Cloenad 

synod, 1162. 
Epistle, with Sunday Lawawdi other good 

precepts, came to I. with the pilgrim, 

887. 
Equinox, vernal ( March 25 ?), 915. 
Equonimus = oeconomus, q. v. 
Era, of Diocletian, 532. 
Ere, bp. of Slane, ob., 513; relics of 

carried (to enforce cess or Law), 11Q, 
relics of s. of, brought to Teltown, 

784. 

f. of Flann, 796. 

m. of Muircertach {q.v.). 

Ercadh, (Donnchad, q.v.) s. of 

Erell, Tomrair, 848. 

Ergal, Ford of (probably Augher, co. 

Londonderry), defeat of Fermanagh at ; 

quatrain respecting, 1080. 
Ergne (lercne ? g.?;.), f. of Eloir, 886. 
Eric, f of Torstan, 1103. 
Eric, of Cuculain, 1466. 

raids, 1526. 

slaying, 1430, 1452, 1475, 1513. 

vassal turning against his Lord, 

1452. 
violation of guarantee, 1514, 

right of asylum, 1413. 

Ermadhach, f. of Mael-Patraic, 1096. 
Ernaidhe (Urney, co Tyrone), herenagh 
of, 1178 ; reliquaries of, 1179 ; wasted, 
1179. 
Ernaine, f. of Maelfuataigh, 662. 

f. of Ultan, 662. 

gs. of Eculp., si., 741. 

(founder of Rathnew, co Wicklow, 

and Kildreenagh, co. Carlow) s. of 
Cresen, ob., 635. 

s, of Fiachna, won battle of 

Lethirbhe, 629 ; si., 636. 



I 



INDEX. 



145 



Erne, Lakes of, 759. 

Erne (r. in Fermanagh co.), 1247, 1397 ; 
bridge of (near Belleek) burned, 1522. 

Errigal-Keerogue, see Airecul-Dochiaroic. 

Ertuile, s. of Fergus Goll, si., 719. 

Erudan, f. of Mael-Brighte, 956. 

s. of Gairfidh (Gairbith, 954), chief 

of Ui-Bresail-Macha, si. in foraging 
party of Niall, 914 ; f. of Conn, 954. 

Erudition, head of in all I. , Moenach, ab. 
of Bangor, 921. 

Erulb, gf. of Niall, 949, 958, 964 ; gf. of 
Donnchad, 1014. 

Eruman, s. of Aedh, (f. of Maelmordha) 
914. 

Erumon, gf of Ceithernach, 773. 

Eruption of water, with little black 
fishes, from Glencullen Mountain, 868. 

Escir-abhan (Inishcrone, Tireragh bar., 
CO. Sligo) cas. of, 1512. 

Ess-craibhe (on Bann, s. of Coleraine), 
1197. 

dara (Ballysadare, co. Sligo), 1188, 

1201, 1308 ; monastery of Canons at, 
1230. 

mic-nEirc (Assylyn, near Boyle, co. 

Roscommon), ab. of, Flaithbertach 
O'Flynn, 1210 ; Furse (mk. ) of, 753 ; 
OTlynn of, 1297 ; prior of, Mael-Isu 
O'Flynn, 1223. 

-ruadh {Assaroe, on r. Erne, at 

Ballyshannon), abbacy of disputed, 
1502 ; abbots of :— O'Dwyer, 1519 ; 
Thomas O'Heraghty, 1298; herenagh 
of Durrow drowned in, 973 ; hosting 
by Muircertach O'Brien to, 1100 ; by 
Muircertach and S. of I. past, 1101 ; 
marched past by Brian (Boruma), 1006 ; 
mon. of, 1241, 1333, 1377, 1380, 1388, 
1398, 1488 ; other references, 1167, 
1194, 1212, 1262, 1398, 1420, 1478. 

Establishing Law (of saint in a terri- 
tory), see under Law. 

Etarlindi {hetiveen lakes), in Calathros, 
736. 

Etchen, bp. , ob. , 578, or 584. 



Etfrith = Ecgferth, q.v. 

Etgair, k. of Scotland, ob., 1106. 

Etgal (mk. ) of Skellig, carried off by 

Gentiles and died of hunger and thirst, 

824. 
Ethelbald, k. of Saxons, ob. , 757. 
Ethelfled, see Eithilfleith. 
Ethelfind, f. of Oswy, 671. 
Ethelwald, see Etulb. 
Etigan, f. of Culen, 999. 
Etigh, Mac, 897; 900. 
Etin (Carriden, Linlithgowshire), siege 

of, 637. 
Etir (Benn-: Head[-land] of Etar: Howth 

peninsula), pillaged, and many women 

carried off from, by Gentiles, 821. ^^ee 

also Ben-Edair. 
Etirscel, s. of Aedh, won btl. , 770 ; k. of 

Ui-Cennselaigh, ob., 778. 
s. of Cellach, bp. of Glendalough, 

ob., 814. 
s. of Cellach Cualann, si. in btl. of 

Burren, 725. 
Etroch, f. of Cathalan, 1004. 
Etru, s. of Lobraidh, chief of Manaigh, 

tower of glory of Ulidia, died in 

penance, 1056. 
Etulb (Ethelwald), k. of N. Saxons 

(Northumbrians), ob., 913. 

f. of Etulb, 717. 

s. of Etulb, ob., 717. 

Euchu, gs. of Tuathal, anchorite, bp. -ab. 

of Louth, ob.,822. 
Eudon-mor (apparently in Meath), btl. 

of, 594. 
Eudus, gs. of Dicholl, ab. of Kildare, ob., 

798. 

s. of Tigernach, si. in btl., 822. 

Eufania and Eumania ( — Emain [ -Ma- 

cha], q.v. : Navan fort, near Armagh), 

577, 578. 
Eugan, ab. of Clonmacnoise, ob. , 877. 
of Monasterboice, ab. of Armagh 

and Clonard, ob. , 834. 

f. of Ailill, 908. 

f. of Bran, 730 

K 



146 



INDEX. 



Eugan. — cont. 

s. of Cennfaelad, ab. of Emly, ob. 

890. 

s. of Colman, died of bloody flux, 774. 

s. of Echa Laibh, ob., 611. 

s. of Gabran, ob., 595 ; f. of Duncath, 

621. 
s. of Muiredach, champion ? of I, , 

si. by Offaly, 962. 
s. of Roncenn, ab. of Lismore, ob. , 

776. 
Euganan, s. of Oengus, si. in btl. by 

Gentiles, 839. 
s. of Tothalan, ob., 660 ; f. of Dun- 
chad, 680. 
Eugen, s. of Crunnraael, si. 667. 
Euginis, d. of Donnchad (k. I.), q. of k. 

of Tara, ob., 802. 
Eumania ( = Eufania, g.f.), 578. 
Europe, Augustus of N. W. of, see 

Augustus. 
eminent bp. of W. of, Domnall 

O'Heney (of Cashel), 1098. 
head of clerics of all N. W. of, 

Mael-Muire, 1020. 
sagest of doctors of, Diarraait of 

Armagh, 852. 
emperor of all, Charles [the Great], 

813. 
most learned of the Latinists of all, 

Dubtach, 869 
chief lector of W. of, Mughron Ua 

Morghair, 1102. 
head of piety and learning of, Cor- 

cran the Cleric, 1040. 

war in W. of, 1522. 

Eusebius, end of Chronicle of, 610. 
Eustace, Roland, s. of Sir Edward, 

founder of KilcuUen mon., ob., 1496. 
d. of Roland, s. of Sir Edward, w. 

of earl of Kildare, ob. , 1495. 
Eutighern, bp., si. by priest in Kildare 

oratory, 762. 
Eve of New Year, sky ablaze on, 890. 
Event of rare occurrence; pillaging of Old 

Kilcullen, 939. 



Events, numerous, not chronicled, 1041. 

Exactor, tribute collector, 729. 

Executions, Cross of, Derry, 1197. 

Exhortation of Irish laics and clerics to 
piety by Cellach, coarb of Patrick, 1126. 

Exile, going into, 817, 849. 

Exodus, XV. 5, 7, 10, applied to those 
who raided Bellisle (Shanad), 1492. 

Expedition of : — Congalach into Con- 
naught, 955. 

Foreigners on Lough Neagh, 839. 

futile of Saxons and Dublin Foreig- 
ners against Britons (Welsh), 1165. 

Expulsion of : — Britons (Welsh) from 
their land by Saxons ; held in subjec- 
tion in Anglesey, 865. 

Dublin Foreigners, 1170. 

Gentiles from I. , ». e. from Dublin 

fort, by Mael-Finnia, k. of Bregia and 
Cerball, k. L., 902. 

lona community, 717. 

Diarmait Mac Murrough over sea, 

1166. 

Donnchad O'Melaghlin from king- 
ship of Westmeath, 1105. 

Murchadh O'Melaghlin from king- 
ship of Meath, 1125. 

O'Conors from Connaught, 1093. 

Saxons from Limerick, 1176. 

Sitriuc from Dublin, 994. 

(Extreme) Unction, see Unction (Ex- 
treme). 



F. 



Faball (a stream in Kilbride par., Clankee 

bar. , CO. Cavan), Seeoran lake went into, 

1054. 
Fabre, f. of Ferfio, 762. 
Fachtna, coarb of Finnian (ab.) of Clonard, 

ob., 1008. 
s. of Maelduin (k. of Ailech), royal 

heir of N. of I., slain in btl. of Killi- 

neer, 868. 
Faction fight, 1527. 



INDEX. 



147 



Faelan, f. of Artri, 794. 

f. of Bran, 835, 838. 

f . of Cerball, 1039. 

f. of Colman, 751. 

f. of Domnall, 1014. 

f. of Lorcan, 943. 

f . of Ruaidhri, 782, 785. 

f . of Tadhg, 922. 

gf. of Airectach, 794. 

gf . of Dubhduin, 718. 

gf . of Maelcoba, 859. 

gs. of Silne, ob., 711. 

k. L. ob., 966. 

(mk.) of Martry, ob., 722. 

s. of Buata, si. by Mael-Sechlainn, 

1051. 

s. of Cellach, ab. of Kildare, ob., 804. 

s. of Colman, won btl. of Bolg- 

luatha, 628. 
s. of Cormac, k. of Munster Decies, 

ob.,966. 
s. of Forbasach, si. in domestic btl. 

in Ossory, 786 ; defeated his uncle, 

Congal, 727. 
younger s. of Murchad, won btl. of 

Allen against his elder b., Dunchad, 

and became k. L., 728. 

gs. of Bran, diedat untimely age, 738. 

Faelbe, b. of Fiangalach, s. of Dunlaing, 

slaying of, cause of btl., 800. 
s. of Guaire, ab. of Applecross, 

drowned with 22 of his sailors, 737. 
Faelchar, ga. of Maelodar (k. of Ossory), 

si. in btl., 693 ; f. of Cellach, 735, 769. 
Faelchu, gf. of Tuathal, 718. 

(mk.) of Finglas, ob., 763. 

3. of Dorbene, became ab. of lona, 

716 ;ob., 724. 
Faeldobhor (mk.) of Clogher, ob., 702. 
Faeldobur the Little, sage (mk.) of Fore, 

ob., 731. 
Faelgus, ab. of Killeigh, ob., 808. 

ab. of Roscrea, ob., 859. 

f. of Colum, 788. 

s. of Tnuthgal, sage, of Clonard, 

ob., 783. 



Faethgi-mic-Meccnaen {plain of son of 

Macnaen : Lough -Sewdy, Westmeath), 

604. 
Fahan, see Fathan. 
Faichte-Ciarain {Faheeran, Kilcumreagh 

par., Kilcoursey bar.. King's co.), 

defeat of, 1483. 
Failbhe, ab. of lona, sailed to I., 673 ; 

returned from L, 676. ob., 679; 14th 

year after his obit = 692. 
the Little, ab. of Clonmacnoise, ob., 

713. 

f. of Conamail, 710. 

f. of Tadhgg, 695. 

gs. of Aedan, si., 629. 

Flann, won btl. of Carn-Feradhaigh, 

627 ; k. M., ob., 637 ; f. of Colggu, 

678. 
Failghi Berraide, won btl. of Frum Hill, 

510 ; lost btl. of Druim-derge, 516, or 

517. 
Failure of bread (in I.), 765, 825. 
Fainche(St.), church of, Rossory, founded, 

1084. 
Faindelach, outraged (by expulsion from 

abbacy of Armagh) by Gormghal ; 

brought back, 793. 
Fair Nuts, year of, 1097. 
Faith, opposed by Henry VIII., 1533. 
Fal, bardic name of I., 915. 
Falcons, ordnance, 1532. 
Fallach, f . of Foidmenn, 752. 
Fallomon, routed by Cathal at (Assembly 

of) Hill of Ward, 733; aided Donn- 

chad, s. of Domnall, (k. I.) in btl. of 

Cam, 765. 

s. of Fogertach, si. by his b., 825. 

False peace, 1120. 

Familia, monastic community, see Com- 
munity. 
Famine (in I.), 670 ; 700 (for three years), 

760, 764, 769, great in I.; 825, 1270, 

1492, great in I., so that f. sold s. and 

d. for food, 965, destructive, 1262 in 

all I., 1497. 
Famine-pestilence, see Pestilence, famine- . 

k2 



148 



INDEX. 



Fanad, and Fanat {Fanad, Kilmacrenan 
bar., CO. Donegal), burned, 1462 ; chief 
of, O'Breslin, 1251, 1261; chief of, 
O'Donnell, 1281 ; Fergus of, 705, 710 ; 
MacSweeneysof,1400, 1435, 1456, 1472, 
1497, 1513, 1515, 1518; pillaged, 1158, 
1232, 1497. 
Farannan, ancestor of David andGuaire, 

551. 
Farmer, see Mac Sgoloigi. 
Farragh, see Forach. 

Fathadh, oft/ie Canon [ = Fot\md, (mk.) of 

Fahan, q.v], decided that clergy of 

Ireland should be exempt from taking 

part in war [hence called F. of the 

Canonl 804. 

Fathan, Fathan of [St. Muru], Fothan and 

Othan (i^a^aji, CO. Donegal) abbots of : — 

Lergal, 852. 

Cucarrce 0' Kelly (coarb of 

Muru), 1074. 
Mael-Martain O'Kellj^ (coarb of 

Muru of [F]othan), 1098. 
Robartach, 762. 

burned and profaned by Muircer- 

tach O'Brien and S. of I., 1101 ; Fothud 
(mk.) of, 819 ; herenaghs of : — Fergal 
O'Lynam, 1070, RuaidhriO'Toner, 1119. 
Father, sold s. and d., for food in I., 964. 
FaughalstoAvn,) 
Faughley, [ ''' F^^hlaidh. 

Favour of church and Patrick, Donn- 

chadh O'Carroll, rescued by, 1155. 
Fear, great, on Men of I. before feast of 
John (the Baptist, Aug. 29), 1096 ; at 
Michaelmas, 772, 799. 
Fears, throughout Ireland, 826. 
Feartagh, see Ferta-nime. 
Feast of : — 

Adamnan, (Sep. 23), 1105. 
Becan, s. of Cula (Ap. 5), 1119. 
Berach (Feb. 15), 1441, 1447. 
Brenann [May 16, or Nov. 29], 

1452. 
Ciaran of Seirkieran, Mar. 5, 
1088. 



Feast of. — conf. 

Dagan, see Dagan of Eneriley. 
Fursa, Jan. 16, 1086. 
Gregory, see Gregor}^, feast of. 
3 Innocent Children (Dec. 15), 

1119. 
James, July 14, 1086. 
John, see Fear, great. 
Lasrian, Aug. 12, 1105. 
Michael, see Fear, great. 
Mochuaroc of the Wisdom, Feb. 

9, 1121. 
Molaisse (Sep. 12), 1538. 
Febla, and Feblae, Flann, 715, 740. 
Febordaith, ab. of Dulane, si., 786. 
Feb. 1, year reckoned from before, 848. 
Fechtach, ab. of Fore, ob., 781. 
Fechtnach, ab. of Glendalough, ob., 875. 

f. of Maeltuile, 885. 

Fedaro, see Fidh-Dorudha. 
Fedha ( TFoods .• Fews, Athlone bar., co. 
Roscommon), 1329. 

{Fews barr., co. Armagh), 1078, 

1452, 1482. 
Fedhach, ab. of Castledermot, ob., 876. 

ab. of Slane, ob., 937. 

f. of Colgu, 843. 

f. of Conghal, 868. 

s. of Cormac, ab. of Louth, Slane, 

and Duleek, ob., 789. 
Fedelmith, s. of Tigernach, k. M., ob., 

590. 

Feichen, f. of Coirpre, 601. 

Feichin, founder of Fore, died of plagiie, 

665, or 668 : coarb of (ab. of Ballysadare), 

993, 1230 ; coarb of (ab. of Fore), 932, 

956, 981, 1001, 1011, 1014, 1015, 1117. 

Feidelmidh, s. of Fergus, (k. U. ?) ob., 

701. 
Feidilmidh the Fair, ab. of Armagh, ob., 
578. 

ab. of Kilmoone Patrician steward 

of Bregia, anchorite and scribe, ob., 814. 

f. of Ailill, 761. 

Feidhlim[idh], s. of Enna Cennsalach, f. 
of Aedh, 605. 



INDEX. 



149 



Feidhlimidh, became ab. of lona, 722. 

(mk.) of Kilmore, bp., ob., 842. 

s. of Aeiigus, f. of Crimthann, 662. 

s. of Cremthan, became k. of 

Cashel, 820 ; (k. M.) promulgated Law 
of Patrick over Munster ; burned 
Gallen, 823 ; with Army of Munster 
burned Garrycastle bar., King's co., 
826 ; conferred with Concobar (k. I.) 
at Birr, 827 ; burned Fore ; defeated 
S. Ui-Briuin, 830 ; went, with host of 
M. and L., to Fennor to plunder 
Bregia, 831 ; slew community of Clon- 
macnoise and burned termons of Clon- 
macnoise and Durrow to church doors, 
833 ; captured Forindan, ab. of Armagh, 
and elders of community of Patrick in 
Kildare oratory, 836 ; pillaged race of 
Coirpre Crom, 837; conferred with 
Niall (k. I.) at Cloncurry, 838 ; ravaged 
Meath and Bregia, and got hostages of 
Connaught in one day ; quatrain rela- 
tive thereto, 840 ; occupied Tara ; 
hosting by to Carman ; quatrain re- 
specting his flight before Niall (k. I.) 
on the occasion, 841; k. M., best of 
Scoti, scribe and anchorite, ob., 847. 

s. of Flann of Monasterboice, most 

worthy soldier of Christ, ob., 1104. 

Feille (of the hospitality), Dungal, 746. 

Feirgil, s. of Tadhg, scribe of Lusk, ob, , 
800. 

Felcmaire, s. of Comgall, ob., 755. 

Felix [II.], made Pope, 481 [483], 

[III.] ob., 528, or 533 [530]. 

Fella (a district W. of Lough- Ree), de- 
feated Delvin, 822. 

Femhin [Magh- : — a plain of Iflia and Offa 
bar., CO. Tipperary), btls. of, 446, 573 ; 
quatrain respecting slaying of Ainraire 
(k. I.) in, 576 ; other references, 627, 
637, 764, 917, 1121. 

Fennor, see Findubar-abae. 

Feradhach, f. of Murchadh, 795. 

f of Tuathal, 832, 850. 

s. of Congal, si, 687. 



Feradhach — cont. 

s. of Cormac, ab. of lona, ob., 880. 

s. of Duach, k. of Ossory, ob., 583, 

or 584. 

s. of Maeldoith, si. in Crannach, 697. 

s.of Maelduin, k.ofCenel-Loeghaire, 

si., 704 ; f. of Conall, 709 ; f. of Mael- 
duin, 728 ; 2 ss. of sL, 712. 

s. of Muiredach, f. of Fiachna, 628. 

— — the Fat, s. of Nechtlecc, ob., 690. 
s. of íácaimal, scribe, priest, ab. of 

Aghaboe, ob., 813. 

s. of Segene, ab. of Rathlin, ob., 799. 

s. of Selbach, manacled by Oengus, 

736. 

s. of Tuathalan, ob., 689. 

Ferble, s. of Nargua, sage, ob., 753. 
Ferchair, ab. of Bangor, ob., 881. 
Ferchar, f. of Flann, 869. 

f. of Tipraiti, 786, 795. 

the Tall (k. of Scottish Dalriata), 

ob., 697 ; f. of Ainfcellach, 698 ; f. of 

Selbach, 730 ; ss. of, 719 ; Tomnat, w. 

of, 695. 
s. of Connadh Cerr (k. of Scottish 

Dalriata), ob., 694. 
s. of Muiredhach, ab. of Dunleer, 

ob., 850. 
Fer-da-crich [man of two districts), ab. of 

Molana, ob., 747. 

f. of Crunmael, 797. 

s. of Congalach, ob., 722. 

s. of Suibne, ab. of Armagh, ob., 

768. 
Ferdalach, bp. of Clonmacnoise, ob., 922, 
herenagh of Rathlin, si. by Gentiles, 

975. 
Ferdamal, s. of Cennfaelad, ob., 759. 
Ferdomnach, ab. of Clonmacnoise, ob., 

872. 

bp. of Kildare, ob., 1101. 

coarb ofCiaran(ab. of Clonmacnoise), 

ob., 952. 

coarb (ab.) of Kelis, ob., 1008. 

f. of Conaing, 846. 

f. of Kobartach, 1057. 



150 



INDEX. 



Ferdomnach. — cont. 

the Blind, lector of Kildare, master 

of harping, ob,, 1110. 

(mk.) of Tuam, ob., 782. 

sage and scribe of Armagh, ob. , 846. 

scribe of Armagh, ob., 732. 

s. of Flannacan, ab. of Clonard, best 

scribe, ob., 932. 
Ferfio, s. of Fabre, sage, ab. of Conry, 

ob.,762. 
Ferfughaill, bp. of Clondalkin, ob., 789. 
Ferghail, of Island of Loch-Cre, senior 

and select monk, ob. , 1119. 
Fergal of Aidhne (k. C), ob., 696. 

f. of Cormac, 790. 

f. of Niall, gf. of Gormgal, 814. 

f. of Scannal, 886. 

gs. of Ruarc, hostages of taken by 

Domnall, k. of Ailech, 965 ; si. by 

Domnall, 966. 
gs. of Conang, si. in btl. of Kells, 

718. 

s. of Anmcadh, k. of Ossory, ob., 802. 

f. of Dungal, 842. 

s. of Cathrannach, k. of Loughrea, 

ob., 825. 
s. of Conaing, k. of Ailech, slew 

Laidgnen, k. of Farney, 988 ; ob., 1001 ; 

f. of Domnall, 1014 ; f. of Gilla-Patraic, 

1012, f. of Niall, 1015 ; gf. of Aedh, 

1051, 1054 ; gf. of Flaithbertach, 1068 ; 

s. of Domnall, ob., 658. 

s. of Domnall, k. of N. of I. (Ailech), 

broke Foreign ship, and slew crew, 

921 ; defeated Muircertach and Conaing, 

933 ; k. of Ailech, ob., 938 ; f. of Niall, 

940. 
s. of Domnall, royal-heir of Ailech, 

si. by Cenel-Eogain, 1017. 
s. of Eladach, k. of Desmond, si. in 

domestic btl., 779. 
s. of Loingsech, slew Indrechtach, 

707. 
s. of Maelduin, slew Indrechtach, 

707 ; began reign (as k. I.), 710 ; 

slew ConaU Grant, 718 ; wasted and 



Fergal. — cont. 

exacted cow-tribute and hostages from 

Leinster, 721 ; si. in btl. of Allen, 722 ; 

f. of Aedh Allain, 732, 733, 734, 743 ; f . 

of Murchadh, 741; f. of Niall the 

Showery [Frossach], 764, 778, 797. 
s. of Oengus, si. in raiding party of 

Niall (royal-heir of L), 914. 
Fergil, ab. of Aghaboe, ob. , 789. 
bp. of Fennor, ab. of Inan, ended 

long life, 907. 
(mk.) of Kilmore (co. Armagh), ob., 

770. 
s. of Cumsad, ab. of Dunshaughlin, 

murdered secretly, 879. 
Fergna, ab. of lona, ob., 623. 

s. of Caiblein, ob., 582, or 583. 

or Fiacha, gs. of Ibdach, k. U., ob., 

557. 
Fergraidh, k. of Cashel, si. by his sept., 

961. 
Fergus, bp. of Downpatrick, ob. , 584, or 

590. 

bp. of Duleek, ob., 783. 

f . of Ailill, 800. 

f. of Cathub, 555. 

f. of Cathusach, 897. 

f. of Cathusach, 972. 

f. of Cernach, 805. 

f. of Congalach, 819. 

f. of Custantin, 820. 

Tuile, f. of Dichuil, 632. 

f. of Dubinnrecht, 781. 

Goll, f. of Ertuile, 719. 

f. of Maelduin, 641. 

f. of Maelduin, 785. 

Forcraith, si. 793 ; f. of Muiredach, 

702, 743 ; f. of Muirgis, 737 ; gf. of 

Dungal, 776. 

f. of Muiredach, 960, 966. 

f, of Niall, 824. 

f. of Oengus, 736, 741, 761, 834 ; f. 

of Talorgan, 736, 750. 

f. of Rigan, 846. 

bp. of Downpatrick, founder of Cell- 

Bien, ob., 584. 



INDEX. 



151 



Fergus. — coiit. 

gf. of Cudinaisc, 750. 

Glutt, k. of Cobba, killed by spells, 

739. 

(mk.) of Magh-Duma, ob,, 780. 

(mk.) of Maghera, ab. of Finglas, 

ob., 817. 

s. of, k. of Ui-Briuin, ob., 796. 

s. of Aedan, k. U., ob., 692 ; f. of 

Feidelmidh, 701. 
s. of Ailghal, won btl. of Ard-abla , 

791 ; s. of Algal, si. in btl. of Fennor, 

799. 

s. of Baetan, f . of Maelduin, 620. 

s, of Bodhbcadh, k. of Carrigabracky, 

si. by Munstermen, 835. 

s. of Cathal, bp., ob., 770. 

s.of Cellach, (k. C), established i^ai^ 

of Ciaran and Law of Brendan, 744 ; 

escaped from btl., 746 ; slaughtered 

Ui-Briuin, 746 ; s. of Cellach, or of 

Fothadh Red-spear, k. C, ob., 756. 

s. of Cernach, f. of Maelduin, 781. 

s. of Colman the Big, si., 618. 

the Wise, s. of Colman Cutlach, ob., 

744. 
Wry-mouth, s. of Conall Crimthainn, 

won btl. of Ocha, 483 ; f . of Diarmait 

the Ruddy, k. I., 545, 555, 600, 604, 

643, 664, 763, 862. 

s. of Conghal, ob., 757. 

s. of Crimthainn, sL, 738. 

Long-head, s. of Conall Gulban, f. 

of Duach, 586 ; f. of Sedna, 549, 586, 

710. 

s. of Conall Oircnech, ob., 732. 

s. of Crunnmael, ob., 671. 

of Fanat, s. of Domnall, si., 654 ; f. 

of Congal of Kennaweer, k. I., 705, 

707, 710, 731, 732, 733. 
s. of Duligu, k. of Lurg, si. by 

Brefnians, 926. 
s. of Echa, k. of (Irish) Dalriata, 

ob., 781. 
s.of Fogartach, k. of S. Bregia, ob., 

751. 



Fergus. — cont. 

s. of Fothach, k. C, ob., 843. 

s. of Muircertach Mac Erca, won 

btl. of Sligo, 543, or 547 ; won btl. of 
Cuil-Conaire, 550 ; won btl. of Cuil- 
dreimne, 561 ; won btl. of Moin-daire- 
lothair, 563; became j.-k. I., 565; won 
btl. of Gabair-Liphe, 565, or 566. 

s. of Maelduin, k. of Cenel-Coirpri, 

sL, 683. 

s. of Maelmithil, steward of Clon- 

macnoise, ob., 894. 

s. of Moenach, lord of Forth (barr.), 

si. in btl. of Ballyshannon, co. Kildare, 
738. 

s. of Muccid, ob. , 668. 

s. of Muiredach the Bald, f. of 

Eocha Dry-flesh, 577. 

s. of Nellen, slew Ainmire, k. I., 

570, or 576 ; si., 577. 

s. of Ostech, si. in btl, of Dam-derar, 

743. 

s. of Rogaillnech, si., 654. 

Fergussan, s. of Maelcu, ob., 703. 
Feria^ festival, 756, 782. 
Ferith, s. of Totholan, ob., 653. 
Fermanagh, see Fir-Manach. 
Fermoy, see Fir-Maighe-Feine. 
Fern-magh {Farney bar., co. Monaghan), 
btl. of, 698, 730 ; Conailli of, 851 ; 
foray into by Cernachan, k. of Lune, 
1002 ; invaded, 1475. 

kings of : — 

Cathalan, 1025, 1027. 

Cu-Midhe, 1079. 

Donnacan, 882. 

Domichad, gs. of Donnacan, 

1029. 
Laidgnen, 988. 
Macleighinn, 1002. 
Mathgamain, s. of Laidgnen, 

1022. 
Murchadh, 887. 
Aedh O'Boylan, 1093. 
O'Carroll, 1043. 
Cu-Caisil O'Carroll, 1123. 



152 



INDEX. 



Fern-magh. — cont. 

Muircertach O'Carroll (k. of S. 
Farney), 1125. 

Donn O'Lawler, 1080. 

Flaithbertach O'Lynam, 1049, 
1119. 

Ruaidhri, 1030. 

Lochlann Ua Duibhdara, 1097. 

Eochaidh Ua Merligh, 1080. 

Men of : — slew k. of Iveagh, 1019 ; 

vainly opposed Flaithbertach, s. of 
Aedh, 1021 ; slew lector of Armagh, 
1042 ; slew k. of Tnllyhog and k. of Ui- 
Bresail, 1054 ; defeated Ui-Cremthainn 
on Fews, 1078 ; slew Mac Ingeirrce, 
k. of Loiith, 1081 ; paid for military 
service by Domnall O'Loughlin, 1083 ; 
slew Amalgaidh O'Rogan, 1086 ; slew 
Concobar O'Haughey, royal-heir of 
Ulidia, 1107 ; massacred Ui-Bresail 
and defeated Iveagh ; some of fell bj^ 
Ui-Bresail and Iveagh, 1109 ; defeated 
Tir-Briuin and Tigernan O'Rourke at 
Ardee, 1128 ; defeated at Dublin, 1171. 

nobles and many others of si., 1089 ; 

pillaged, 949, 1101, 1471, 1506. 
royal heirs of : — 

O'Donogan, 1113. 

Ruaidhri, 1062. 

UaCricain, 1113. 

other references, 1496, 1540. 

Ferna and Ferna-mor (Ferns, co. Wex- 
ford), abbots of : — 

Airechtach, 742. 

Bresal, 749. 

Cathal, 783. 

Cilleni, 817. 

Duchua, 654, 

Dubinnrecht, 781. 

Fiannachtach, 799. 

Lachtnan, 875. 

Lachtnan, 905. 

Reothaide, 763. 

Tuenog, 663. 

bp.-ab. of, Cilleni, 715; vice-ab. of, 

Cathal, 819. 



Ferna. — cont. 

btl. of, 769, 783. 

bishops of : — 

Coman, 678. 

Conaing (coarb of Moedoc), 977. 

Dirath, 693. 

Cellach O'Colman, 1117. 

Cairpre 0' Kearney, 1095. 

Ailbin O'Molloy, 1223. 

burned by Gentiles, 839 ; burned 

by Donnchad, s. of Brian (Boruma) ; 
Killeshin burned in retaliation, 1042 ; 
family of fought family of Taghmon, 
817 ; herenaghs of :— Finachta, 958 ; 
Cairpri O'Lynam, 1043 ; Maedhocc 
[Moedhocc] (founder) of, 626 ; oratory 
of, 1003 ; pillaged, by gentiles, 835 ; 
steward of, Fiannachtach, 783. 

Fernach-na-mebhla (in Tyrone), 1167. 

Fernbeand, si. in btl. of Inis, 938. 

Ferns, see Ferna. 

Feroth, s. of Finguine, " exactor " of Nec- 
tan, si. in btl. of Monith-carno, 729. 

Ferrard,.seeArd-Ciam)achta a/id Fir- Arda- 
Ciannachta. 

Ferrdalach, steward of Armagh, ob., 838. 

Ferry of Cluain-in-tshnaigh, or of the 
lime-kiln (on E. bank of Finn, opposite 
Lifford), 1462. 

of Rock ; (of Lough Key : Rocking- 
ham), cas. of, 1235. 

Fersad-Suilidhe (narrowest part between 
Loughs S willy and Foyle : from London- 
derry to opposite Inch Island), defeat of 
Cenel-Conaill in, 1098. 

Fert-Beodain (Grave of Beodan), over 
Dowth, cave of searched by Foreigners, 
863. 

Cerpain (near Tara), 504. 

Ferta-nime (Feartagh, Meath), fruitless 
hosting of Brian (Boruma) to, 1000. 

Fertais (Belfast), btl., of 668. See Bel- 
feirsdi. 

Fertas-Camsa ( i^'orrf o/Cam?(6' .• near Camus 
Macosquin, Colerainebar., co. London- 
den-y), passed by Brian (Boruma), 1006. 



INDEX. 



153 



Fertas. — cont. 

Rughraighe (Pass between Dun- 

dum Bays), 924. 

Fethgna, was with Diarmait at Armagh 
royal conference, 851 ; coarb of Patrick, 
at Rahue conference, 859 ; bp., coarb 
of Patrick, religious head of all I., ob., 
874 ; Mochta, pupil of (in monastic 
life), 893. 

Fetter-oz. (personal ransom-price), 1029. 

Fettering of Domnall the Fat by Torlogh 
O'Brien, 1077. 

Fews, see Fedha. 

Fiacha, alias of Fergna (gs. of Ibdach), q.v. 

f. of Ernaine, 636. 

f. of Illann, 625. 

Baicceda, s. of Cathair Mor, f. of 

Bresal Belach, 483, 605. 

3. of Niall, lost btl. of Frum Hill, 

510 ; won btl. of Druim-derge, 516, 517. 

Fiachna, gs. of Macniadh, ab. of Clonfert 
(co. Galway), ob., 752. 

s. of Aedh Ron, k, U., whale cast 

ashore in his time, 753 ; won btl. of 
Navan fort, 759 ; had (abortive) meet- 
ing with Donnchad (k. I.), 784 ; ob., 
789 ; f. of Cairill, 809, 819 ; f. of 
Echaidh, 776, 809, 810, 819 ; f. of 
Loingsech, 800. 

s. of Anfith, k. U., si. by his asso- 
ciates, 886 ; gf. of Dubdarach, 991 ; gf. 
of Lethlabar, 979. 

and Fiachna Lurgan, s. of Baetan, 

k. of Dalaraide, won btl. of Eudon-mor, 
594 ; won btl. of Sliabh-Cua, 597 ; won 
btl. of Cul-coil, 602 ; destroyed Rath- 
Guali, 623 ; si., 626 ; f. of Mongan, 625. 

s, of Deman, defeated, 602 ; won 

btl. of Lethet-Midind, 626; sL, 627 ; f. 
of Maelcobha, 647. 

s. of Feradach, f . of Ernaine, 629 ; f. 

of Suibne Menn, 628. 

s. of Mael-Bresail, ab. of Fennor, 

ob., 845. 

Fiachra, f. of Aedan, 563. 

f. of Becc, 646. 



Fiachra. — cont. 

f. of Cathal, 810. 

f. of Echaidh, 759. 

f. of Fingin, 619. 

herenagh of lona, ob., 978. 

(mk. ) of Granard, ob., 770. 

(mk.) of Martry, ob., 755. 

s. of Ailene, k. of Cremorne, sL, 750. 

— : — Blind-eye, s. of Baetan, won btl. of 

Tola and Fortola, 573 ; si. 608. 
s. of Cathal, fell in btl. of Liac-find, 

786 ; f. of Flathgus, 767. 
s. of Cathalan, k. of Coill-FoUam- 

hain, ob., 921. 
s. of Cellach Cualann, si. in btl. of 

Selga, 709. 
s. of Cellachan, si. in raiding party 

of Niall, s. of Aedh, 914. 

s. of Ciaran, ob., 620. 

Lon, s. of [Coelbad] k. of Dalaraide, 

won btl. of Ocha, 483. 

s. of Conall, ob., 618. 

s. of Dungal, si. by (Irish) Picts, 710. 

— — s. of Eochaidh Muidhemhoin, f. of 

Dathi, 467. 
s. of Fothad, ab. of Baslick, ob., 

764. 
s. of Tuathal, k. of Ui-Teig, ob., 

804. 

Telnan, ob., 658. 

Fiadh-Mic-Oengusa(inWestmeath), synod 

at, 1111. 
Fiag, s. of Deagh-duirn, f. of Crimthann, 

514. 
Fiamber, alias of Findubar, q.v. 
Fiangalach, s. of Anmchadh, ab. of Lough- 

Ree, Inishbofin, ob., 755. 
s. of Dunlang, [k. of Cenel-Ardgail] 

si. in btl., 800 ; f. of Tuathal, 837. 

s. of Murchadh, k. of Imail, ob., 737. 

Fiangus, f. of Aedh, 874. 

Fiannachtach, [mk. : perhaps = F., the 

steward], of Ferns, ob., 799. 
steward of Ferns, fought btl. with 

ab. of Ferns, 783. 
Fianamail, f . of Cormac, 891. 



154 



INDEX. 



Fiannamhal, f. of Crunnmhael, 839. 
Fiannamail, s. of Cellach Cualann, si. in 

btl. of Selga, 709 ; f. of Conall and 

Indrechtach, 741. 
gs.of Boghaine, ab.of Inishmacsaint, 

si., 718. 
s. of Gerthinne, ab. of Clonard, ob., 

736. 

s. of Maeltuile, k. L., sL, 680. 

s. of Mennach, ob., 696. 

s. of Ossene, ob., 699. 

Fidh-in-atha {Finea, Fore bar., between 

Loughs Sheelin and Kinale, West- 

meath), defeat of O'Rourke at, 1330. 
-Dorudha (Fedaro, Mohill bar., co. 

Leitrim), 1345. 

eoin, btl. of, 629. 

-Ua-Echach (in Tyrone), Miiircertach 

O'Loughlin, si. at, 1166. 
Fidhbadh, (in S. part of Upr. Toome bar., 

CO. Antrim), 1470. 
Fidbadach, ab. of Bangor, ob., 767. 

(mk.) of Kildalkey, ob., 758. 

Fidlican, gf. Lerghus, 787. 
Fidhgal, f. of Conall, 787. 
Fidmhuine, Ua Suanaigh, anchorite of 

Rahen, ob., 757. 
Fidhnacha (Fenagh, co. Leitrim), btl. of, 

615, 1094 ; burned, 1360 ; abbots 

of : — O'Rogan (coarb of Caillin), 1377 ; 

Robert O'Rogan (coarb of Caillin), 

1428 ; coarb of, ob., 1447 ; coarb of, 

O'Rogan, 1532. 
Fiery arrow throughout Leinster from 

S.-W. to Dublin, killing 100,000, men 

and beasts, 961. 
Fifth (province): — Connaught, 1121, 

1131, 1161, 1172, 1229, 1316, 1368, 

1369, 1378. 

Leinster, 1097, 1103, 1156. 

(par excellence) Ulidia, 873, 914, 

924, 933, 972, 1062, 1067, 1096, 1101, 

1358, 1364, 1368, 1370, 1383, 1392, 1410, 

1413, 1419, 1240, 1422, 1425, 1430, 1432, 

1434, 1450, 1452, 1470, 1478, 1500, 

1517, 1519, 1521, 1524. 



Fifth.— cont. 

of Concobar (s. of Ness : bardic 

name of Ulidia), 839, 851, 919. 

of Medhbh (Connaught), 1532. 

Fight, faction-, 1527. 

Fighting of btl. of Crew Mount extended 
to Duneight and Drumbo, 1004. 

Finachta, s. of Lachtna, herenagh of 
Ferns, 958. 

Final year, see Year, final. 

Finan, ab. of Clones, ob., 778. 

bp.-anchorite of Clonkeen, ob., 862. 

gf. of Conaing, 976. 

s. of Airennan, ob., 676. 

Finbil, abbess of Clonbroney, ob,, 809. 

Finchar, best scribe, bp. of Duleek, ob., 920 

Finchu, ab. of Lismore, ob., 757. 

Findubar-abae {Fennor, Westmeath), ab- 
bots of : — 

Fiachna, 845. 
Maelfothartaigh, 809. 
Tigernach, 838. 

btl. of, 719, 799, 824; bp. of, Fergil, 

907 ; Feidhlimidh (k. M.) came to, to 
pillage Bregia, 831 ; pillaged by CJ en- 
tiles, 834 ; 'pillaged, priest si. on floor 
of church of, by hosting of Donnchad, 
k. I., 939 ; steward of, Maelumai, 829 ; 
ab. of Downpatrick taken forcibly (from 
church of) and blinded in, 1010; located 
in Teffia, 799. 

Fine, abbess of Kildare, ob. , 805. 

Flann, 733. 

Fine-Gall {district of Foreigners ; Fingal : 
the coast part of Dublin, from city to r. 
Delvin), Foreigners of, 1025; raided and 
wasted by Domnall O'Loughlin, 1 100 ; 
raided and many captives and cattle 
taken from by said Domnall, 1112. 

Finea, see Fidh-in-atha. 

Fingal, (mk. ) of Lismore, ob., 746. 

Fingal, see Fine-Gall. 

Fingin, f. of Eithigen, 911. 

f. of Locheni, 645. 

f. of Scannlan, 674, 675. 

s. of Aedh theBlack,f.ofMaenach,662. 



INDEX. 



156 



Fíngin. — cont. 

s. of Fiachra, ob., 619. 

Finglas, see Finn-glais. 
Finn {Fair), Caittel, 857. 

Colman, 776. 

Donnchad, 974, 997. 

f. of Boghaine, 718. 

f. of Concobar, 979. 

s. of Maelmordha, royal-heir of 

Leinster, si. by his b., 923 ; f. of Mur- 
chad, 972. 

s. of Mutan, k. of Corco-Laighdhi, 

si. by Condons and Clangibbon, 944. 

(r. in Donegal), cas. of (Castlefinn), 

1442, 1452, 1480; glen of, burned, 
1511 ; other references, 1522, 1524, 
1531. 
Finnabair-na-ningen, Drogheda town- 
land, given to clergy by Muircertach 
O'Loughlin, at consecration of Mellifont 
church, 1157- 
Finnachta = Finsnechta, q. v. 
Finnan, s. of Rimid, (bp. of Lindisfarne) 

ob., 660. 
Finnbarr, f. of Colman, 703. 

s. of Ua Bardene, ob., 437. 

Finnchadh, s. of Amhalgaidh, chief of 
Clann-Bresail, si., 1082. 

s. of Garrchu, f . of Fraech, 495, 497. 

Finn-faidhech {sweet-toned \heir\), Pat- 
rick's, full of, of pure silver given to 
(coarb of) Patrick by Cenel-Eogain,947; 
profanation of avenged, 1013. 
Finn-glais (Finglas, co. Dublin), abbots 
of :— 

Cuimnech, 825. 
Dublittir, 796. 
Fergus, 817. 

bp.-ab. of, Flann, 812 ; anchorite of : 

Flann (bp.-ab.), 812 ; bp. of Caincom- 
racc, 791 ; mk. of, Faelchu, 763 ; bp.- 
mks. of :— Bran, 838, Robartach, 867 ; 
scribes of : — Bran (bp. -mk. ), 838 ; Flann 
(bp.-ab.),812, Robartach (bp.-mk.),867. 

-glenn, {Fair glen : in Stirling or 

Argyle), btl. of., 719. 



Finnguine, ab. of Roscrea, ob., 1006. 

f. of Finntan, 687. 

s. of Cu-cen-mathair, k. M., ob., 

696 ; f. of Cathal, 721, 735, 738, 742. 

s. of Drostan, *' exactor " of Nectan, 

si. in btl. of Monith-carno, 729 ; f. of 
Feroth, 729 ; f. of Dargairt or Doer- 
gairt, 686, 693 ; f. Rothachtach, 686. 

s. of Deileroth, sL, 711. 

[s. of Dublachtna] replaced by Cor- 

mac as k. of Cash el, 901 ; si. in strata- 
gem by his associates, 902. 

the Tall, ob., 690. 

Finnian and Finnio, Mac U[i] Teldaib 
(founder of Clonard), ob. , 549 ; coarb 
of (ab. of Clonard), 859, 973, 1014, 
1015 ; coarb of and of Columba (ab. of 
Clonard and Kells), 1055 ; community 
of (at Clonfad) outraged in Clonfad 
church ; reliquaries of profaned and 
burned in Clonfad church, 891 ; relics 
of carried around (to enforce Laiu or 
cess), 776 ; reparation to, 1171. 

s. of Ua Fiatach, bp. of Moville, ob., 

579; coarb of (ab. of Moville), 944, 1007, 
1019, 1043, 1061, 1098 ; s. of coarb of 
1170, 1175 ; coarb of and of Mocholmoc 
(ab. of Moville and of Dromore), 993. 
Finn-loech, s. of Ruaidhri, k. of Scotland, 
si. by his own people, 1020 ; f . of Mac- 
beathadh, 1058. 
loch (Lower Lough Erne, co. Fer- 
managh), 18 persons drowned in, 1505. 

-magh, {Smooth plain ; Finvoy : in 

Kilconway bar,, co Antrim), defeat of 
Ui-Meith and Uachtar-tire in, 1054. 
Finntan of Antrim, ab. of Bangor, ob., 
613. 

f . of Tuenog, 663. 

s. of Finnguine, (Clonenagh) mon. 

of, 687. 

s. of Telchan (founder of Taghmon, 

CO. Wexford), ob., 635. 

s. of Ua Echdach, ob, 603. 

Finntracht-dromabairr (in Fermanagh), 
1395. 



156 



INDEX. 



Finntur, f . of Dolfiiiii, 1054. 

Finsnechta, f. of Ailill, 718. 

f . of Cerball, 829. 

f . of Congalach, 876. 

f . of Coscrach, 815. 

f. of Riacan, 837. 

ex-k. C, anchorite of Limerick (co. 

Wexford), ob., 848. 

s. of Bodhbcodh, k. of Cenel-Mic- 

Erca, ob., 830. 

s. of Bresal, ab. of Ealglinn, ob., 

842. 

s. of Cellach, coarb (ab.) of Derry, 

ob., 939. 

Double-squint (Cetarderc), s. of Cel- 
lach, slew Brann, k. L., and his q., 
Eithne (and became k. L.), 795 ; asso- 
ciates of slew Oengus, k. of Offaly, at 
his suggestion, 803 ; k. L., submitted to 
Aedh Oirdnidhe, k. I., 804 ; [again] 
obtained his kingdom (of L.), 806 ; died 
of emeroids in Kildare, 808. 

s. of Diarmait, ab. of Duleek, ob., 

849. 

s. of Domnall, fell in btl. of Drumree, 

797. 

the Festive, s. of Dunchad, defeated 

Cennfaeladh (k. I.), 675 ; began to reign 
ask. I., 675 ; destroyed Ailech-Frigrenn, 
676 ; defeated Lagenians, 677 ; fought 
btl. against Becc of Mourne, 679 ; 
entered religion, 688 ; returned to 
throne, 689 ; k. of Tara, si., 695. 

s. of Fogartach, ob., 761. 

s. of Follaman, fell in btl. of Drum- 
ree, 797. 

s. of Mael-Brighti, si. in treachery, 

855. 

s.of Maelcorcrai, k.of Leyny, ob., 879. 

Fintamhnach (Fintona, co. Tyrone), 1488. 

Fintona, see Fintamhnach. 

Fir-Arda-Ciannachta {A/en of Height of 
Ciannachta : Ferrard bar., co. Louth), 
k. of, Cumuscach, 896 ; pillaged, 923. 
See Ard-Ciannachta. 

-Bregh (alias of Bregia, q.o.), hosting 



Fir. — cant. 

to by Concobar O'Loughlin, 1128 ; 
raidedand wasted by Domnall O'Lough- 
lin, 1100. 

Cell {Fircal : Eglish, Ballyboy and 

Ballycowan barr., King's co.), k. of 
burned in crannog of Lough Eimell, 985. 

kings of : — 

Maelmuaidh, 1019. 
Aedh O'Molloy, 1401. 
Domnall ,, 1171. 

Fergal „ 1048. 

Gilla-Coluim,, 1110. 
Gilla-Coluim „ 1175. 
Ruaidhri ,, 1384. 

pillaged by Niall (k. I.), 840 ; slew 

Domnall O'Quinlan and Caismidhe, 
steward of Mael-Sechnaill (k. I.), 1018 ; 
other reference, 1382. 

na-Craibe (alias of Craib, q.i\), k. of 

O'Kane, 1247. 

-Cul (Kellsbar., Meath), kings of: — 

Cathal, 810. 
Maelduin, 837. 
See also Cul[Fir-]. 

Darcacha (apparently in Ulster), 

chief of, Mac Gowan, 1171. 

-droma (Donaghmore par., Dungan- 

rion bar., co. Tyrone;, chiefs of: — 
O'Donnelly, 1177 ; O'Garve, 1188. 

-Leamhna (Bally gawley par., Clo- 

gherbar., co. Tyrone), k. of, Garbith, 951. 

Li (a sept on W. of Bann, from 

Moyola Water to Camus r., co. London- 
derry), defeated and raided, 1181 ; in- 
vaded, 1177 ; kings of : — 
Domnall, 1004. 
Flaithbertach, 949. 
Cui-MaighiO'Flynn, 1176 I 
Cu-Midhe ,, 1178 /Same? 

Cu-duilig O'Teig, 1063. 
Murtagh O'Teig, 1115. 
Ua hUathmarain, 1081. 
Domnall Ua hUathmarain, 1036. 

pillaged by (Ruaidhri) gs. of Can- 

annan, 949. 



INDEX. 



157 



Fir. — cont. 

-Maighi-Feine(iWe7i of Magh-Feine, 

Fermoy: Condons and Clangibbon bar., 
CO. Cork), k. of, Geibennach, 1014 ; 
slew Coirpri and Finn, 944. 

Managh (Fermanagh), aided O'Neill, 

1470 ; wonderful birth in, 1432 ; chief 
brehon of, O'Breslen, 1447 ; chief of, 
.John Maguire, 1540; Clan-CoUa of, 
1185; Cloch-cuir in, 1454; constable 
of, 1424 ; corn failed in through wet, 
1491 ; crops destroyed in by wet wea- 
ther, 1505 ; crops injured by inclement 
weather, 1496 ; defeated at Mailderg 
by Kinelowen of TuUyhog, 1077 ; de- 
feated at Ergal Ford by Domnall 
O'Loughlin, 1080 ; defeated, 1358, 1432, 
1512 ; doorkeeper of, 1436 ; invaded, 
1256, 1263, 1435, 1475, 1495, 1538. 

kings of : — 

Cathal, 1010. 

Domnall, 1057. 

Oengus Mac Lennan, 1234. 

Aed Maguire, 1363. 

Coarb „ 1527. 

Conor „ 1527, 1529. 

Cu-Con- 

nacht ,, 1537. 
Donn ,, (first of name), 

1302. 
Edmond „ 1471, 1472. 
Edmund „ 1488. 
Flaithber- 

taeh ,, 1327. 
Flaithber- 

tach ,, 1385. 
Gilla-Pad- 

raig ,, 1540. 
John „ 1488, 1503. 

Philip of the battle-axeMaguire, 

1369, 1379, 1395, 1442. 
Ruaidhri Maguire, 1338. 
Thomas, jun. „ 1430, 1436, 
1442, 1444, 1445, 1447, 
1449, 1457, 1462, 1466, 1471, 
1474. 



Fir. — cont. 

Thomas sen., Black Gillie, Ma- 
guire, 1.394, 1395, 1419, 1430. 

O'Donnell, 1241. 

O'Mulrony, 1126. 

Sun of the night O'Mulrony, 1189. 

Ua Daimin, 1278. 

Faelan-Ua Duibhdara, 1 128. 

Gilla-Crist ,, 107G. 

Laidhgnen , , 1118. 

Ua Eicnigh, 1095. 

Gilla-Crist Ua Eicnigh, 1127. 

Niall ,, 1053. 

future k. of, Brian Maguire, 1378 ; 

lord of, O'Donnell, 1510 ; Mac Car- 
maic of, 1431 ; many nobles of si, with 
Faelan Ua Duibhdara, 1128 ; ollam of, 
O'Breslen, 1440 ; chief physician of, 
O'Casidy, 1450, 1490; pillaged Antrim, 
1018 ; pillaged Duleek, 1028 ; plague 
in, 1431, 1471, 1478 ; great plague in, 
1520 ; quivering in air in, 15.38; raided 
by Cathal an, k. of Farney ; made raid 
to, burned and slew 17 on border of. 
Lough Ooney, 1025 ; raided, 1208, 1256, 
(D), 1367 ; razed (crannog of) Inis-Ua- 
Labradha, 1108; rent of , 1527; royal- 
heir of, Maguire, 1310 ; domestic skir- 
mish in, in which 2 royal-heirs of fell, 
1113; slaughtered Foreigners, 1212; 
slew: — EchmarcachMacUidhrein,1120; 
Concobar O'Carolan, 1117 ; O'Cullen, 
herenagh of Clogher, 1126 ; Donnchad 
O'Rourke, 1101 ; their k., Gilla-Crist 
Ua Duibhdara, 1076. 
tanists of : — 

Aedh Maguire, 1407. 

Donnchad ,, 1471. 

Philip „ 1447. 

Thomas „ 1498. 

at war with O'Rourkes, 1416 ; other 

references, 1281,1337, 1366,1405,1412; 
1429,1455, 1470, 1476, 1487, 1498,1512, 
1514, 1532. 

-rois (part of Farney bar., co. Mon- 

aghan and of Ardee bar., co. Louth), 



158 



INDEX. 



Fir. — cont. 
vice-ab.of, Moenach,827 ; Clonkeenof, 
943, 1113 ; defeated Monaghan bar., 
997 ; k. of, slew Domnall, 1052. 

kings of : — 

Echu, 851. 
Garbshith, 937. 
Mael-Mochta, 1028. 
Cuchaille OTinn, 1073. 

slew Gilla-Ciarain, k. of Cremorne, 

1020 ; pillaged, 923. 

S. of River [Lagan : i.e. Louth por- 
tion], vice-ab. of, Cellach, 847. 

Tulach {Fartullagh bar., West- 

meath), defeated by Donnchad at Dun- 
bile, 764 ; chief of, Tyrrell, 1366. 

"Fire from Heaven," alias of, "Assembly 
of hand-clapping," 772, 799. 

First year, of 11th great Paschal Cycle 
from Creation ; of 3rd from Incarnation, 
1064. 

Fishermen,mermaid takenby, in Listerlin, 
Ossory, 1118. 

Fishes, little black, in water that burst 
from Glencullen Mountain, 868. 

Fit,Conall of Kennaweer, k, I., died of, 
710. 

Fita, island of (Mutton-Island, off Clare), 
divided in three, and land of to extent 
of [i.e. sufficient to graze] 12 cows, 
covered with sand by sea, 804. 

Fithchellach, f. of Dluthach, 712. 

s.of Flann, k. of Ui-Maine, ob., 691 ; 

f . of Aedh of Leinster, 722. 

Fitton, Roitsel, 1197. 

Fitz Geoffrey, John, Justiciary, 1246. 

Fitz Gerald, 1288 ; took De Burgh prisoner, 
1294 ; liberated De Burgh, 1295. 

John, knight of Kerry, Patrikin, s. 

of, si, 1489. 

Maurice, Justiciary, 1247 ; invaded 

Tyrconnell, 1250; built cass. of Magh- 
cobha and Narrow -water, 1252 ; built 
Sligo cas., 1269 ; invaded Connaught, 
1249 ; invaded Tyrone, 1253, ob., 1257. 

Maurice the Bald, ob., 1286. 



I Fitz Maurice. — coiit. 

I Johnikin, jun., si., 1300. 

Thomas, the crooked heir, ob., 1298. 

Fitz Patrick, see Mac Gilla-Patraic. 

Fitz Ralph, primate of Armagh, ob., 1360. 

Fitz Simon, si., 1503. 

Edmund the Dark, of family of 

knight, prior of Fore, ob., 1505. 

Fitz Stephen, Robert, fleet of, came to I., 
to aid Mac Murrough, 1169. 

Fitz Thomas (Fitz Gerald), Gerald, s. of 
John, heir of Offaly Fitz Gerald, 1303. 

John, si. 1261. 

John, 1293. 

John, on Scottish invasion, 

1296 ; other reference, 1301. 

Maurice, earl of Desmond, Jus- 
ticiary, ob., 1355. 

Flagstone of O'Muldory (at Narrow - 
water), 1258. 

Flaithbertach, f. of Aedh-Red-neck, 747. 

f . of Cathmugh, 792. 

f. of Cennfaelad, 1025. 

f. of Cett, 919. 

f. of Loingsech, 754 ; f. of Murchad, 

767 ; gf. of Murchad, 973, 974. 

f, of Ualgarg, 879. 

gs. of Anluan, of Oneilland, si. in 

stratagem by Oneilland E,, 984. 

gs. of Canannan, k. of Cenel-Con- 

aill, si. by his sept, 1000. 

gs. of Eochaidh, blinded by Niall, 

s. of Eochaid, 1020. 

[s. of Muircertach] joined his b., 

Domnall, against Lough Neagh For- 
eigners, 945 ; gs. of Niall (Black-knee), 
si. by (Ruaidhri) gs. of Canannan, 949. 

s. of Ceilechar, si. by his bb., 849. 

s. of Coirpre, ab. of Kilmore, ob., 

812. 

s. of Concobar, k. of Ailech, made 

raid in Dalaraide and pillaged Connor ; 
overtaken and si. with many by Ulidi- 
ans, 962. 

s. of Conall Menn, k. of Cenel-Coir- 

pri, ob., 752. 



INDEX. 



159 



Flaithbertach . — cont . 

s. of Domnall, coarb of Ciaran and 

Finnian (ab. of Clonmacnoise and Clon- 
ard), ob., 1014, or 1015. 

s. of Domnall, royal-heir of N. of I., 

si. in btl. of Dublin, 919. 

s. of Dubrop, k. of Corcomroe and 

Burren, ob., 873. 

s. of Flann, si. in massacre of Bolg- 

Boinne, 770. 

s. of Inmhainu, (k. M.) ob., 944. 

s. of Loingsech, k. I., fought btl. of 

Druim-Corcain, 728 ; defeated by Aedh 
AUain, 732 ; fought Aedh in Magh- 
Itha, 734 ; k. of Tara, died a cleric, 
765 ; f. of Dunflaith, 799. 

s. of Muircertach, ab. of Clonmore, 

ob. ; quatrain in praise of, 921. 

s. of Muircertach, ab. of Dunkeld, 

ob., 873. 

s. of Muircertach, born, 977 ; gs. of 

Niall, slew Aedh, pillaged Lecale ; de- 
feated Uilidians and Iveagh at Lough - 
brickland, 1005 ; led hosting to Ulidia, 
brought seven hostages and slew Cu- 
Ulad, the k., 1007 ; blinded Donnchad 
Ua Ceile in Inishowen, 1009 ; raided 
Cenel-Conaill with Murchad, s. of 
Brian (Boruma), took 300 captives and 
many cows, 1011 ; k. of Ailech, led 
hosting into Cenel-Conaill : first, to 
Magh-Cetne, took large cow-spoil and 
came safe ; next, to Drumcliif and 
Trawohelly, slew Niall, defeated O'Mul- 
dory and lost no one ; raided Ards (co. 
Down) and took unprecedented num- 
bers of prisoners and cattle, 1012 ; led 
hosting to Ed, near Kells, which Mael- 
Sechlainn abandoned to him, 1013 ; 
went to Meath to aid Mael-Sechlainn, 
1015 ; pillaged Tir-Ennaand Tir-Lugh- 
dach, 1019 ; led hosting against, and 
took Irish hostages from. Foreigners of 
Bregia, 1025 ; led hosting to Meath, 
went on the ice to, and pillaged, Inish- 
mot, 1026 ; went to Rome, 1030 ; re- 



Flaithbertach. — cont. 

turned, 1031 ; arch-k. of Ailech, died 

after most excellent penance, 1036. 
s. of Muiredach, k. of Iveagh, ob., 

968. 

s. of Niall, si. in Ulidia, 855. 

s. of Tigernach of Mourne, coarb of 

Finnian (ab. of Moville), ob., 1098. 
Flaitheman, s. of Cellach, k. of Ui-Briuin 

of Cualann, ob., 881. 
Flathgal, s. of Flannabra, k. of Ui-Briuin 
- of Owles, si., 787. 
Flaithgel, s. of Taichlech, ab. of Drumrat, 

ob., 793. 
Flaithgus, f. of Dubdatuath, 790. 

f. of Rogaillnech, 815. 

s. of Dubhdiberg, Cenell-Conaill 

leader, si. in btl., 732. 

s. of Fiachra, si. in treachery, 767. 

Flaithlem, herenaghof Seirkieran, ob., 985. 
Flathnia and Flaithniadh, bp-ab. of Birr, 

ob., 853. 

f. of Art, 772. 

f. of Dungal, 781. 

f. of Cernach, 812. 

s. of, ab. of Clonfert, 783. 

s. of Cinaedh, k. of Offaly, al. in 

Rathangan, 806. 

s. of Colggu, sage, ob., 715. 

s. of Flann, k. of Ofialy, ob., 755 ; 

f. of Domnall, 783. 
s. of Maelduin, si. at btl. of Forca- 

lad, 778. 

s. of Muirgis, si. by Leyny, 810. 

s. of Tnuthach, k. of Ui-Meith, ob., 

755. 
Flaithri, f. of Bresal, 792. 
Flaithroa, ab. of Monasterboice, bp. and 

anchorite, ob., 837. 
Flaithruae, k. C, 777 ; ob., 779. 
Fland, see Flann. 
Flanessa, Ailill, 666. 
Flann and Fland, ab. of Finglas, scribe, 

anchorite, and bp., died suddenly, 811. 

Aenaigh, si., 644. 

Aighle, bp. of Aughrim, ob., 741. 



160 



INDEX 



Flann. — cont. 

of Antrim, ab. of Bangor, ob., 728. 

sage, bp., and ab. of Iniskeen (co. 

Louth), poisoned, 784. 
d. of Donnchad, q. of Ailech, ob,, 

940. 
d. of Dungal, q. of k. of Tara (Mael- 

Sechnaill), died in penance, 890. 

f. of Blathmacc, 825. 

f. of Cellach and Cinaedh, 770. 

f. of Cernach, 766. 

f . of Cernach, 922. 

f. of Cernachan, 1002, 1013. 

f. of Conaing, 849, 873. 

Deirgge, f. of Domnall, 758. 

f. of Dungal, 743. 

f. of Fithchellach, 691. 

f. of Fogartach, 902. 

Sinna, f. of Ligach, 923. 

f. of Maelfothartaigh, 809. 

f. of Toimsnama, 770. 

f. of Muiredach, 846. 

f. of Muiredach, 1016. 

f. of Murchad, 807 ; of Scannlan, 

786. 

f. of Oengus, 1017. 

f. of Oengus, 1036. 

f. of Robartach, 845. 

Feblae,ab. ofGort-chonaich,ob.,740. 

Fine, ab. of Clonmacnoise, ob., 733. 

(mk. ) of Fore, bp. and anchorite, 

died old, 930. 
Garadh, k. of Cenel-Mic-Erca, ob., 

763 ; f. of Muiredach, 797. 
gs. of Aedhacan, herenagh of Glenda- 

lough, ob., 957. 

gs. of Cleirech, k. S. C, ob., 952. 

Sinna, gs. of Colla, ab. of Clonmac- 
noise, ob., 732. 
gs. of Congal, ob., 740 ; four ss. of, 

738. 
gs. of Congal, k. of Ofialy, ob., 751 ; 

f. of AilillCorrach, 741 : f. of Flaithnia, 

755 ; f. of Mughron, 782. 
gs. of Tacan, herenagh of Durrow, 

ob., 1022. 



Flann. — cont. 

herenagh of Drumcliif, ob. , 952. 

of Monasterboice, chief lector and 

historian of L, ob., 1056 ; f. of Echti- 

gern, 1067 ; f. of Flann, 1104. 
s. of Aedh, won btl. 712 ; si. in btl., 

714 ; f. of Gorman, 770. 
Cuirrigh, s. of Aithechde, ob., 

732. 

s. of Cellach, bp. of Lambaj^ob., 739. 

s. of Cennfaeladh, (k. of Cenel- 

Eogain) si., 700. 
s. of Conaing, ab. of Kilmore (co. 

Roscommon), si., 735. 
s. of Conaing, pillaged Donaghmore 

with, and defeated, Tigernach, 854 ; 
. joined Aedh in attack on Magh-duma 

camp, 860 ; went with Aedh to pillage 

Meath, 862 ; land of, pillaged by 3 kk. 

of Foreigners, 863 ; defeated Anfidh and 

Ulidians in Conaille-Cerd, 864 ; k. of 

all Bregia, si. in btl. of Killineer ; 

quatrain relative thereto, 868. 

s. of Conall, ab. of Emly, ob., 904. 

s. of Conchobar, k. of Magh-Ai, ob., 

754. 
Gohan, s. of Congal, Cenel-Conaill 

leader, si. in btl., 732. 
s. of Congalach, slew Conn, s. of 

Donnchad, 795; k. of Keenaght, ob., 

812 ; f. of Conaing, 884. 
s. of Domnall, royal-heir of N. of I., 

ob., 906 ; f. of Maelruanaigh, 941. 
s. of Eicnechan, f. of Maelruanaidh, 

964. 

s. of Ere, f . of Flann, 796. 

s. of Ferchar, steward of Armagh 

and ab. of Dunleer, died prematurely, 

869. 
Foirbthe, s. of Fogartach, ob. [recte, 

born], 716 ; ob., 748 ; f. of Cernach, 

770. 
s. of Forcellach, ab. of Lismore, ob. , 

825. 
s. of Lonan, si. by Munster Decies, 

896. 



INDEX. 



161 



Flann. — cont. 

s. of Macluighe, ab. of Cork, ob., 

912. 

s. of Maelduin, ab. of lona, ob., 891. 

s. of Mael-Fiachrach, herenagh of 

Magheraglass, ob., 952. 

s. of Maelruanaidh, raided by Mael- 

iSechnaill, 845. 

s. of Mael-Sechnaill, slew Donnchad, 

s. of Aedhacan, in treachery, 877 ; 
began to reign (as k. I.), 879 ; led 
hosting, with Foreigners and Irish, to 
N. of I., encamped at Magheraglas, and 
pillaged Armagh, 882 ; defeated by 
Foreigners, 838 ; adWsed destruction of 
Trevet, 903 ; profaned Kells, by attack- 
ing his s. , Donnchad, there ; when 
many were si, round oratory, 904 ; led 
hosting to Ossory, 905 ; led hosting to 
Munster, wasted from Gowran to 
Limerick, 906 ; k. of 'I'ma, won btl. of 
Ballaghnioon, 908, and with his ss. de- 
feated Brefnians, 910 ; wasted S. Bregia 
and E. Meath, and profaned many 
churches, 914 : opposed by his ss., 
Donnchad and Concobar, 915 ; k. of 
Tara, reigned 36 y., 6 m., 5 d., ob. aet. 
68, Sat., May 25, circa 1 p.m., 916 ; f. 
of Donnchad, 904, 938, 944 ; f. of 
Gormlaidh, 948 ; f . of Maelruanaidh, 
901 ; f. of Aedh, 1021 ; gf. of Domnall, 
1036. 

s. of Mael-Sechlainn, si. in defeat of 

Drinan, 1013. 

s. of Mael-Sechlainn (k, I), royal 

heir of I., si. by stratagem, 1042. 

the Fair, s. of Maeltuile, ob., 700. 

s. of Mochloingsi, coarb of Tiger- 

nach and Maeldoid (ab. of Clones and 
Mucknoe), ob., 958. 

s. of Narghal, died after 16 years in 

pain, 803. 

s. of Rechtabra, ab. of Lemanaghan, 

ob., 853. 

s. of Rogellnach, si. in btl. of Allen, 

722 ; f. of Flaithbertach, 770. 



Flann.— cont. 

Febla, s. of Scannlan, ab. of Armagh, 

ob., 715. 

s. of Tigernan, (k. of Brefny) fell in 

defeat of Brefnians, 910. 

s. of Urthaile, si. in btl., 727. 

Ua Dochue, ab. of Inishkeen (co. 

Louth), ob., 771. 

Ua Congaile, f. of Coibdenach, 734. 

Flannabra, ab. of Moville, ob., 825. 

coarb (ab. ) of lona, ob. , 1025. 

f. of Coscrach, 1813. 

k. of Imaile, ob., 778. 

f. of Flathgal, 787. 

Flannacan, f. of Concobar, 891. 

f. of Domnall, 1004. 

f. of Donncuan, 873. 

f. of Mael-Muire, 914 ; gf . of Mael- 
ruanaidh, 1006. 

f. of Muiredach, 1039. 

gf . of Muiredach, 984. 

the Red, herenagh of Roscommon, 

ob., 1097. 

s. of Aedh, deputy- herenagh of 

Armagh, died in penance, 1069. 

s. of Allcliu, coarb of Mac Nisse and 

Colraan-Ela (ab. of Connor and Dro- 

more), ob., 954. 
s. of Cellach, k. of Bregia, si. by 

Norsemen, 896 ; f. of Congalach, 893 ; 

of Cellach, 891, 895 ; of Cinaedh, 896 ; 

of Mael-Finnia, 897, 932, 903 ; of Mael- 

mithidh, 913, 9 18, 919, 956 ; gf. of 

Derbfail, 931. 

s. of Colman, ob,, 860. 

s. of Conaing, v. -herenagh of 

Armagh, ob., 1016. 
s. of Donncuan, f. of Concobar, 

1120, 
s, of Echaidh, k. of N. Dalaraide, si. 

by Cenel-Eogain, 849. 
s. of Fogertach, k. of Farney, slew 

Murchadh, royal-heir of N, of L, 887. 

s. of Mael-Isu, future ab, of 

Armagh, died after Unction and 
penance, 1113. 



162 



INDEX. 



Flamian, coarb of (bp. of Killaloe), 1040. 

Flathrua, gs. of Letlilabar, si. in defeat 

of Ravel Water, 914 ; f. of Cumiiscach, 

1004. 

Flathruae, s. of Fiachra, k. of (Irish) 

Picts, ob., 774. 
Flaying alive, 1525. 
Fleet of :— 

Brian (Boruma) and Mael-Sech- 

lainn at Annaghduff, 1011. 
Cenel-Conaill, 1201. 
De Burgh, 1497. 

Dublin, sailed to Inishowen ; 
crews drowned or massacred, 
1100. 
Fitz-Stephen, 1169. 

Foreign : — at Annagassan ; defeated 

at Cluain-na-cruimther, 926 ; retired 
from Annagassan, 927 ; in Kinnaweer, 
921 ; of Limerick, pillaged Clonmac- 
noise and all islands of Lough Ree, 922; 
leader of, at btl. of Dublin (Clontarf), 
Brotor, 1014 ; on Lough Corrib, 929 ; 
on Lough Foyle, 921 ; on Lough Neagh, 
928 ; of Lough Neagh, destroyed by 
Domnall and Flaithbertach, 945 ; on 
Lough Ree, 932 ; new, in Waterford 
Harbour, 914. 

of gss. of Ragnall and s. of k. U., 

sailed to Man, 1087. 

of Maghnus, k. of Lochlann, sailed to 

Man, 1102 
of Maguire, 1432. 

Norse, of 60 ships on Boyne ; 

another of 60 on Liffe}^, 837 ; another 
at Linn-sailech, in Ulster, 812 ; on 
Boyne, at Rosnaree, 842. 

of O'Donnell on Lough Erne, 1508, 

1574. 

of Orknies, 1170. 

of Saxons came to L, 1487. 

of Sitriuc came (on Lififey) to Con- 
fey, 917. 

Ulidian, crews of defeated, with 

many si., by Gentiles in Saxon haven, 
913. 



Fleets of Foreigners, 924. 
Fleming, Adam, si., 1281. 

James, baron of Slarie, died of 

sweating plague, 1492. 

Ricard, 1176. 

Flight of Lagenians, with k. Muiredhach, 
after attack on camp of Cerball, 
870. 
Flocks of Foreigners taken off by Aedh, 

(k. L), 866. 
Flodden, btl. of, 1513. 
Flodubur (Clovis 11. ?), k. of Franks, ob., 

659. 
Floriacus (Ludovicus Pius), emperor of 

Franks, ob., 840. 
Flux, bloody, 764 (in all I.), 770, 772, 774, 

777, 778 ; on Dublin Foreigners, 951. 
Fobhar (Fore, Westmeath), abbots of :— 
Cellach, 868. 
Cennfaeladh, 711. 
Cleircen (coarb of Feichin), 981. 
Cormac, 891. 
Dubdubaireen, 740. 
Fechtach, 781. 
Feichin (founder), 668. See 

Feichin. 
Mael-Giricc (coarb of Feichin 

of), 932. 
Maelruanaigh, 1117. 
Moengal, 857. 

Oengus (coarb of Feichin), 956. 
Ronan (coarb of Feichin), 1014, 

1015. 
Ronan (coarb of Feichin), 1098, 
Ua Becce, 770. 

bp. -anchorite of, Flann, 930. 

bishops of : — 

Ailill, 871. 
Suairlech, 750. 

biu-ned, 750, 1412 ; burned by Feid- 

limidh (k. M.), 830 ; Forchellach of, 
ab. of Clonmacnoise, 814 ; monks of : — 
Aedgen, 771. 
Conodor, 707. 

bp.-mk. of, Flann, 930 ; oratory of 

burned, 816 ; prior of, 1505. 



INDEX. 



163 



Fobhar.— coTií, 

sages of : — 

Faeldobur, 731. 
Rectlaiten, 783. 

wasted, 1176. • 

Focarta, f. of Tigernach, 865. 

gs. of Cualta, fell in btl. of Duma- 

achadh, 783. 

s. of Cernach, j.-k. of S. Bregia, ob., 

815. 

s. of Lachtnan, k. of Teffia, si. in 

stratagem by his household, 927. 
Focartach, f. of Echaidh, 785. 
Fochla (bardic name of the part of N. of 
I. held by N. Ui-Neill), army of, led 
by k. Niall against ss. of Flann (k. I.), 
915 ; coast of, 866 ; k. of Maelduin, 
788 ; hosting into by Donnchad (k.I.), 
771, 779; hosting of to Meath, 914 ; 
royal heirs of :— Fachtna, 868 ; Flaith- 
bertach, 919; Ui-Mac-Uais of, 872; 
warriors of with Flaithbertach in 
Cenel-Conaill, 1011 ; other references, 
887, 921. 
Fochlaidhand Fochlaidh of Meath {Faugh - 
ley, or Faughalstown, Fore bar., West- 
meath), abbots of : — 
Curoi, 871. 
Echaidh, 785. 
Fodder, great scarcity of, 900 ; want of, 

in Spring, 879. 
Foe'.an, s. of Muiredach, k. L., ob., 942. 
Foelgus, gs. of Roiclech, sage, ob. , 785. 
Fogartach and Fogertach, ab. of Derry, 
ob., 975. 

b. of Broen, si. by his bb., 850. 

f . of Aedh, 824. 

f. of Cellach, 818, 825 ; f. of Fallo- 

mon, 825. 

f. of Coirpre, 767, 769, 771. 

f. of Cumuscach, 797 ; f. of Fergus, 

751. 

f. of Donnacan, 882. 

f. of Dunlaith, 774 ; f. of Oengus, 

771. 
f. of Flann Foirbthe, 747. 



Fogartach. — cont. 

f. of Flannacan, 887. 

f. of Gilla-Mochonna, 1013. 

f. of Loingsech, 981. 

f. of Maelcothaigh, 818. 

f. of Ruaidhri, 1027. 

s. of Cathal, defeated at, and fled 

from, btl. of Druim-goise, 789. 

s. of Cele, k. of Moygoish, ob. 911. 

s. of Cumascach, won btl. of Righe, 

781 ; k. of Lagore, si. in btl. of Liac- 
find, 786. 

' s. of Diarmaid, k. of Corcothri, si. 

by Gallen, 994. 

s. of Donnacan, k, of Oriel, died in 

penance, 949. 

s. of Fland, ab. of Laraghbryan, 

ob., 902. 

s. of Mael-Bresail, k, of Oriel, ob., 

852. 

[s. of Niall] gs. of Cernach (Sotal), 

defeated in btl. of Clane, 704 ; banished 
and went to Britain, 714 ; reigned again 
(as k. I.), 716 ; s. of Niall, si. in btl. of 
Cenn-l)elgden, 724 ; f. of Cernach, 
738; f. of Finsnechta, 761. 

s. of Niall, si. by stratagem by Dom- 

nall, 972. 

s. of Suibne, k. of Kerricurrihy, si. 

in btl. of Ballaghmoon, 908. 

s. of Tolarg, slew Cellach, royal. 

heir of Bregia, by stratagem, 895 ; slew 
Maeloghrai, k. of Lagore, by stratagem, 
908 ; k. of S. Bregia, defeated, with 
many si. and captured, by Donnchad 
(s. of Flann), 913 ; ob., 916. 
Foibran and Foibren, Graicraige [q.v.), 
ab. of, Echaidh, 759. 

burned and pillaged and many 

peasants [igiiohiles), si., 816. 
Foidmed, f. of Albran, 774. 
Foidmenn, s. of Fallach, k. of Conaille- 

Muirteimhne, ob., 752. 
Foilene, gf. of Daniel, 773. 

gf. of Joseph, 785. 

Foillen, f. of Loingsech, 872. 

L 2 



164 



INDEX. 



Foindelach, s. of Meanach, ab. of Armagh, 

died suddenly, 79o. 
Foir (alias of Fobhar, q.r.), 830. 
Foirbtlie, Flann, 716, 748, 770. 
Foith (Wid), f. of Bruide, 641; f. of 

Gartnaith, 635 ; of Gartnan, 635 ; of 

Tolarg, 653. 
Folachtach, ab. of Birr, ob., 765. 

ab. of Clonmacnoise, ob. 770. 

Foleng, btl. of, 760. 

Folt-chain {fair hair), Conall, 745. 

Follaman, Folloman and Follomon, s. of 

Donncliad, slew Blatlimac, ab. of Clon- 

fad, 799. 
s. of Ciicoiigalt, k. of Aleath, si. 

in treachery, 765 ; f. of Finsnechta, 

797. 
s. of Donnchad, si. by ]\lunstermen, 

830 ; f. of Donnchadh, 845. 
Forach, (Farragh, near Skreen, Meath), 

defeat of Foreigners at, 848. 
Fonn-iartharach ( Western slope : O'Ma- 

honys' Country, S. W.part of W. Carbery 

bar., CO. Cork), k. of, O'Mahony, 1427 ; 

O'Mahonys of, 1381. 
Forath, in Delbna-Lodot {q.v.), btl. of, 

818. 
Forannan, ab. of Clonard, ob., 745. 

ab. of Kildare, ob., 698. 

f. Of Suibne, 8.30, 843. 

gf. of Guaire, 951. 

Forbasach and Forbusach, ab. of Agha- 

boe, ob., 822. 

ab. of Rahue, ob., 776. 

bp.-anchorite of Lusk, ob., 836. 

f . of Cellach, 836. 

f. ofFaelan, 786. 

f. of Maelodhar, 894. 

gs. of Cernach, ab. of Clonmacnoise, 

ob., 771. 
gs. of Congal, k. of Offaly, si. by 

Midians, 714. 
s. of Maeltoles. ab. of Roscam, ob., 

779. 
s. of Maeluidhir, ab. of Kinneigh, 

ob., 852. 



Forbasach. — cont. 

s. of Sechnusach, k. of Cenel-Bog- 

haine, ob., 786. 

Forbflaith, d. of Connla, abbess of Clon- 
broney, ob., 780. 

Forboros (in Scotland\ btl. of, 741. 

Furbusach, see Forbasach. 

Forcalad (probably in Meath), btl. of ; 
quatrain respecting, 778. 

Force (besides Lei trim) with Tigernan 
O'Rourke at btl. of Ardee, 1128. 

Forchellach of Fore. ab. of Clonmacnoise, 
led hosting to S. Ui -Maine ; ob., 814. 

Forcraidh, Muiredach, 743. 

Forcraith, Fergus, 703, 737, 776. 

Ford, see Mac Consnamha. 

Ford of :— 

Camus, see Camus Ford. 

Culuaine on the Erne, 1247. 

Daire-dubain (in Leitrim), 1390. 

Eastersnow, 1330. 

Ergal, 1080, 

At head of Lough Gara, 1328. 

Fordruim (alias of Inishowen), k of, 
Muircertach Ua Duibhdirma, 1167. 

Forduban (mk.) of Liphechair, ob., 759. 

Fore, see Fobhar. 

Foreigners (Danes, Norsemen), see Gen- 
tiles and Norsemen . 

(English) built Clones castle, 1212 ; 

invaded Cenel-Eogain, 1238 ; invaded 
Coimaught, 1188. 

of Connaught, 1334, 1349, 1366, 

1412; of W. Connaught, 1285,1316; 
of Dalaraide, 1189, 1199. 

defeated, 1211, 1213, 1257, 1270, 

1318, 1346, 1385, 1466, 1494 : defeated 
O'Loughlin ; took oif Gospel of Martin, 
1182 ; of Dublin, 1358, 1369 ; of Dub- 
lin, Louth and Meath, with earl of 
Kildare against O'Brien, 1510; heads 
of impaled, 1432 ; chose ab. of lona, 
1204 ; hung O'Melaghlin, took Lime- 
rick, 1175; of Leinster, 1195; of 
Limerick, 1196, 1369 ; of Louth, 1516 : 
of Magh-Line, 1199; of Meath, 1186, 



INDEX. 



165 



Foreigners. — cont, 

1196, 1200, 1289, 1315, 1369, 1370, 
1373, 1412, 1418, 1516, 1522; of 
Munster, 1195, 1249, 1494, 1516; 
nobles of, 1526 ; of N. of L, 1316 ; of 
Oriel, 1430, 1452, 1486, 1496 ; raided 
Oriel, pillaged Armagh, 1189; raided 
and si., 1262 ; ships of, 1185 ; 100 si., 
1176 ; 100 of si. in Slane castle, 1176 ; 
slaughtered, 1178 ; 160 of si. by Mac 
Carthy, 1204; si., 1196, 1261, 1289, 
1303 ; 300 of si. by Mac Mahon, 1346 ; 
slew Bruce, 1318; slew Marechal, 1234; 
of Tirerrill and Leyny, defeated, 1308 ; 
raided Tyrone, 1188. 

of Ulidia, 1197, 1200, 1202, 1214, 

1215, 1333, 1374, 1419, 1470; at war 
with Irish, 1503, 1506; wasted Fore and 
Kells, 1176; of Westraeath, submitted 
to O'Neill, 1430 ; of Wexford, 1416 ; 
other references— 1184, 1185, 1194, 
1196, 1201, 1202, 1204, 1213, 1214, 
1215, 1219, 1225, 1226, 1228, 1230, 
1232, 1233, 1243, 1247, 1250, 1252, 
1253, 1264, 1269, 1282, 1291, 1295, 
1296, 1297, 1307, 1317, 1321, 1328, 
1329, 1330, 1337, 1338, 1342, 1347, 
1352, 1354, 1356, 1357, 1371, 1372, 
1373, 1374, 1375, 1376, 1380, 1381, 
1388, 1389, 1392, 1399, 1407, 1414, 
1419, 1425, 1427, 1429, 1431, 1432, 
1442, 1449, 1459, 1460, 1464, 1468, 
1471, 1475, 1476, 1478, 1480, 1482, 
1483, 1485, 1491, 1492, 1497, 1498, 
1513, 1525, 1528, 1531, 1532, 1534, 
1538, 1564. 

Forfeiture of hostages of Munster and 
Leinster to Torlogh O'Conor, 1127. 

Forindan, of RackwalIace,í^íceDermaitas 
ab. of Armagh, 835 ; taken in oratory 

, of Kildare by Feidhlimidh (k. M.) 
836 ; replaced by Dermait in abbacy 
of Armagh, 839 ; captured, with 
reliquaries and retinue, at Colman's 
Well by Gentiles and carried off by 
their ships at Limerick, 845 ; ab. of 



Forindan, — cont. 

Armagh, came from Munster with re- 
liquaries of Patrick, 846 ; coarb of 
Patrick, scribe, bp., anchorite, ob., 852. 

bp. of Methus-tuirm, ob., 756. 

f. of Cathal, 752. 

f. of Culene, 652. 

f. of Guaire, 629. 

Forinnan (mk.) of Emlagh, ob., 798. 

scribe and bp. of Trevet, ob., 774. 

Formail, btl. of won by Cenel-Eogain, 967. 
Fort of :— 

Amhlaim at Clondalkin, burned 
by (Cenneidigh) s. of Gaithin 
and Mael-Ciarain, 867. 
Dublin, Gentiles expelled from, 
902 ; burned by lightning, 
1170. 
Dumbarton, besieged razed and 
pillaged by Amhlaim and 
Imar, 870. 
Duneight, burned by Flaithber- 

tach, 1011. 
Kincora, razed, 1061. 
Fortchern, f. of Mael-Ciarain, 905. 
Forth, see Fotharta. 
Fortnight, comet during, 1018. 
Fortola (Ballybritt bar.. King's co.), btl. 

of, 573 or 574. 
Fortrenn (Pictland in Scotland), 664 ; 
chief bp. of Tuathal, 865 ; btl. of, 768 ; 
defeated Dalriata, 736 ; Brecc of, 725. 

kings of: — 

Bruide, 693. 
Bruide, 763. 
Custantin, 820. 
Oengus, 834. 

Men of : defeated with very great 

loss, by Gentiles, 839 ; slew Imar and 
many with him, 904 ; all pillaged and 
hostages of taken off by Amlaiph and 
Auisle, with Foreigners of I. and Scot- 
land, 866. 
P'ortress of : — 

Domnall, future k. L, attacked, 
730. 



1 



INDEX. 



Fortress of. — cont. 

Mac Dermot (near Rockingham, 
CO. Roscommon), burned, 1348. 
Mac Mahon, 1354. 
Maguire, 1355. 
Forts of : — 

Foreigners (on N. coast of I.) 
between Cenel-Eogain and 
Dalaraide sacked by Aedh 
(k. I.) 866. 
I., desolated by famine- pesti- 
lence, 1116. 
Kincora, King's Island and 
Singland, built by )3rian, 1013. 
Magh-Liphi and Magh-Bregh, 
pillaged by Norse fleets 837. 
Meath, destroyed, 971. 
Thomond. burned, 1084. 
Fortuatha and F. of Leinster (Imail and 
Glendalough, co. \Vicklo^y), kings of : — 
Conall, 827. 
Domnall, 1014. 
Domnall, 1043. 
Foster-b., of Donnchad O'Haughey, k. U., 
given as hostage for liberation of Donn- 
chad to Domnall O'Loughlin, 1101. 

si. by foster-b. in treachery, in house 

of slayer, 1179. 
Fosterage, 1499, 1531. 
Fota {Tall), Comgan, 870 ; Cummeni,592 

662; Ferchar, 719. 
Fothach, f. of Ferghus, 84.'^. 
Fothad, s, of Conall, ob., 5rj2. 

s. of Echu Lamhdoid, f. of Garrchu, 

495. 
Red- spear, s. of Muiredach f. (ac- 
cording to some) of Fergus 756 ; f. of 
Fiachra, 961. 
Fothan, see Fathan. 

Fotharta {Forth barr. cos. Carlow and 
Wexford), kings of : — 
Cathal, 847. 
Domnall O'Kelly, 1 

lords of : — 

Dubhdacrich, 738. 
Fergus, 738. 



Fotharta. — cont. 

wasted by Domnall, k. I., 971 ; 

Magh-Itho of, 664. 

Fea( Forth bar., co. Carlow), wasted 

by Ossorians, 754. 

Fothud, chief bp. of Scotland, ob., 1093. 

(mk.) of Fahan [ = Fathadh of the 

Canon, g.r.], ob., 819. 

Fothuth, ab. of Monasterboice, ob., 891. 

Foundation of : — 

Boyle Abbey, 1162. 

Church of Sinell of Cleenish, 

1100. 
Church of Fainche of Rossory, 
1084. 

Fount of generosity, see Ua Enna, Dom- 
nall. 

Four, miraculousl}' worsted fifteen, 1537. 

F^'owl, destruction of by frost, 1434. 

"Fox," O'Kearney, De Lacy si. by direc- 
tion of, 1186 ; Cairpre, chief of Kil- 
coursey, si., 1500. 

" Foxes " (0' Kearneys), pillaged Clon- 
macnoise, 1050; priest of, O'Duigenan, 
1357. 

Fraech, s. of Finnchad, k. S. L., si., 497. 

Fraechan, s. of Temnan, made druids' 
spell for k. Diarmait at btl. of Cul- 
dreimne, 561. 

France, raon. of Fursa (Peronne) in, 779; 
invaded, 1297 ; k. of (Philip le Bel), 
ob., 1313 ; k. of (Francis I.), at war. 
1522 ; monasteries of, 825 ; Henry V. 
(of England) at war with, 1419 ; other 
reference, 1425. 

Francis, St., sent 6 friars to Morocco, 
1219 ; death of, 1220 ; canonized, 1228 ; 
body of removed to church built in his 
honour, 1230 ; habit of, 1528. 

Franciscans, General Chapter of, 1265. 

Franks, emperor of, Floriacus, 840 ; in- 
vaded by k. of England, 1243. 

kings of : — 

Charles [the Great], 813. 
Flodubur (Clothair), 659. 
Otho, 1038. 



INDEX. 



167 



Franks. — cont. 

went to Scotland and took s. of k, as 

hostage, 1072 ; slew Mael-Coluim and 
Edward, 1093. See French, 
Fratricide of :— Concobar by his bb., 834. 
Suibne by his bb., 834. 

hanging for, 1513 ; other reference, 

1531. 
Frecmarc, bp. (-mk.) of Lusk, ob., 791. 

Freedom, full, given to Patrick's churches 
by Brian (Boruma), 1012. 

Fregabal {Ravel Water r., co. Antrim), 
defeat of Loingsech, k. of Dalaraide, 
at, 914. 

Fremhon {Frum Hill, Portloman par., 
Corkaree bar., Westmeath), btl. of, 510, 
517 ; 2 ss. of Aedh Slaine si. near, 
634 ; other reference, 1430. 

French, k. of, at war with Saxon k., 1295 ; 
k. of, at war with Edward II., 1326 ; 
k. of, Charles VIII., 1498. 

pilgrim to Purgatory of Patrick, 

1516 ; roof, 1447. 8ee Franks. 

Freyne, s. of Libined, 1419. 

Friar Minor, 1495 ; O'Fihelly, 1513. 

Friars, mon. of, Armagh, 1433. 

of Cavan, party of drowned, 1516. 

of Derry, monastery of, 1281. 

of Roscommon, mon. of, 1274. 

mon. of, Scotland, 1296. 

of Trim, 1447. 

of Common Life, deprived of Cavan 

mon., 1502. 

Minor, confirmed, 1215 ; at Armagh, 

1264 ; cemetery of, Armagh, 1266 ; de- 
prived of Carrickfergus mon., 1497 ; 
Chapter of, 1517 ; of Dromahaire, 1532, 
1536 ; of Dundalk, 1253 ; mon. of, Mon- 
aghan, 1462 ; 6 sent to Morocco, 1219 ; 
five of them martyred, 1220. 

of Stricter Observance, got Car- 
rickfergus mon., 1497, 1512 ; Chapter 
of 1488, 1505. 

Frossach [showery), why applied to Niall, 
s. of Fergal, k. I., 718, 764. 

Frost, destructive, 1339 ; great, 941, 



Frost. — cont. 

1234, 1281, 1282 ; unusually great, 945 ; 
from Epiphany to Lent, results of, 818 ; 
and snow, great, from Jan. 8 to Easter 
(Mar. 28), 1008; unusual : animals went, 
and burdens were carried, over frozen 
lakes and rivers, 822 ; unprecedented : 
made chief lakes and rivers of I. pas- 
sable, and, with snow and cold, de- 
stroyed many cattle, birds, and salmon, 
917 ; year of great, 1434 ; and snow, 
which destroyed tame and wild ani- 
mals, 1111 ; and snow, which destroyed 
birds, cattle and people and caused 
dearth, chiefly in Leinster, 1115. 

Fruit abundant, 672, 1108, 1249, 1253 ; 
destroyed by murder, 1534 ; by 
thunder and lightning, 1328, 1539. 

Fruitful, Autumn, 1010 ; year, 1108. 

Fuirectach, ab. of Inishkeel, ob., 741. 

Fulartach, bp. of Clonard, ob., 779. 

Furious, Aedh the, 1083 ; G-eofl'rey the, 
1094, 1095. 

Furnival, lord, came to I., 1415 ; Justici- 
ary, 1419, 1447. 

Fursa, ob., 648, 649, 656, or 661 ; mon. 
of in France, (Peronne), ab. of, Moinan, 
779 ; feast of, Jan. 16, 1086 ; bp. (recte 
ab.), vision of, 627. 

Furse (mk.) of Assylin, ob., 753. 

Fursu, ab. of Leckin, ob., 751. 

Furudhran, s. of Becc, k. of Bright, si. in 
stratagem by Cenel-Eogain, through 
envy, 964. 

s. of Becc, k. of Moygoish, ob., 645 ; 

Í. of Maelduin, 662. 



G 



Gabail-liuin {Fork of Pool : Galloon, in 
Upper Lough Erne, Coole bar., co. 
Fermanagh), 1450. 

Gabhair-Life (part of Wicklow co. tra- 
versed by the Liffey), btl. of, 563, 565, 
566, or 573. 



168 



INDEX 



Gable, eastern, of Aghalurcher church, 
erected by Thomas Maguire, k. of Fer- 
managh, 1447. 

Gabra (of Gabhair [-Life], q.v.)y Conall, 
703, 736. 

Gabrain (of Gowran), Goll, 1113 ; Belat 
(Pass of Gowran), 858, 1401. 

Gabran, "s. of Domangart, ob., 558, or 
560 ; f. of Aedhan, 580, 582, 590, 606 ; 
f. of Eugan, 595 ; many allies of ss. of 
si. in btl. of Teloch, 576. 

Gabran {Gowran, co. Kilkenny), Leinster 
pillaged from Dublin to by Aedh (k. I.), 
870 ; to Limerick from, wasted by 
Fkinn (k. L), 906. 

Gaeth-in-cairgin (Carrigans, on r. Foyle, 
Raphoe bar., co. Donegal), camp at, 
1201. 

Gaidhil (Scots), best of, Mael-Coluim, 
1165. 

Gaidelic (Irish) literature, learned in 
1501. 

Gaillbe (Galway), 1265, 1500, 1513. 

Gailenga-becca [Little Gailenga : a sept in 
E. Meath and W. Dublin, along the 
Liffey), defeated at Ath-da-loarc, 939. 

Collumrach (S. E. part of Clankee 

bar., CO. Cavan, adjoining Morgallion 
bar., Meath), chief of, Dunacau, 884. 

and Gailenga of Corran [Galleii bar., 

CO. Mayo, and Corran bar., co. Sligo), 
fo\ight Tirerrill, 743 ; raided, 1412, 
1514 ; 'slew Domnall, k. of Rosclogher, 
998 ; slew Fogartach, k. of Corcothri, 
994 ; other references, 1487, 1493, 1512, 
1514. 

mora (Morgallion bar., Meath), 

burned house of M urchadh O'Melaghlin, 
k. of Tara, and 80 other houses, and 
slew many, in Duleek, 1123 ; defeated 
at Ath-da-loarc, 939 ; defeated by 
Bregians, 1060 ; dispersed, with heavy 
loss, by Concobar (k. I) from As- 
sembly of Teltown, 827 ; great raid 
in by O'Carey, k. of Carbury (Meath), 
1013. 



Gailenga-mora. — cont. 

kings of : — 

Amlaim, 1130. 

Cathalan, 1006. 

Coscrach, 738. 

Domnall, 1032. 

Laidhgnen, 1051. 

Leochan, 1060, 1065. 

Maelan 1018. 

Merlechan, 1002. 

Echri O'Loughan, 1116- 

Laidhgnen O'Loughan, 1051. 

Son of Senan O'Loughan, 1066. 

Ruadhacan (k. of E. Gailenga), 

953. 
Senan, 1013. 

malefactors of, 847 ; pillaged by Ui- 

Cremthainn, 953 ; countless spoil taken 
from in Torlogh O'Brien's hosting, 
1073 ; slew Alene, k, of Cremorne and 
Ossene, k. of Balrothery, 1019; slew 
Dunacan, chief of Gailenga-Collumrach 
884 ; slew two of L^a-Machainen sept 
(of Cremorne), 1023. 
Gaimdibail, ab. of Aranmore Island, ob., 

760. 
Gaimide (mk.) of Louth, ob., 695. 
Gairbidh, Gairbith, and Gairfidh, f. of 
Congalach, 913; f. of JSJaelmordha [gf. 
of Gairbith], 891 ; f. of Erudan, 914 ; 
f. of Maelduin, 945. 

k. of Iveagh, si. in btl. of Crew 

Mount, 1004. 
s. of j\Iael-Mordha, si. in ignited re- 
fectory of Dromiskin, 912 ; said to have 
been si. in abbot's house, 913. 

s. of Muiredach, royal heir of Ui- 

Cremthainn, si. in btl. of Slane, 947. 
Gaiscedhach (Connaught chief), si. in btl. 

of Dunganiba, 799. 
Gaithene, eminent bp. of Downpatrick, 

ob., 956. 
Gaithin (Cennedigh, k. of Leix), s. of, 
burned fort of Amhlaim at, and slew 100 
Foreign chiefs same day near, Clon- 
dalkin, 867 ; si, by Leinstermen in 



INDEX. 



169 



Gaithin. — con 

attack on camp of Cerball(k. of Ossory), 
870. 

Galiime of the Britons {Gallen, King's 
CO.), both dwellings and oratory, burned 
by Feidhliniidh (k. M.), 823. 

Gall [Foreigner), of Lilcach, ob., 730. 

Gall-Goidhil (^Foreign Gaels : Gallowaj^, 
aided Mael-Sechnaill agairist Gentile'^', 
856; defeated and massacred by Aedh 
(k. I) in Glenelly, 856 ; defeated wiih 
Caittel the Fair, 857. 

kings of: — 

Aillin MacUchtry, 1234. 
Roland MacUchtry, 1200. 
Suibne, 1034. 

Gallen, King's co., see Galinne of the 
Britons. 

Gallen bar,, co. Mayo, see Gailenga of 
Corran. 

Gallon of beer, cost 6d., 1497. 

Galloon, see Gabail-liuin. 

GallowglasseSjOf Connaught, 1 397 ; of earl 
of Kildare, 1514 ; of Silken Thomas, 
1335 ; of Foreigners, 1475 . of Mac Don- 
nells and Mac Sheehys, aided O'Neill, 
1522 ; of Mac Sweeney, 1397, 1494 ; of 
Mac Sweeaey of Bannagh, 1522 ; of 
O'Conor the Brown, 1405 ; of O'Neill, 
1485, 1487 ; of O'Rourke, ]346. 

other references, 1290, 1316, 1367, 

1372, 1419, 1433, 1444, 1452, 1457, 1467, 
1494, 1501, 1504, 1526. 

Gallust, f. of Ossene, 705. 

Galmoy bar., co Kilkenny, see Cenn-caile. 

Galtrim (Caladtruim, q. v.), baron of, si., 
1460. 

Galway, see Gaillbe. 

Game, King's, (disease) 1361, 1369, 1504. 

Gapped bell, see Bell, Gapped. 

Gapped Spear, Aedh (O'Conor) o/i^/te, 1067. 

Garadh, Flann, 763, 797. 

Garb-esgir (Ballynagarbry, Clonlonan 
bar., Westmeath), 1475. 

ros (rough promontory or wood), k, 

of, Coscrach, 812. 



Garb.~co7i^ 

-salach (rourjli sallowy {place']), in 

Meath, slaughter at, 714. 
trian {Rough Third), of Connaught, 

countries of O'Reilly and O'Rourke 

(Cavan and Leitrim cos.), invaded, 1220 

(D), 1263 (D) ; O'Reilly of, 1508. 
Garbhan, f. of Sechnasich, 609. 

of Meath, ob., 702 ; f. of Aedh, 739. 

Garbith, s. of Lorean, k. of Ballygawley 

(Fir-Lemhna), ob., 951. 
Garbhraidhe, Goll, 1108. 
Garbshith, f. of Ceilacan, 933. 
s. of Maeleitigh, k. of Fir-Rois, si. 

by his bb., 937. 
Gardens, injured by storm, 1487. 
Garfidh, s. of Mael-Brigte, slew Oengus 

k. of Cremorne, 850 ; k. of Louth, be 

headed by Iveagh, 878. 
Garnat, s, of Deileroth, ob., 716. 
Garrchu, s. of Fothadh, f. of Finchad 

495 
Garrycastle bar,, King's co., see Delbna 

Betlirach. 
Gart, Master, 1492, 
Gartnaidh, s. of Domnall, (k.of Picts) ob, 

G63 ; f. of Cano, 688, 
Gartnaith, s, of Foith (Wid), si, in btl 

of Corlieu, 635 ; f. of larnbodb, 643. 
Gartnan, s. of Foith (Wid), ob., 635. 
(xartnat, s. of Accidan, war of, 649 ; ss 

of, sailed to I., 668 ; returned from I. 

670. 
Gaul, earthquake ill, 618. 
Geibennach, s. of Aedh, k. of Ui-Maine, 

foil in btl. against Murcha 1, 973. 
Geirtide, k. of Ciannachta, defeated at 

Eudon-mor, 594. 
Geislinne, 783. 
Gelasius, pope, 493. 
General, Chapter of Franciscans, 1265. 

Council of Lateran, 1215. 

Generosity of w^orld, see UaEnna, Domnall. 
Generous almsgiver, O'Dunan, abp. of 

Cashel, 1117. 
Geno, f. of Aedh, 579 ; gss. of,-ob., 588. 



170 



INDEX. 



Genoa, John of, finished Catholicon, 1286. 

Gentiles (Danes,Norsemen), devastated all 
islands of Britain, 794 ; burned E-athlin, 
wasted Skye Island, 795 ; burned St. 
Patrick's Island, carried off spoils ; 
broke shrine of Dochonna and did 
other devastations in I. and Scotland, 
798. 

burned lona, 801 ; slew 68 of com- 
munity of lona, 806 : burned Inish- 
murray and invaded Roscommon, 807 ; 
massacred by Ulidians, 811 ; massacred 
Connemara ; massacred by Owles 
and Munster, 812 ; massacred Owles, 
813 ; pillaged and carried off many 
women from Howth, 821 ; invaded 
Bangor, 823 ; pillaged Bangor, broke 
down oratory, cast relics of Comgall 
out of shrine ; quatrain respecting the 
last ; carried off Etgal (mk) of 
Skellig, 824 ; burned Moville and its 
oratories ; defeated Ossorians ; defeated 
by Ulidians ; martyred Blathmacc ; 
pillaged Downpatrick and Little Island, 
825 ; devastated Ciannachta to Ochta- 
Ugan ; destroyed camp of, and slew 
innumerable, Leinstermen ; burned and 
pillaged Lusk ; pillaged E. Meath 
Foreigners, 827 ; burned Clonmore 
and Dunleer ; killed many sea- hogs 
in Ferrard and martyred Temhnu, 
anchorite ; defeated by Lethlabhar, k. 
of Dalaraide ; defeated by Coirpre, k. 
of S. Leinster SMá family of Taghmon, 
828. 

pillaged level part of Louth, car- 
ried off the k. and his b. in ships ; 
defeated and took very many oi family 
of Armagh in Lower Dundalk bar. , co. 
Louth, 831 : pillaged Armagh, for the 
first time, thrice in a month ; the 
churches of Mucknoe, Louth, Monaghan 
(bar., CO. Mon.), Druim-Mic-U-Blae 
and other places ; Duleek and Cian- 
nachta with its churches ; captured 
AiliU ; carried off Tuathal and shrine 



Gentiles. — cont. 
of Adamnan from Donaghmoyne, 432 ; 
defeated by Niall (k. I.) and Murchad 
in Derry ; pillaged Clondalkin ; burned 
Lismore and Dromiskin ; pillaged 
Loughbrickland against Congalach, 
whom they slew at their ships, 833 ; 
defeated by Dunadhach, k. of Ui- 
Fidhgeute ; burned Fennor, Glen- 
dalough, and Slane, 834 ; burned Mun- 
gret and churches in W. Munster ; 
pillaged Clonmore and I'erns ; pillaged 
Drumin, 835 ; pillaged Kildare and 
burned half the church ; despoiled S. 
Bregia for the first time, slew many and 
carried off very many ; wasted all 
Connaught ; defeated N. Decies, 836 ; 
defeated, with 120 si., by Bregians at 
Deoiiinne ; defeated (S.) Ui-Neill from 
Shannon to sea, with heavy loss, 
at Inber-na-barc ; burned Iniscaltra ; 
razed all Lough Erne churches, includ ■ 
ing Clones and Devenish ; Saxolb, 
chief of, si. by Ciannachta (of Bregia), 
837 ; defeated Connacians, with great 
loss, 838 ; led expedition to, and 
despoiled territories and churches of 
N. of I. , from, Lough Neagh ; defeated 
Men of Pictland ; burned Cork and 
Ferns, 839. 

pillaged Louth from Lough Neagh, 

led some bishops, priests, and sages 
captive and slew others, 840 ; on Lough 
Neagh still ; erected fortress at Arnia- 
gassan, whence Teffia, land and church, 
was pillaged ; erected fortress at Dub- 
lin, whence Leinster and (S. ) Ui Neill, 
lands and churches were pillaged to 
Slieve Bloom, 841 ; still in Dublin ; 
captured Maelduin, k. of Galtrim ; 
pillaged Clonmacnoise from Anna- 
gassan : Birr, and Seirkieran from Dub- 
lin ; captured Moran, ab. of Clogher, 
from Rosnaree ; wounded and burned 
Comman, ab. of Annagassan ; pillaged 
Castledermot from Narrow-water, 842 



INDEX. 



171 



(rentiles. — cont. 

slew Maelmithigh ; burne Clonfert 
from Lough Ree, 844 ; captured Forin- 
dan, ab. of Armagh, with rehquaries 
and retinue, at Colman's Well ; pil- 
laged Dunamase and slew there Aedh, 
ab. of Terry glass and Clononagh, 
Ceithernach, vice-ab. of Kildare, and 
others ; encamped under Turges at 
Lough Ree, whence they pillaged 
Conna.ight and Meath, burned Clon- 
macnoise and its oratories, Clonfert, 
Terry glass, Lorrha and other monas- 
teries ; defeated by Niall, s. of Aedh, 
(k. I.), 845 ; pillaged Baslick ; defeated 
Connacians, and slew Rigan, Moghron, 
Aedh, and many more, 846 ; 700 of si. 
at Forragh (Meath) ; defeated by Mael- 
Sechnaill ; Olchobar and Lorcan ; Tiger- 
nach, and Eoghanacht of Cashel ; 1200 
of fell in defeat by Tigernach, 848 ; 
people of k. of, came to subdue Foreig- 
ners in I. and disturbed I. ; slew Mael- 
Bresail, k. of Cremorne, 849. 

aided Cinaedh, k. of Ciannachta, 

against Mael-Sechnaill, k. I., 850 ; 
slew Echu, k. of Fir-Rois, 851 ; of 
Annagassan, wasted Armagh ; massa- 
cre of, at Islands E. of Bregia ; another 
in same month at Rathallon, 852 ; sub- 
mitted to Amhlain, 853 ; had great 
war with Mael-Sechnaill and Galloway, 
856 ; aided Aedh, k. I., in pillaging 
Meath, 861 ; searched for first time 
cave of Newgrange, Knowth, Dowth, 
and Drogheda ; Amhlaim, Imar, and 
Auisle kk., of, aided by Lorcan, k. of 
Meath, plundered land of Flann, s. of 
Conaing, on the occasion, 863 ; went 
with Amlaiph and Auisle, and pillaged 
Pictland and took hostages ; fortresses 
of between Cenel-Eogain and Dalaraide 
razed, defeated and despoiled of chattel , 
flocks and herds, by Aedh, k. I. ; 
defeated, with 240 si., at Lough Foyle, 
866 ; 100 chiefs of, si. near Clondalkin, 



Gentiles. — cont. 

867 ; 300, or more, of defeated in btl. 
of Killineer, 868 ; with Amlaini, burned 
and pillaged Armagh, 869 ; with Cenel- 
Eogain, took Dunseverick, 871 ; pil- 
laged Kilmore (co. Armagh), 874 ; shrine 
and reliquaries of Columba brought 
to L, fleeing from, 878 ; captured ab. 
and lector of Armagh, 879 ; pillaged 
Duleek oratory and took ofl" its full of 
persons, 881 ; led by Flann (k. I.) to 
N. of I. and pillage of Armagh, 882 ; 
defeated Flann (k. I.) 888 ; on hosting 
of Domnall (k. of Ailech) against S. 
Ui-Neill, 889. 

expulsion of, from L, i.e. from Dub- 
lin fort, leaving many ships in defeat, 
902 ; defeated crews of Ulidian fleet 
and slew many around s. of k. ofLecale, 
in Saxon haven, 913 ; came in frequent 
great increase to Waterford Harbour 
and pillaged territories and churches 
of Munster, 915 ; massacred at Great 
Island by Munster ; massacred by 
Eoghanacht (of Lough-Lein) and Kerry; 
went to Tubrid, attacked by Irish (of 
]00 sL, greater number belonged 
to Gentiles) ; reinforced by Ragnall, 
with Gentile army, but withstood by 
Niall (k. I.) who stayed 20 nights in 
camp against, 91 7 ; aid of, refused to 
Maelmithidh, k. of Knowth, to defend 
N. Bregia, 918 ; defeated Irish at Dub- 
lin and slew Niall, k. I. and slew 3 other 
kk. and two royal-heirs named, with 
many other nobles, 919. 

defeat and great slaughter of, by 

Dontichad ; stone church of Kells 
broken by, 920 ; 32 ships of, with 
Acolb, in Lough Foyle ; abandoned 
Cen-rig, ship of broken and crew si. 
by Fergal, k. of Ailech ; fleet of, at 
Kinnaweer, 921 ; fleet of, pillaged 
islands of, and districts rouad, Lough 
Erne ; left Lough the Summer fol- 
lowing ; another fleet of on Strangford 



172 



INDEX, 



Gentiles. — cont. 

Lough ; a third, of sameLough, wrecked, 
with 900 (h-owned, between Dundruni 
Bays, 924 ; fleet of, on Lough Neagh ; 
islands and confines of Lough, pillaged 
by, under s. of Ailche, 928 ; fleet of, on 
Lough Corrib, 929. 

fleet of, on Lough Neagh, and en- 
camped at mouth of Main r. ; on Loch- 
Betlirach in Ossory, 930 ; slew Airme- 
dach, ab. of Coleraine ; fleet of, on 
Lough Ree, 932 ; defeated with great 
loss by Muircertach, s. of Niall, on raid 
of Matudhan, k. U., to Slieve Beagh 
and Mucknoe, 933. 

slew Suibne, 940 ; pillaged Down- 

patrick ; punished by God and Patrick 
bringing Foreigners over sea to seize 
their islands (crannogs) and having 
their k. si. by Irish, 942 ; slew 
Muircertach, k. of Ailech, Sim., Feb. 
26 ; pillaged Armagh, Mon., Feb. 27 ; 
slew Lorcan, k. L., 943 ; of Lough 
Neagh, si. by Domnall and Flaith- 
bertach and their fleet destroyed, 945 ; 
captured Colman, ab. of Slane, 948. 

slew Ruaidhri, royal heir of I., 

after 2,000 or more of were si. b}' him, 
950 ; defeated Scots, Britons, and 
Saxons, 952 ; with Momonians pillaged 
Clonmacnoise, 953 ; slew Tanaide, ab. 
of Bangor, 958 ; pillaged Kildare, 9C4 ; 
besieged 2 months by Domnall, k. of 
Tara, 968 ; slew Cellach (probably in 
Armagh), 971 ; slew Ferdalach, here- 
nagh of Lambay, 975 ; took and slew 
Bran, k. L., 980 ; pillaged and burned 
Downpatrick, 989 ; pillaged Kells and 
Clonard, 997 ; hostages got from by 
Mael-Sechlainn and Brian (Boruma), 
for peace towards Irish, 998 ; cliiefs of 
si. at Glen-mama, 999. 

cavalry foray-party of defeated at 

Feartagh, 1000 ; inactive, 1006 (note) ; 
said to have been j'oked to plough and 
harrow by Gilla-Mochonna, k. of S. 



Gentiles. — cont. 
Bregia, 1013 ; defeated Midians at Dri- 
nan ; massacred by Catlial, k. of Des- 
mond ; warred against Brian (Boruma), 
1013; annihilated, with 6000 si. or 
drowned, b}' Brian (Boruma) and Mael- 
Sechlainn in btl. of Dublin (Clontarf), 
1014 ; massacred in Odba by Mael- 
Sechlainn, 1017 ; O'Dunne, k. of Bregia, 
taken in Assembly of and carried over 
sea by, 1023 ; hosting against (into 
Fingal) and Irish hostages of rescued 
by Flaithbertach, 1025 ; hosting to and 
hostages of got by Donnchad, s. of 
Brian (Boruma) ; hosting to, country 
of burned and spoil of taken by Niall, 
k. U., 1026 ', (of Ossory) slew Cerball, 
1039 : slaughter of in btl. of Odhbha, 
1072 ; defeated Mael-Sechlainn, 1086. 

]nllaged Scattery Island, 1101 ; made 

Cellach bp. of Dublin, 1121 ; submitted 
to Torlogh O'Conor, k. C, 1122 ; de- 
posed s. of Torlogh ; Domnall put as k. 
over by Torlogh, 1 127 ; battalion of, 
1161 ; corn and to^^^ls of in Magh- 
Fitharta burned by Muircertach 
O'Loughlin, 1162. 

hero-plunder of {i.e., against), 8o9. 

k. of escaped from Crannog, but si. 

by Irish on mainland, 942. 
kings of : — 

Amlaiph, 864. 

Amlaim, 1029. 

Auisle (3rd k. of), 867. 

Blacair, 948. 

Brian (Boruma), arch-k. of, 1014. 

Diarmait, 1072. 

Gothbnth, 926. 

Horra, 856. 

Imar, 1054. 

Iron-knee, 989. 

Murchad, 1070. 

Ragnall, 980. 

Sitriuc, 999, 1013, 1028. 

kk. of, went with Aedh, k. I., t 

pillage Heath, 862. 



INDEX. 



173 



Gentiles. — cont. 

chief young lord of, Torfind, 1 124. 

plunderers likened to, 8-17. 

royal-heir of, Gilla-Ciarain, 1014. 

Black, came to Dublin ; massacred 

White Gentiles and sacked the fort ; 
made depredation at Annagassan, and 
massacred White Gentiles, 851 ; 160 
ships of White Gentiles came against 
to Carlingford Lough ; left with, after 
defeat of crews in figlit of 3 days and 3 
nights, 852 ; defeated N. Saxons, 867 ; 
defeated and massacred Pic ts, 875 ; 
Ruaidhri, k. of Britons, fled to I. from, 
877 ; fought White Gentiles at Strang- 
ford Lough, 877 ; defeated, with im- 
mense loss, by Saxons, 893 ; chief of, 
Albann, 877. 

kings of : — 

Blacair, 943. 
Horm, 856. 

Ragnall, 917, 918, 921. 
Sitriuc, 927. 

Ulf of,slewMael-Sechnaill,j.-k- 
of S. Bregia, 870. 

of Carlingford Lough (Snam-aigh- 

nech), supra, Gentiles, Black, 852 ; pil- 
laged Killevy and martyred Dublitir, 
923 ; defeat of at by Muircertach, k. of 
Ailech, 926. 

of Dublin, great confusion among : 

one part with s. of Imar, the other, with 
earl Sicfrith, 893 ; pillaged Armagh 
and surrounding country, but defeated 
with great loss, 921 ; under Gothfrith, 
razed Derc-Ferna, 929 ; pillaged Clon- 
macnoise and stayed 2 nights in it, — a 
thing unprecedented, 936 ; hosting 
against, 938 ; defeated by Ossory, 
941 ; pillaged Clonmacnoise and Kil- 
dare, 942 ; pillaged Clonmacnoise and 
Meath churches, 946 ; defeated at 
Slane by Ruaidhri, gs. of Canannan, 
947 ; with Gothfrith on raid in Meath, 
951 ; slew Congalach, k. L, k. of Teffia 
and many more, 956 ; defeated Lagen- 



Gentiles* — cont. 

ians in btl. of Bithlan, 978 ; defeated 
at Tara, 980 ; pillaged Donaghpatrick, 
995 ; defeated at Glen-mama, 999. 

again in Dublin, subject to Brian 

(Boruina), 1000 ; with Gentiles of 
Lochlaun in btl. of Dublin (Clon- 
tarf), 1011 ; defeated, slaughtered and 
enslaved by Niall, 1022 ; pillaged 
Ardbraccan, burned 200 in church, 
and made 200 captive, 1031 ; abp. of, 
Dunan, 1071 ; kk. of Echmarcach, 
1064 ; Geoffrey the Furious, 1095 ; 
kingship of, 1094 ; massacred on the 
day they intended to pillage Cork, 
1088 ; went with Muircertach O'Brien 
to, and were slaughtered in,Magh-Coba, 
1103 ; defeated Lagenians, 1115 ; gave 
hostages to Torlogh O'Conor, 1118 ; 
pillaged and great sway got over by 
Diarmait Mac Murrough, 1 1 62 ; slaugh- 
ter of, with Mac Gilleownan (in Scot- 
land), 1161 ; went with Henry IL to 
subdue Welsh, 1165 ; gave hostages to 
Ruaidhri O'Conor, k. C, 1166. See also 
Ath-cliath, Foreigners of. 

of Islands, defeated at Tara, 980 ; 3 

ships of wrecked, 120 of si., by Ulidians, 
1098> 

of Lough Neagh (Loch-Echach), 

supra, Gentiles, 839, 840, 841, 928, 930. 

of Strangford Lough (Loch Cuan), 

supra, 924 ; destroyed Dunseverick, and 
slew and took many ; defeated at by 
Muircertach, k. of Ailech, with 200 be- 
headed ; fleet of went to Annagassan, 
Sep. 4, defeate(i at Cluain-na-cruimther 
bridge, Thurs., Dec. 28, by Muircer- 
tach ; half of force rescued after a week 
by Gothfrith at Ath-cruithne, 926 ; 
almost exterminated by Lecale, 943. 

of Waterford Harbour (Loch-da- 

chaech), new fleet of in, 914 ; great and 
frequent increase of to ; churches and 
lands of Munster pillaged by, 915 ; 
Annie, k. of Owneybeg, si. by ; still 



17 



INDEX. 



Gentiles. — cout. 

pillaging Mnnster and Leinster, 916' 
reinforced by fleet of Ragnall, 917 ; left 
I. for Scotland, and met Scotsmen on 
Tj'ne : 3 battalions went into action 
and were defeated with great loss ; 4th 
battalion fell on Scottish rere and slew 
many common soldiers, but no k. or 
Great Steward, until night made them 
desist, 918 ; massacred by Mmister 
Iveagh on the day they intended to 
pillage Cork, 1088. 

of Wexford, massacred by Munster 

Iveagh on the áa.y they intended to 
pillage Cork, 1088. 

White, massacred by Black Gentiles 

at Dublin and Annagassan ; Dublin 
fort of sacked by same, 851 : 160 ships 
of came to Carlingford Lough against, 
and were left to. Black (i entiles, after 
defeat of crews in fight of 3 daj'^s and 3 
nights, 852 ; fought Black Gentiles at 
Strangford Lough, 877. 

kings of : — 

Kagnall, 921. 
Sitriuc, 927. 
See also Norsemen. 

Geofirey the furious, expelled from king- 
ship of Dublin Foreigners b\' Muircer- 
tach O'Brien, 1094 ; ob., 1095. 

Gerald, bp. of Maj^o, ob., 732. 

Geraldines, of Munster, 1510. 

Germans, at war, 1522. 

Gerrgaela, k. of Bregia, si., 1025. 

Gerthide, f . of Cennfaeladh, 662. 

s. of Tuathal, slew Cellach, ab. of 

Drumcar, 816. 

Gerthinne, f. of Fianamail, 736. 

Gevissae Saxons, k. of, Aralt (Harold), 
1040. 

Giblechan, s. of Mael-Brighte, k. of Louth, 
ob., 890 ; f. of Mael-Brighle, 914. 

Gildas, ob., 570, or 577. 

Gilla-Aedha, bp. of Cork, ob., 1172. 

-na-naingel, ab. of Lisgool, ob., 

1275. 



Gilla. — cont. 

Cellaigh, s. of Comaltan, k. of Ui- 

Fiachrach of Aidhne, si., 1004. 
Ciarain, s. of Iron-knee, roj^al-heir 

of Foreigners, fell in btl. of Dublin 

(Clontarf,, 1014. 
s. of Osene, k. of Cremorne, si. 

by Fir-Eois, 1020. 

s. of Ualgarc, chief of Ui- 

Duibinnrecht, ob., 1026. 

Coemghin, s. of Cinaedh, gf. of w. 

of Cathal, k. E. L. , 1035. 
s. of Dunlaing, roj'al-heir of 

L., si. by his sept, 1019. 

s. of Gilla-Comgaill, roj'al-heir 

of L., si., 1059. 

-Coluim, gs. of Canannan, si. by 

Domnall, k. of Ailech, 977. 
Comgaill, s. of Ardgar, k. U., si. 

by his b., Maelruanaidh, 1005, or 1006. 
s. of Donncuan, taken by force from 

Kildare and si., 1041 ; f. of Gilla- 

Coemghin, 1059. 
Comgain, s. of Mael-Brighte, Great 

Steward of Moray, burned, 1032 ; f. of 

Lulach, 1058. 

Crist, f. of Branan, 1120. 

gs. of Cuilennan, si. by Oriel, 

999. 
s. of coarb of Ciaran (ab.) of Clon- 

macnoise, ob., 1172. 

s. of Conaing, steward of 

O'Melaghlins, si. in Kilbrew hosting, 
1018. 

s. of Cu-Cuailgne, f. of Dom- 
nall, 1052. 

s. of Dubcuilinn, eminent priest 

of Armagh, died in Roscommon, 1028. 
-Crone, eminent priest of Armagh, 

died in penance, 1081. 

Cumain, f. of Mael-Muire, 1179. 

Enain, s. of Agda, si. by Sil-Ronain 

by stratagem, 999 . 

Erain, f. of Mael-Isu, 1200. 

Faelain, f. of Donnchad, k. of 

Offaly, 1050. 



INDEX. 



175 



Gilla. — cont. 

-Finnein (tribe name of Mac Len- 

nans), 1446. 

-Fulartaigh, k. of Deece, si., 1034. 

-Mac Aiblen, coarb of Brenann 

(bp.) of Clonfert, ob., 1166. 

-Mac Liach, s. of Ruaidhri, coarb of 

Patrick, held synod of Irish clergy at 
Cloenad, 1162 ; made circuit of and got 
unprecedently large cess in Cenel- 
Eogain ; consecrated Lorcan 0' Toole, 
ab. of Glendalough, bp. of Dublin, 
1162; primate of L, made 4th circuit 
of C, 1172 ; bp. and primate of Armagh 
and I., Columban ab. of Derry for 16 
years before he became coarb of Patrick, 
ob., 1174. 

Mochaidbeo, ab. of Monastery of 

Peter and Paul, Armagh, 1174. 

Mocholmoic, f. of Muircertach, 

1103. 

Mochonna, s, of Fogartach, k. of 

S. Bregia, died in his sleep in Mael- 
Sechlainn's house after drinking ; 
Foreigners yoked to plough and harrow- 
by, 1013. 

f. of Donnchad, 1027. 

f. of Gilla-Sechnaill, 1034. 

-Moninne, herenagh of Louth, ob., 

1083. 

Muire, s. of Cennetigh, si. to avenge 

slaying of Ruadhri, k. of Iveagh, 
1019. 

Mura, s. of Ocan or Oca, slew Dom- 

nall, royal-heir of Ailech, 1024 ; steward 
of Tullyhog, ob., 1056. 

Ossen, s. of Mac Corten, k. of 

Delbna, sL, 1096. 

-Patraic, bp. of Dublin, drowned, 

1084. 

k. of Carbury (Meath), died in 

penance, 1077. 

the Red, k. of Ossory, si. in Magh- 

Coba, 1103. 

s. of Domnall, v.-ab. of Armagh, si. 

by s. of Archu, 1052. 



Gilla-Patraic — cont.. 

s. of Donnchad, k. of Ossory, 

ob., 996 ; f. of Donnchad, 1016. 
s. of Donnchad, k. of Ossory, 

slew Murchad, k. L., and Domnall, k. 

of Slievemargy, 1042 ; ob., 1055 ; f. of 

Domnall, 1087 ; gf. of Donnchad, 1089, 

1113. 

s. of Fergal, f. of Niall, 1012. 

s. of Imar, si. in defeat of Domnall, 

k. L., 983. 
s. of Tomaltach, si. in btl. of Crew 

Mount, 1004. 
Sechnaill, s. of Gilla-Mochonna, si., 

1034. 
Tigernaigh, s. of Gilla-Ronain, bp. 

of Clogher, head of Canons of I., ob., 

1218. 
Girdles of men, snow up to, April 23, 855. 
Glaindibur, ab. of Laraghbryan, ob., 767. 
Glais -liathain, beside Clonkeen(co. Louth), 

Muircertach, k. of Ailech, si. at, 943. 
noiden {stream of youths : Glasnevin, 

CO, Dublin), abbots of : — 
Cialltrogh, 746 
Maeltuile, 885. 

mk. of, Elpin, 758. 

Glenfarne, see Clann-Fermuighe. 
Glanmire, see Glenn-maighair. 
Glasdrummond, see Glass-drumainn. 
Glasnevin, see Glais-noiden, 
Glastonbury, d, of ab. of, w. of Earl of 

Kildare, 1496. 
Glass-drumainn {Glasdrummond, co. Ty- 
rone), 1493. 
Glen, Eveleen, d. of Knight of, w. of 

O'Conor Kerry, ob., 1524. 
of [r.] Finn [co. Donegal], burned 

1511. 
of [r,] Foyle [co. Londonderry] 

Cenel-Binnigh of, 1030, 1076, 1078, 1181. 
Glenarm barr., co. Antrim, see Glens. 
Glenconkeine, see Glenn-Concadhain. 
Glendalough, see Glenn -da-locha. 
Glenelly, see Glenn-Foichle. 
Glenflesk, see Glenn-Flesgi. 



176 



INDEX. 



Glenge\nn, see Glenn -gaimhin. 
Glenn, Cuanan of, 747. 
Glenn-cirtighe (perhaps vale of[v.]Clodi/, 
CO. Wexford), anchorite of, Inraithech, 
774. 

Coneailliain ^Gltiiconktute : vale of 

Moyola Water, co. Londonderry), 1526. 

da-loclia (ra/e of two lakes : Glenda- 

lough, CO. Wicklow), abbots of : — 

Cadhasach (coarb of Coemglien), 
1031 [ = Cathasach O'Caliill, 
1045 ?j. 
Ceithernach, 799. 
Cinaedh (coarb of Coemglien), 

1068. 
Conn, 1014. 
Daniel, 868. 
Dochuraa, 687. 
Dubhguala, 712. 
Dunchad (coarb of Coemglien), 

1003. 
Encorach, 769. 
Fechtnach, 875. 
Guaire, 810. 
Maelcombair, 790. 
Martain (coarb of Coeinghen), 

959. 
Mimtenacha, 800. 
Cathasach O'Caliill (coarb of 

Coemghen), 1045. 
Gilla-Patraic Toole (coarb of 

Coemghen), 1128. 
Lorcan O'Toole (coarb of Coem- 
ghen), 1162. 
Suibne, 836. 

Tuathal (coarb of Coemghen), 
1106. 

bp.-ab. of, Dungal, 904. 

bishops of : — 

Cormac, 927. 
Daircill, 678. 
Etirscel, 814. 
Cinaeth O'Ronan, 1173. 

burned, 775, 1061, 1071 ; burned with 

its churches, 1 084 ; witli its oratories, 
1020 ; greater part of burned, 1017. 



Glenn-da-locha.— covt. 

herenaghs of : — 

Ailill, 973. 
Cormac (bp.) 927. 
Crunnmael, 972. 

located in Cualann, 819 ; mk. 

Colman 660 ; dying in pilgrimage in 
1030 ; pillaged by Gentiles, 834 ; Lein- 
sterpillaged from to Kilmainham, 1013. 

Eilidhe, and Glenn-Eile [Glen- 

Dhaile] (Glen of Culdaff r., co. Done- 
gal), burned, 1462 ; raided, 1522, 1527. 

Flesgi [Glenflesk, co. Kerry), 1524. 

Foichle (Glenelly, co. Tyrone), 

defeat and great massacre of Galloway 
by Aedh (k. I.) in, 856. 

gaimhin (Glengevin : Glen of r. Roe, 

CO. Londonderry), 616, 695 ; Keenaght 
of, 757, 884, 927. 

• Limiia {Glen of Levin Water, be- 

twee.n Loch Lomond and Dumbarton), 
704. 

maighair(G^/a»??iú'e, co. Cork), host- 
ing by Torlogh O'Conor to, 1118 ; raid 
by same to, 1126. 

mama (near Dunlavin^ co. Wick- 
low), defeat of Dublin Gentiles and 
Leinstermen at, 999. 

Muie.son (in W. Lothian) btl. of 

638. 

rige (Glen of Newry r., co. Down), 

759 ; defeat of Louth, Ci emorne and 
X. Bregia by Aedh in, 996 ; hosting of 
Domnall O'Loughlin to, 1113; John 
de Courc}' encamped in, 1178. 

Suilidhi {Glen of [r.] Sivilly : Glen- 

■sirtllt/, Kilmacrenau bar., co. Donegal), 
Conwal of, 915 ; other reference, 1063. 

Uissen {Killeshin par., Slievemargy 

bar.. Queen's co. ), burned, oratory of 
razed, 100 si., 400 taken, by s. of Mael- 
na-mbo, in revenge of burning of Ferns, 
1042. 

Glens (Glenarm barr., co Antrim), O'Neill 
of, 1540 ; raided, 1512, 1513. 

Glenswilly, see Glenn-Suilidhi. 



INDEX. 



177 



Glory of Munster, Donmall, Ua Cetfadlia, 

1045. 
of Ulidia, tower of, Etru, chief of 

Manaigh, 1056. 
Glutt, Fergus, 739. 
Gnia, anchorite, best scribe, bp. -ab. of 

Duleek, ob., 872. 
Goat, gave birth to white lamb, 1431, 

1432. 
Goach, s. of Dubroa, k. of Keenaght, si. 

by Muircertach, k. of Ailech, 927. 
God, miracle of, 1534 ; miracles of, 1538 ; 

avenged pillaging of Donaghpatrick, 

995 ; avenged pillaging of Termon- 

Magrath, 1070 ; avenged slaying of 

Matudhan of Iveagh by death of 

slayers, 950. 
(iod and Patrick, punishment of, 1007. 
Godfrey, s. of Amlaim, k. of Dublin, ol). , 

1075. 
( Jofraidh and Gof rith, s. of Amlaim, ob. , 

963 ; f. of Blacair, 943, 948. 
Gofraidh, s. of Aralt, k. of Hebrides, si., 

in (Scottish) Dalriata, 989. 
Gohan, Flann, 732. 
(Joidel, (mk. ) of Clonard, ob. , 776. 
Going on pilgrimage, s.r. Pilgrimage. 
Gold, 8 oz. of put on Armagh altar by 

Muircertach O'Brien, 1103. 
22 oz. of put on Patrick's altar 

(Armagh) by Brian (Boruma), 1005. 

60 oz. of, see Ransom of Amlaim. 

60 oz. of given by Muircertach 

O'Loughlin and 60 by Donnchadh 

O'Carroll and 60 by w. of Tigernan 

O'Rourke at consecration of Mellifont 

church, 1157. 
Gold-wright, 1479. 
GoldenDoor(of St. Peter's, Rome), opened, 

1450, 1500. 
Golden Number, 1452. 
Goli (probably in Connaught), btl. of, 

787. 
Goll-claraigh of theUi-Cremthainn, fell in 

defeat of Fews, 1078. 
Goll Fergus, 719. 



GoU. — coiiL 

Garbhraidhe, l^^ochaidh O'Haughey, 

1108. 

of Gowran, slew his b. , Domnall, k. 

of Ossory, 1113. 
of Mourne (Bairche), k. of Ui-Meith, 

si. by Ui-Bresail and Iveagh, 1109. 
Gore, lumps of, like animals' lungs, round 

Lough Lene (Westmeath), 8i6. 

blood found in lumps of, 878. 

Gormacan, f. of Mochta, 957. 

Gorman, d. of Flann, s. of Aedh, ob., 

770. 
Gormgal, of High Island (off Gal way co.), 

chief confessor of I., ob., 1018. 
of Leix, coarb (chaplain) of Brigit's 

church in Armagh, master of wisdom 

and piety, ob., 1085. 
chief confessor of Ram's Island 

(Lough Neagh), died aged, in penance, 

1056. 

f. of Bresal, 801. 

f. of Maelduin, 826. 

f. of Muircertach, 835. 

s. of Aedh, si. in btl. of Kells, 718. 

s. of Ailill, ob., 768. 

s. of Conall Crui, k. of Cobha, fell 

in btl. of Ath-duma, 976. 
s. of Dindanach, Dindatach (799), or 

Dindagad (806), outraged Faindelach, 

ab. of Armagh, 793 ; promulgated Law 

of Patrick over Connaught, 799 ; ab. 

of Armagh and Clones, ob., 806. 
s. of Dunchad, noble of Ui-Briuin, 

si. in btl. of Tarbga, 822. 

s. of Eladhach, k. of Knowth,died 

a cleric, 789. 
• s. of Muiredach, bp. -anchorite of 

iJunleer, ob., 845. 

s. of Niall, ob., 814. 

(Tormlaidh,d. of Flann, (q. of Niall Black- 
Knee, k. I.) died in penance, 948. 

f. of Crinan, 1012. 

(Jormlaith, d. of Donnchadh, most cour- 
teous q. of Scots, died after penance, 

861. 

M 



178 



INDEX. 



Gormlaith. — conf. 

(1. of Murcbad, coarb of Brigit (abbess 

of Kildare), died in penance, 1112. 

Gort-cbonaicb [Field of hruah-icood : Con- 
nabury, near Castleblane}^ co. Monag- 
han), ab. of Flann Febla, 740. 

-an-feadan {Gortineddan, Tomregan 

par., Knockninny bar., co. Fermanagh), 
1450, 1457. 

Rottachain (apparently in Thomond ) 

btl. of, 944. 

Gospel of Angel, 553. 

of Kells, see Colum-cillc, Gospel of. 

of (St.) Martin, protection of vio- 
lated, 1166; taken off by Foreigners, 
1182. 

Gossipred, 1275, 1509, 1514, 153G, 1537, 
1539. 

Got [Stammerer), Cernachan, 1037. 

Mael-Seehlainn, 1022, 1025 ; k. of 

j\Ieath, si. , 1030 ; d. of, q. of Laidhgnen, 
k. of Morgallion, went on pilgrimage 
with k. to Rome, 1051. 

Conor O'Hara, k. of Le^'ney (co. 

Sligo), 1202, 1231. 

Gilla-Ua Cormaic, 1103. 

Gothbrith and Gothfrith, f. of Alpthan, 
went from Dublin and rescued half of 
defeated army of his s., at Ath-criiithne, 
926. 

f. of Amlaini, 960. 

f. of Amlaiph, 938. 

f. of Ragnall, 1005. 

gs. of Imar, led battalion of Gentiles 

at btl. of Tyne, 918 ; came to Dublin, 
921 ; led Foreign armj'" in pillaging 
Armagh and surrounding countr}', 921 ; 
hosting by from Dublin to Limerick : 
very many of si. by s. of Ailche, 924 ; 
retired from Dublin ; leturned before 
six months, 927 ; razed Derc-Ferna, 
930 ; gs. of Imar, most cruel k. of 
Norsemen, died of grief, 934. 

s. of Sitriuc, with Dublin Foreigners, 

pillaged Kells, Donaghpatrick, Ard- 
braccan, Dulane, Kilskcer and othci- 



(lOthbrith. — cont. 

churches from Kells, took 3000 or more 

captive, and took oft' great spoil, 951. 
Grace, Year of, (Jubilee) 1300. 
Graggabai, -see Earls, Ottir and Grag- 

gabai. 
Graicraige ( = Greccraiglie, q.r., Coolavin 

bar., CO. Sligo, and adjacent part of 

N.W. of CO. Roscommon), 816. 
Graine ( = Granaerad, q. v.), 487. 
Graine, r. between Fermanagh and Brefny 

(Woodford r. between Fcrmanagli and 

Cavan cos.), 1457. 
Grainsech [Grange, Carbery bar., co. 

Sligo), cas. of, 1526. 
Graiphnech, ab. of Emlagh, ob., 737. 
Grammarian, O'Corcran, 1522. 
Granaerad, Granairet, Graine and Grane 

(Graney, co. Kildare), first btl. of, 485, 

or 487 ; second btl. of, 493 or 495. 
Granairet and Granard (Granard, co. 

Longford), Cenel-Coirpri massacred at, 

742 ; mk. of, Fiachre, 770 ; Mur- 

chadh O'Farrell si. at, 1223. 
Granard, see Granairet. 
Granasc, Murdobur (mk. ?) of, 724. 
Grand-daughter of Gilla-Coemghin, w. of 

Cathal, k. E. L., si. with k., 1035. 
Grandson of Baethan, ab. of lona, si. by 

s. of ab. O'Muldory, 1070. 
(Ruaidhri) of Canannan, some people 

of si. by Congalach and Amlaibh in 

Louth, 945. 
of Longarcan, Carthach, k. of Eogli- 

anacht of Cashel, burned in house 

ignited by, 1045. 
of Maelan, k. of Morgallion, slew 

Murcliad O'Melaghlin, k. of Tara, in 

Kells belfry, 1076. 
of Ruarc, hostages of taken b}' 

Domnall, k. of Tara, 955 ; slew s. of 

Eicnech, k. of Oriel, 999. 
Grandsons, 2, of Bran, Leinster divided 

between by Aedh (k. I.), 818. 
of Brian (Boruma), 2, si. in Man, 

1073. 



INDEX. 



179 



Grandsons. — coiU. 

of Canannan, 2, si. b}^ O'Muldory, 

1004. 

of Geno, ob., 588. 

of Ragnall, took fleet to Man ; fell 

there, 1087. 

Grane ( = Granaerad, q.v.), 497. 

Graney, .see Granaerad. 

Grange, see Grainseeh, 

Granger, 1431. 

Grouitf^reyJ, Conall, 718, 778. 

Grave-depth, -see Shrine of Colman. 

Greallaoh-allta (=Grellacli-eilte, q.r.), 
544. 

gaifil and Greomach-daphil (be- 
tween Dimmiirry and Allen Hills, co. 
Kildare), Laeghaire, s. of Niall, killed 
at, 462. 

Greane, see Grian. 

( Treat stone-churcli, .see Church, great 
stone-, of Armagli. 

Council (of English k.), 1532. 

destruction of people, 1262. 

— — -head, Mael-Coluim, llGó. 

house of abbots, see Armagh, great 

house. 

Steward of Leven, 1216. 

Third of Armagh, homicide in, 1009. 

1170 ; pillaged, 1173; street of, burned, 
1092, 1112. 

Greceraighe and Graicraighi (Coolavin 
bar, CO. Sligo, and adjacent part of Ros- 
common CO.), massacred Tirerrill, 753 : 
Foibren in pillaged and burned, 815. 

(ireen of Dublin, O'Rourke defeated on. 
by Saxons, 1171; Tyrrell drawn asunder 
on, by Saxons, 1356. 

of Limeiick, reached by Muircertach 

O'Loughlin's hosting, 1157. 

Gregory, pope, born, 540, or 545 ; ob., 593, 

. 606, or 607; feast of (Mar. 12), before 
Beginning of Lent (Mar. 14), 1014. 

IX., canonized St. Francis, 1228. 

Grellach-Dollaigh (Girley, Meath?),Fin- 
snechta, k. I., si. at, 695. 

-eilte, Grellach-eillti and Greallach- 



Grellach. — coiif. 

allta (Girley, Upr. Kells bar., Meath), 

Tuathal Maelgarb si. at, 544 or 549 ; 

beyond Croossakeel (relative to Ulster), 

Niall, k. of Ailech, encamped at, 914. 
Grene and Grenne, at consecration of Mel- 

lifont church, 1157 ; bp. of Dublin, 

abp. of L. , ob. ; succeeded by Lorcan 

O'Toole, 1162. 
ííreomach-daphil, -see Greallach-gaifil. 
(Jrey (Cistercian), mk., 1302, 1307. 
monks, MacDermot, k. of Moy- 

lurg, took habit of, 1331; O'DonneÍl. 

k. of Tyrconell, died in habit of, 1333. 

Order, 1270. 

Grey, Cormac the, 1176. 
Grey Son, a chalice, 1177. 
Grey, lord, came to I., 1427. 

lord Leonard, Justiciary, 15.36, 1538. 

( lrian((7rea»e, Coonagh bar., co. Limerick), 

O'Conorat, 1168. 
Grief, death from, 909, 937. 
Grifin,s. of Llyweljm, k. of Britons, si. by 

s. of James, 1064. 
Grisine, Gentile, fell in litl. of Dublin 

(Clontarf), 1014. 
Groat, price of live beef, 1 532. 
Groves, church-, of Armagh, burned by 

lightning, 996. 
Gruelach, si., 1311. 
(xuaire, ab. of Glendalough, ob., 810. 
Aidhne, k. C, defeated, 627, 649 ; 

ob., 663, or 666 ; f. of Cellach, 666 : f. 

of Conghal, 685, 697; gf. of Airmedach; 

675 ; gf. of Cathnia, 794 ; gf. of Muir- 

medh, '798 ; gf. of Rechtabru, 752 ; type 

of generosity, 1197. 

f. of Blathmac, 799. 

f. of David, 551. 

f. of Echtigern, 853. 

f . of Faelbe, 737. 

gf. of Lonan, 896. 

gs. of Forannan, herenagli of Ard- 

straw, ob., 951. 
gs. of Tipraiti, ab. of Clonfad, ab. , 

795. 

M 2 



180 



INDEX. 



Guaire. — contt 

s. of Dubdabairenn, ob. , 867. 

s. of Dungalach, k. of Ui-Briiiin 

of Cualann, ob., 788. 

s. of Forindan, si., 629. 

Gualat (in Meath), Concol)ar, k. of Cenel- 
Eogain, encamped at, 822, 

Guarantee of obedience to their f., Flann. 
k. L, extorted from Donnchad and Con- 
cobar by Niall, k. of Ailech, 915. 

Guards of Donnchadh O'Carroll, si. and 
himself rescued, 1155. 

Guest-house (of Armagh), herenaghs 
of :— 

Eochaid, 1004. 
Muirghis, 1016. 

of Clonmacnoise, herenagh of : — 

Congalach Mac Gilla Ciarain, 
1116. 

Guile and envy, slaying in, 915. 

Guit (pi. of Got, q.v., stammerers), nick- 
name of O'Melaghlins, q.v. 

Guns (falcons), 1532. 

Guns (siege-), 1498, 1516. 

(Junshot, 1487, 1498, 1523, 1538. 

(hiret, k. of Dumbarton, ob., 658. 

Guthbinnf^*S'^í'ee^roice^,Conall, 862 ; Diar- 
maid, 763. 

H. 

Habit, Cistercian, taken, 1331 ; dying in 

1224, 1333, 1342. 

of St. Francis, 1528. 

monastic, dying in, 1295. 

Hag's Castle (in Lough Mask\ 1233. 
Hailstone, large as apple, 1358. 
Hailstones, shower of, destroyed crops, 

1538. 
Half, of Armagh, burned, 998. 
(S.) of Armagh, burned b}^ lightning, 

916. 

(W.) of Armagh Close, burned, 1091. 

of West Connaught and Corcomroe, 

fell in btl. of Fenagh, 1094. 
of Conn, .see Conn, Half of. 



Half. — coíi/íZ. 

of Mogh, see Mogh, Half of. 

Thirds (in Fermanagh), lord of, 

Maguire, 1538. 
Hand-dapping, Assemhly of, at Mich- 
aelmas, 772, 799. 
Handwriting of St. Peter, found in tomb 

of Petronilla, 741. 
Hanging, 1493, 1504, 1513, 1528, 1540 ; 

for fratricide, 1513 ; for homicide, 

1493 ; for sacrilegious robbery, 1197. 
Harmony, master of, AedhOTinn, 1269. 
Harper, Ailill, the, 634 ; O'Carbry, 1490 ; 

O'Corcran, 1433 ; O'Corcran, 1496. 
Harping, Master of, Ferdomnach, lector 

of Kildare, 1110. 
Harrow, Foreigners yoked to, by Gilla- 

Mochonna, 1013. 
Harsh year, 856. 
Harvest, of abundant nuts, 1419 or 1421 ; 

wet, 1491. 
Haven of Ferrard, slaughter of sea-hogs 

in, 828. 
Saxon, Ulidian crews defeated by 

Gentiles in, 913. 
Hay, s. of the lord, si., 1501. 
Head of : — O'Gormley, taken to Armagh, 

1160. 
Donnchad O'Rourke, taken from 

Limerick, 1088. 
Tigernan O'Rourke, put over door of 

Dublin fort, 1172. 
Head of : — clergy of I., Mael-Muire 

O'Dunan, 1117. 
clerics of all N. W. of Europe, Mael- 
Muire, coarb of Patrick, 1020. 

Munster clerics, Cetfaid, 1056. 

lona Culdees, MacForcellaigh, 1164. 

N. of I. hospitality, Ua Duibh- 

dirma, 1122. 

Columban Order, Gilla-Crist, 1062. 

piety of L, Cele., 1076. 

Ulidian piety, O'Corcran, 1163. 

Armagh poor, Colcu, 1077. 

poor of Clonmacnoise, Mael-Ciarain, 

1079. 



INDEX. 



181 



Head of. — con, 

■ poor of I., Cumuscach, 1074. 

Derry students, fasted against out- 
rage, 1166. 
religious of all I., bp. Fethgna, 

coarb of Patrick, 874. 
Head, by synecdoche si. person, 866, 867. 
Head of Longinus' spear, sent to Rome 

by Sultan, 1492. 
Heads of : — Conaing and Mothla, brought 

from Swords and buried in new tomb 

at Armagh, 1014. 

Foreigners, impaled atLurgan, 1432. 

16 nobles of Rourke, impaled by 

Maguire, 1457. 

sL, 1346. 

si., impaled, 1457. 

Heat, unnatural, 773. 

Hebrews (chronology of), -lee Mundane 

Reckonings. 
Hebrides, see Insi-Gall. 
Hector of W. of World, Muircertach, 943. 
Heifer, in-calf, for 3 (households), 6-66 

Cess (Patrician). 
Heights of Uana {Owenagli, Athlone bar., 

CO. Roscommon), 1225. 
Heirs, Royal, see Royal-heirs. 
Helena, m. of Constantine, 1492. 
Helmsman of championship, 1067. 
Helper, the, 1214. 
Hendiadys : Communion and sacrifice, 

for Communion, 1512 ; elder and senior, 

for senior, 1088. 
Henry, f. of Mael-Coluim, 1165. 

k. of Saxons, husbandof Maria, lllS. 

k. of World, ob., 1023. 

[II.] s. of Empress, k. E., duke of 

Normandy and Aquitaine, count of 

Anjou, came to I., 1171 ; left I., 1172 ; 

ob., 1189. 

v., at war with France, 1419. 

VI., 1425; defeated duke of York: 

expelled, 1461. 

VIIL, 1511, 1532, 1533, 1536. 

Heraclius, | ^ ^_ Emperors. 
Heracl[on]as, ) 



Herberts, submitted to O'Neill, 1430. 
Hereditary member of religious commu- 
nity, 1420. 
ilerenagh of: — 

Downpatrick, 1067. 

Dowth, 1012. 

Drumcar, 1065. 

Drumcliflf, 1029. 

Kilmore (Oneilland), 818. 

Leighlin, 1045. 

Urney, 1178. 
deputy- : — 

Conaing of Armagh, 1061. 

Flannacan of Armagh, 1069 

Mael-Brighte of Armagh, 1070. 

vice-, Flannacan of Armagh, 1016. 

Muiredach of Armagh, 1039. 

female, Lerben, abbess of Cloon- 

burren, 794. 
Herenaghs : — 

Aedh of Duleek, 1093. 

AiHll of Glendalough, 973. 

Airbertach of Roscarbery, 1016. 

Art of Mungret, 1028. 

Artri of Armagh, 818. 

Cathal Martyr of Cork, 1034. 

Cathalan of Devenish, 1002. 

Cathmogh of Lismore, 960. 

Cellach of Cork, 1007- 

Cennfaelad of Devenish, 1025. 

Cennfaelad of Seirkieran, 253. 

Cernach of Downpatrick, 1315. 

Cinaeth of Derry, 969. 

Cleirchen of Derry, 950. 

Clothna of Emly, 1048. 

Coencomrac of Devenish, 1012. 

Coirpri of Dunleer, 898. 

Colla of Scattery Island, 995. 

Colum of Cork, 988. 

Colum of Emly, 1002. 

Conaing of Clogher, 961. 

Conn of Mungret, 1033, 1034. 

Cormac of Ardbraccan, 1064. 

Cormac of Drumrat, 1017. 

Cormac, bp. of Glendalough, 927. 

Crunnmael of Glendalough, 972, 



182 



IN'DEX^ 



Herenaghs. — cont. 

Diarmait of Li.smore, 9o3. 
Donmall of Loiitli, 106ó. 
Donnacan of Kilmona, 970. 
Donngal of 'reirvglas, lOló. 
Donnghal of Tonigraney, ]00o. 
Dubdabaireim of Both-Coiuiis, 

988. 
Dubinnsi of Driimlaue. 10"2r). 
Dubslane of Emly, 1004. 
Echmarcach of Downpatiick, 

1057. 
Eclitigeni of ^Slonaslerboice, 

1067. 
Eochaid of (Armagh) dluest- 

house and Clonfeacle, 1004. 
Eochu of Emly, 941. 
Ferdalach of Rathliii, 975. 
Fiachra of lona, 978. 
Finachta of Ferns, 958, 
Flaithlem of Seirkieran, 985. 
Flann of Drumcliif, 952 
Flann of Durrow, 10"22. 
Flann of (Jlendalough, 957. 
Flannacan of Roscommon, 1097. 
Fogartach of Devenish, 98.0. 
Gilla-Moninne of Louth, 1083. 
Lugaid of Slane, 958. 
Mac Aichir of Lismore, 100.3. 
Mac Carthy of Cork, 1157. 
Mac Conchaille of Deny, 1112. 
Mac Coscrey of Clones, 1500. 
Mac Eodosa of Monasterboice, 

1059. 
Mac Gilla-carraigh of Tibohine, 

1229. 
Mac Gilla-Ciarain of Clonmac- 

noise (iiiest-house, 1116. 
Mac Gilla-Coisgli of Derrybrusk, 

1384 ; (2) 1487. 
!Macleighinn of Coleraine, 989. 
Mac Lonain of Roscrea, 1012. 
Mac Nogley of Killerry, 1362. 
]\Iac Rory of Magheracross, 1509. 
Mac iSgoloigi of Rossorry, 1411. 
Mac Soillig of Inishkecn, 1085. 



Herenaghs. — cont. 

Mac Uaid of Kilskeery, 1536. 

Mac Ulcha of Coleraine, 1110. 

Maelbethach of Devenish, 946. 

Maelduin of Aughrim, 814. 

]\Iael-Fiachracli of Magheraglass, 
952. 

Mael-Finnia of Donaghpatrick, 
985. 

Mael-Mochta of Clonard, 942. 

Mael-Muire of Durrow, 973. 

Mael-Muire of Tech-Fethgnai, 
953. 

Mael-Patraic of Slane, 956. 

Maguire of Aghalurcher, 1501. 

of Cleenish, 1 495. 

of Lusk, 1059. 

^loenach of Lismore, 959. 

Muircertach of Lonha, 1015. 

Muiredach of Duleek, 1045. 

of Mucknoe, 1010. 

of Roscrea, 1053. 

Muirghis of (Armagli) Guest- 
house, 1016. 

Niall of Mungret, 1015. 

O'Banan of Derry\-ullen, 1420 ; 
(2) 1500. 

(JBoland of Drumcliif, 1053. 

Tigernach O'Breen of Clonmac- 
noise, 1088. 

O'Breen of Roscommon, 1234. 

O'Breslen of DerryvuUen, 1447. 

of third of DerryvuUen, 

1495. 

O'Cahill of Roscarbcry, 1055. 

of Tomgrane}^ 1096. 

0"Carroll of Downpatrick, 108-3. 

of Do^vnpatrick, 1102. 

O' Casey of Devenish, 1411. 

O'Connoly of Rossorry, 1277 ; 
(2) 1434. 

O'Cullen of Clogher, 1226. 

O'Dcery of Dcrry, 1180; (2) 
1219; (3) 1233. 

of Donaghmore (co. Done- 
gal), 1064 ; (2) 1206. 



INDEX. 



183 



Herenaghs . — cont. 

O'Dreeii of Ardcarne, 1240. 
Oengus of Dunleer, 1017. 
Oengus of Slane, 1012. 
O'Farrely of Drumlane, 1059. 
O'Finaghty of Elphin, 1289. 
O'Hanrahan of Roscarbery, 1096. 
O'Hanretty of Mucknoe, 1161. 
O'Hegarty of Lorrha, 1050. 
O'Howen of Inishkeen, 1352 ; (2) 

1394 (parson) ; (3) 1462. 
O'Kearney of Derry, 1096. 
O'Keenan of Cleenish, 1400. 
O'Kenny of Artrea, 1127. 

of Cork, 1057. 

of Trim, 1059 ; (2) 1100. 

O'Kirwan of Louth, 1045; (2) 

1102. 
O'Leddy of Emly, 1058. 
O'Luinin of Ard, 1396 ; (2) 1477. 
of Ard and Derry vullen, 

1441. 
O'Lynam of Ferns, 1085. 
of Ferns and St. Mullins, 

1043. 
O'Malcolm of Derry, 1061. 
O'Malone of Clonmacnoise, 1127. 
O'Mangan of Rossorry, 1379. 
O'Mulkerin of Ardcarne, 1225. 
0' Murray of Lusk, 1Ó55. 
O'Phelan of Bohoe, 1483. 
O'Roarty of Connor, 1081. 
O'Ronan of Clondalkin, 1086. 
O'Rowan of Lismore, 1129. 
O'Scully of Scattery Island, 1050. 
O'Selby of Cork, 1085 ; (2) 1100. 
O'Teig of Killaloe, 1083. 
O'Toner of Fahan, 1119. 
Rechtabra of Killeigh, 954. 
Saran of Senboth-sine, 605. 
Scannal of Dunshauglilin, 952. 
Scannlan of Conwal of Glen- 

swilly, 915. 
Scolaighi of Mucknoe, 1067. 
Scothine of Durrow, 950. 
Setna of Maliee Island, 976. 



Herenaghs.— cont, 

Tadhg of Killaloe, 1028. 
Tipraiti of Connor, Lynally and 

Laraghbryan, 901. 
Ua Bronain of Tory, 1203. 
Ua Cele of Slane, 1053. 

of Tullow, 1050. 

Ua Cethnen of Clones, 1084. 
Ua Condubhain of Derrylaur, 

1123. 
Ua Cormacain of Inishcourcey, 

1061. 
Ua Dallain of Connor, 1063. 
Ua Duibhinnsi of Louth, 1123. 
Ua Forannain of Ardstraw, 

1127; (2) 1179. 
Ua Flaithecain of Ard-bo, 1103. 
Ua Flannchua of Emly, 1058. 
Ua Maelathgen of Downpatrick, 

1099. 
Ua Mochain of Killaraght, 1361. 
Ua Muirecain of Antrim, 1096. 

of Tynan, 1072. 

Ua Nioic of Tuam, 1128. 

Ua Robochain of Swords, 1060. 

Ua Ruadrach of Termonfeckin, 

1053. 
Ua Sonai of Ardstraw, 1064. 
Ua Taichligh of Devenish, 1328. 
Ua Touaid of Clann-Finghin, 

1179. 
Ua-Uail of Both-Conais, 1049 
Hereii ( = comarba), successor in office, 

737. 
Hermit, Mac Forcellaigh of loua, 1164. 
Hermitage of Derry, 1122. 
Hero of Connaught Leyny, quatrain by, 

810. 
Hero-plunderer of Foreigners, 869. 
Hilary, pope, 461, 465. 
Hilda, mon. of (at Whitby), 713. 
Hill (Knockninny Hill, Knockninny bar., 
CO. Fermanagh), 1538. 

of Mac Taidhg, Synod of, 1158. 

Historians : — • 

Daniel of Kilbarry, 918. 



184 



INDEX. 



(2) 1534. 




(2) 1400; 


(3) 


2) 1441 ; 


(3) 



Historians. — cont. 

Dublitir of Clones, 880. 

Mac Curtin, 1405. 

Mac Firbis, 137(5 ; ',2) 1379. 

O'Behan, 137tí. 

O'Clery, 1522. 

O'Cuinnlis, 1342. 

O'Ciirnin, 1438. 

O'Duigenan, 1440 ; 

O'Keenan, 1387 ; 
1469 ; (4) 1520. 

O'Liiinin, 1396 ; ( 
1477 ; (4) 1478. 

O'Mulconiy, 1482 ; (2 j 1506. 

O'Sgingin, 1364. 

Ua Cleircen, 1467 
cliief, of I : — 

Flann, 1056. 

O'Dugan, 1372. 

O'Sgingin, 1289. 
History, eminent in, Ua Conne, 1126, 
ollams in : — 

Mac Curtin, 1376 ; (2) 1434. 

O'Clery, 1527. 

O'Duigenan, 1398. 

O'Keenan, 1483. 

O'Luinin, 1528. 

ollam O'Conors of Corcomroe in, 

O^Mulconry, 1441 ; (2) 1487. 

ollam of O'Rourke in, O'Curnin, 

1459. 
professors of : — 

Eochaiclh, 1004. 

Flann, lector of Monasterboice, 
1056. 

O'Carroll, 1083. 

O'Duigenan, 1432. 

future professor of, O'Keenan, 1459. 

of Knight, 1497. 

Histories, Scotic, most versed in, Curoi, 

ab. of Inchcleraun, 871. 
lloan, k. of Britons, slew Domnall Brecc ; 

reigned 15 years, 642. 
Hoirenach, cas. of, 1497. 
Holding of Teltown Assembly, after long 
intermission, 916. 



Holy Cross, see Cross, Holy. 

of Balh-boggan, burned by 

Saxons, 1538. 
of Raphoe, .^ce Cross, Hol}^ of 

Raphoe. 
Homicide, in Armagh, at doorway of stone 

oratory, 789 ; by Ui-Cremthainn, 793. 
of s. of Eohaidh, s. of Fiachna, in 

brawl on Pentecost in Armagh, 819. 

in ClooncraiF, 815. 

punished by burning, 1490 ; b^^ 

hanging, 1493. 
Hone}', shower of, at Fahan, 718. 
Honorius, Pope, 1216. 
Honour paid to Jirian (Boruma) :- bodies 

of self, and son waked 12 nights and 

buried in new tomb at Armagh, 

1014. 
Hormisdas, Pope, 515. 
Horm, chief of Black Gentiles, si. by 

Ruadhri, k. of Britons, 856. 
Horrid signs, fiee Signs, horrid. 
Horses, of ab. of Armagh carried off by 

Concobar (k. I.), 831. 

went on frozen lakes, 1434. 

— — 54, taken from descendants of Henry 

O'Neill, 1509. 
80, w^rested from O'Conor Fah', 

1493. 
100 armoured, left after btl. of 

Ath-in-chip, 1270. 

110, abandoned by Maguire, 1496, 

— — 120 Welsh, s(^e Ransom of Amlaini. 

200, wrested from O'Reilly, 1485. 

thousands, taken in Ulidian raid, 

1130. 
pack-, rivers and lakes passable for, 

on ice, 1234. 
Horsemen, chief lakes and rivers of I. 

])assable for, on ice, 855, 856. 

two, of Andrew Tuite, si., 1485. 
Ilosj/ifality of maliijnify, 1407. 
Hospitality of N. of I., head of, 1122. 
Hospitallers, confii-med, 1183. 
Hostage, ab. of Movillc, of Ulidians with 

Cenel-Eogain, 1007. 



INDEX 



lcS5 



Hostage. — coiit. 

compensation for life of, see Ransom 

of Amlaim. 
for reparation of church profanation, 

1487. 
s. of k. of tScotland, taken by Franks, 

1072. 
Hostages, Niall of the Nine, 1403. 

proportion of for captor, see Ransom 

of Amlaim. 

of : — Meath, Bregia, Foreigners, 

Leinster and Ossory got by Donnchad ; 
of Meath got by Flaithbertach, 1026. 

Cenel-Eogain got by O'Conor, 1167. 

Cenel-Conaill taken by O'Neill, 1358. 

Connaught got by Feidhlimidh, k. 

M. , 840 ; taken by Ua Maeldoraidh and 
Ua Ruairc, 1014; got by Mac Lough- 
lin, 1088 ; came from England, 1211 ; 
not given to O'Loughlin, on his hosting 
to Connaught, 1159. 

Dalaraide taken by Domnall (k. I.), 

960. 

Desmond, Mac Carthy, O'Kirby and 

O'Coffey, si. by Torlogh O'Conor, 1124. 

■ Domnall, k. of N. I., taken by Donn- 
chad (k. I.), 779. 

Fitzpatrick given to Ruaidhri 

O'Conor, 1168. 

Foreigners for peace towards Irish, 

998. 

Dublin Foreigners, Leinster and 

Ossory got by Turlogh O'Conor, 1118. 

Dublin Foreigners, Leinster and 

Mac Murrough given to Ruaidhri 
O'Conor, 1166. 

gs. of Ruarc taken by Domnall (k. 

of Ailech), 955 ; by same (as k. I.), 
965. 

L, brought by Brian (Boruma), 

from Armagh, 1005 ; rescued from 
Foreigners of Fingal, 1025 ; with 
Domnall, coarb of Patrick, to secure 
year's peace between O'Brien and 
O'Loughlin, 1102; got by O'Loughlin 
at Killarvey, 1161. 



Hostages. —C07í7. 

Iveagh taken by MacLoughlin, 11 28. 

Leinster and N. of I., see Ransom 

of Carlus. 

Leinster exacted by Fergal, s. of 

Maelduin, 721 ; got by Donnchad, k. 
L, and Muircertach, k. of Ailech, 940 ; 
by Mael-Sechlainn, k. L, 1015 ; by 
Torlogh O'Conor, 1126; forfeited to 
same, 1127 ; by O'Brien, 1131 ; by 
O'Loughlin, 1156; by Henry IL, 1171. 

the Mac Carthy and ss. of Diarmait 

Mac Carthy got by Torlogh O'Conor, 
1118. 

9, of Mac Carthy to O'Conor, 1168. 

3, of Mac Murrough si., 1170. 

Meath to O'Conor, 1166 ; to Henry 

IL, 1171. 

Munster taken by Mael-Sechnaill (k. 

L), 856, 858 ; got by Donnchad, k. L, 
and Muircertach, k. of Ailech, 940 ; by 
O'Conor, 1126; forfeited to same, 1127; 
given to Henry II. , 1171. 

Munster Nobles got by O'Loughlin, 

1175. 

Niall (k. of Iveagh) taken by Flaith- 
bertach, k. of Ailech, 1011. 

N. of I. got by Brian (Boruma), 

1010. 

0' Boyle and Ua Tairchert, taken 

by O'Loughlin, 1232. 

O'Brien given to O'Loughlin, 1090 ; 

to the Justiciary and Mac William, 
12.35. 

O'Conor given to O'Loughlin, 

1161. 

O'Donnell given to Justiciary and 

O'Conor, 1242. 
O'Heney given to O'Neill, 1199. 

s. of O'Melaghlin given to Mac 

Loughlin, 1090. 

Oriel given to Henry II. , 1171. 

O'Rourke and O'Reilly given to 

O'Donnell, 1220. 
all Pictland taken off" by Foreigners 

of I. and Scotland, 866. 



186 



INDEX. 



Hostages. — co)it. 

Ui-Briuin, given to Henrj' II., 1171 ; 

to Brian O'Neill, 1258 ; blinded by 

Aedh 0"Conor, 1259. 
Ui-Briuin, Oriel and Ulidia given to 

Henry II., 1171. 
Ui-Faelain carried off by Cathal 

(k. M.), 738. 
Ulidia, 7, got by Flaithbertach, k. of 

Ailecli, 1007 ; given to Henry II., 

1171 ; to Muircertacai O'Brien, 1101 ; to 

Donnell O'Longhlin, 1099, 1104, 1111 : 

to same and N. of I., 1109 ; to Muir- 

certach O'Loughlin, 1156 (chosen by 

himself), 1165. 
Ulidian nobles, got by Concobar 

O'Loughlin, 1130. 
Hot Summer, 1252, 1263, 1419 or 1421, 

1471. 
Hound of Cathal, k. E. L., si. with him, 

1035. 
Hound (persecutor) of the Haint>i and faith- 
ful, larnan O'Clancy, 1035. 
House, Easter-, see Easter-House. 
House of : — ab. of Armagh, burned by 

lightning, 916. 

abbots, great, -s.r., Ard-Macha. 

Aedh (k. I.), in Armagh, man si. 

before door of, 870. 
Canons Regular, Armagh, 1193 ; 

burned, 1196. 
abbot of Donaghpatrick (Meuth), k. 

of Lune, si. in, 993. 
St. John (Annaghdown), prior of, 

1491. 

Mary, Mullingar, 1306. 

0"Lynch, Antrim, broken, 1030. 

Senior-!, Kildare, 797. 

House, ignited to kill occupants, 913, 

1045, 1046, 1123 (bis), 1160, 1226, .sec 

s.v. Ignition. 
seized, to capture or kill occupants, 

1108, 1123,1127,1132, 1161, 1288, 1432. 
Houses, 20, s.y. Ard-Macha. 
30, of Armagh communit\' pillaged, 

1184. 



Houses, — cont. 

100, burned in Armagh, 1090. 

nian}", burned in Armagh Close 

through carelessness, 912. 

separated from churches of Derry ; 

80 razed thereby, 1162. 
81, of Duleek burned b}' Morgallion, 

1123. 
of Magh-Liphi and Magh-Bregh 

pillaged by Norse fleets, 837. 

blown from sites in storm, 892. 

broken down by storm, 1363, 1373, 

1478. 

unroofed by storm, 1487. 

Howel, see Oel. 

Howth, see Ben-Edair and Etir. 

Huarcridhe, gs. of Mailtoile, ob., 782. 

•Huargal, f. of Muiredach, 782. 

Huidreni (mk.) of Moville, ob., 694, 

Hungary, 1246. 

Hurdle-ford of the \Yeir (Ballymote, co. 

Sligo), cas. of, 1300, 1317. 
Husbandry, impeded bjunclemency, 1496 ; 

injured by wet, 1500, 



I, I of Colum-cille, la [latinized form], 
and Eoa [latinized adjective] (lona), 
abbacy of ofl'ered and acceptance of 
same denied to Elaithbertach O'Brol- 
chain, 1164. 

ab. of, Diarmait, went to Scotland 

with reliquaries of Columba, 829. 

ab. of Indrechtach, came to I. with 

reliquaries of Columba, 849 ; martyred, 
854. 

ab. of [Mail-Ciarain], si. by Danes, 986. 

ab. of Sleibene, came to I., 754; 

established Lau- of Columba in I., 757. 

abbots of : — 

Adamnan, 624, 692, 704. 
Baitheni, 598. 
Bresal, 807. 
Cellach, 814, 815. 
Cellach, 865. 



INDEX. 



187 



I. — cont. 

Cellach, 1204. 

Cillene the Tall, 724. 

Colum-cille (founder), 519, 523, 
595. 

Conamail, 710. 

Cummene the Fair, 669. 

Diarmait, 814. 

Diarmait, 829, 831. 

Donnchad, 1099. 

Dorbeni, 713. 

Dubdum (coarbof Columba), 959. 

Dubscuile (coarb of Columba), 
964. 

Dubtach, 938. 

Dunchad, 707, 717. 

Dunchad (coarb of Columba and 
Adamnan), 989. 

Faelchu, 716, 724. 

Failbhe, 673, 679, 692. 

Fedhlimidh, 722. 

Feradhach, 880. 

Fergna, 623. 

Flamiabra, 1025. 

Gs. of Baethan, 1080. 

Indrechtach, 849; 854. 

Laisren, ob., 605. 

Mael-Brighte, 1005. 

[Mael-Ciarain] 986. 

Mughron (coarb of Columba m 
Scotland), 980. 

Amalgaidh O'Freel, 1204. 

Segene, 652. 

Sleibene, 767. 

Suibne, 657. 

Suibne, 766, 772. 

anchorite of, Cilleine Droctech, 752 ; 

burned by Gentiles, 802; community 
of:- — dishonoured, 1204; drowned in 
storm, 691 ; drowned, 749 ; expelled, 
717 ; 68 of si. by Gentiles, 806 ; wrecked, 
641 ; head of Culdees of, Mac Forcel- 
laigh, 1164; Cathal, k. C, died in, 791 ; 
Cillene died in, 752; Niall Frossach 
died in, 778 ; Easter changed [from 
computation by Cycle of 84- to com- 



I. -cont. 

putation by Alexandrine Cycle of 19J 
in, 716; grantor of to Colum-cille, 
ConalljS.of Comgall, ob.,574; herenagh 
of, Fiachra, 978 ; hermit of, Mac Gill- 
duflf, 1164; lector of, Dubsidhe, 1164; 
martyrdom of Blathmacc in, 825 ; new 
mon. of razed, 1204 ; bp.-mk. of, Coeddi, 
712; pilgrimage to, 783, 1188; pillaged 
by Danes, 986; archpriest of, 1195; 
Augustin, 1164; prior of, O'Brolchain, 
1203; 15 seniors of church of si. by 
Danes, 986; steward of, Muiradach, 
782; other references, 1174, 1200, 
1249. 

laco, k. of Britons, si. by his people, 1039. 

lardoman, expedition to, 567 or 568. 

lar-Mumhan (West Munster), king of, 
Congal, 690. 

larbodb, s. of Gartnat, burned, 643. 

larlaith, f. of Conall, 741. 

larlaithi, Eochaid, 666. 

larnlach, ab. of Lismore, ob.. 700. 

larthar-Life {Went of Liffty ; part of 
Kildare co., lying west of r. LifFey), 
Athgoan in, 633. 

kings of, Artuir, 847 ; Coirpri, 884. 

Ibar, bp., died, 500, 501, or 504. 

Ibhar-Cinntrachta (Newry, co. Down), 
bp.-ab. of, Finn, 1160. 

Ibdach, ancestor of Fergna, 557. 

Ibrickan, see Corco-Baiscinn. 

Ichtar-tire (Lwr. Loughtee bar., co. 
Cavan), raided, 1520. 

Ice, so that chief lakes and rivers of I. 
were passable , from Nov. 23 to Jan. 8, 
856. ^ 

lercne, lay beheaded in defeat of Carling- 
ford Lough, 852. 

Igerrce, s. of, k. of Louth, slew and slain 
by Donnchad, k. of Farney, 1029. 

Ignition of Church, 1508, 1537; of house, 
867, 891, 902, 912, 1160, 1177; of 
Columba's house at Kilmacrenan, 1129; 
of Dromiskin refectory, 91 2. See House, 
ignited. 



K w^JU» <ár Vf^H^ 



188 



INDEX. 



Ignobi/es, peasant;?, 160, Sltj. 

lid := Hilda q.v. 

He {Islay, Scotland), earthquake in, 740. 

Illand, son of Dunlaing, ob., 527. 

Illandan, -see Illannan. 

Illann, s. of Fiaclia, ob., 625 

Illannan and Illandan, s. of Ceibliall, f. 
of Libraen, 586, 587, 622. 

Illness of Domnall, coarb of Patrick, at 
Dublin and Donaghmore, 1105. 

of Muircertach O'Brien, 1114. 

Illulb (Indulf ), f. of Amlaim, 977 ; f. of 
Culen, 971. 

Image of Catherine, carried off by Saxons 
from Downpatrick, 1538. 

of Mary, at Kilmore(co. Roscommon), 

spoke, 1381 ; at Trim, wrought miracles, 
1412 ; burned by Saxons, 1538. 

Im?idh {Omey island, off Comiemara), 
' xcar of, 1362. 

Iinar, defeated Caittel the Fair and 
Galloway in Munster, 857 ; great host- 
ing by into Meath, 859 ; k. of Foreigners, 
was with Amhlaim in plundering Bregia, 
863 ; Norse k., besieged, razed, and 
pillaged Dumbarton, with Amhlaim, 
870; came with Amhlaim to Dviblin, 
871 ; k. of Norsemen of all I. and 
Britain, ob., 873; f. of Sicfrith, 888, 
896; gf. of Amlaim, 935; of Gothfrith, 
896, 918, 921, 924,930, 934; of Ragnall, 
914, 917, 921 ; of Sitriuc 917, 918, 920, 
927; one part of Dublin Foreigners 
joined with s. of, 893 ; s. of came again 
to I., 894. 

gs. of Imar, with many, si. by Picts, 

904. 

s. of Aralt, k. of Foreignei^s, ob., 

1054. 

and Imur, of Waterford, pillaged 

Kildare, 982; defeated by Mael-Sech- 
naill and Iron-knee, 983; ob. 1000; 
f. of Gilla-Patraic. 983; of Ragnall 
994; gf. of Ragnall, 1035. 
Imesech (alternating), applied to btl., 
714. 



Imlech-fea and Imlech-fia {Emlagh, 
Meath). abbots of: — 
Abel, 747. 
Graiphnech, 737. 
Suibne, 843. 

mk. of, Forinnan, 798. 

See Imlech-pich. 

ibair, {Emly, co. Tipperary), abbots 

of:— 

Conainn Ua Daint, 661. 
Cu-cen-mathair, 888 
Eugan, 890. 
Flann, 904. 
Mescell, 899. 
Senchan, 781, 
Tipraiti, 913. 

bp. -abbots of : — Mael-IsuUa Laighe- 

nain, 1163; Ruidhgel, 881. 

bp. of, Maelmordha, outraged h\ 

murderous attack at, 1123. 

bishops of: — 

Maelmordha (coarb of Ailbe), 1074 . 
Maelmordha (coarb of Ailbe), 1 123. 
Mael-Isu Ua hArrachtain (coarb 

of Ailbe), 1092. 
Diarmait Ua Flannchua (coarb 
of Ailbe of Emly), 1114. 

burned, 1116 ; burned withitschurch, 

1162; church and belfry of burned, 
1058; community of slew O'Gunning, 
royal heir of Munster, 1032; Debfor- 
gaill, d. of Brian (Boruma), w. of Diar- 
mait, k. L., died at, 1080; Cathalan Ua 
Forreidh died at, 1088. 

Ailbe, founder of, 527, 534, 542; 

herenaghs of : — 

Clothna, 1048. 
Colum, 1002. 
Dubslane, 1004. 
Eochu, 941. 
Cairbri O'Leddy, 1058. 
Ua Flannchua, 1058. 

lector of, Diarmait Ua Flannchua 

(bp.), 1114; outrage at, 7 killed in, 1123. 

pich (alias of Imlech-fea, q.v.), btl. 

of. 688. 



INDEX. 



189 



Imlech. — conf. 

-Senaich, fortress in, 730. 

Ua-Rochadha {Emlagh, co. Ros- 
common), church of burned, 1237. 
Immense loss in defeat of Black Foreign- 
ers by Saxons, 893. 
Impaling heads of si., 1457. 
Imperial authorization, 138.5. 
Impounding letters of episcopal ap- 
pointment, 1486. 
Imraithech, anchorite of Glenn-cloitighe, 

ob., 774. 
Inan, see Indeithnen. 
Inber ( = Inber-Boinne, q.v.), 868. 
Iiiber-na-barc(£^.síHar2/ of hart<t; probably 
on Shannon), defeat of Ui-Neill by 
Gentiles at, 837. 

Boinne [Estuary of Boyne), victory 

of Sitriuc at, over Louth, Ui-Dorthain, 
and Omeath, 1032. 

Dee (Vartry Estuary , co, Wicklow), 

Gentiles from pillaged Kildare and 
burned half the church, 836. 
In-calf, heifer, see Cess (Patrician). 
Incarnation, see Cycle, great Paschal. 
Incarnation Reckonings (according to 
Tigernach : — 

Pseudo-Bedan (A.D.— 1), 432. 

Dionysian (A.D.), 432, 481, 

492. 

Hebrew (A.D.I -f 252), 432, 

481, 492. 
Inch, see Inis. 

Island, see Cuilen-rigi. 

Inchaguile, see Inis-in-Ghoill. 
Inchcleraun, see Inis-Clothrann. 
Inchmore, see Inis-mor. 
Inclemency, great, 975, 1502, 1523, 1524; 

destroyed cattle, 1496. 
Increase, great and frequent, of Gentiles 

to Waterford Harbour, 915. 
Indeirghi, s. of Maelteimin, religious laic, 

beheaded by Louth, 909. 
Indeithnen [Inan, Killyon, par., Upper 
Moyfenrath bar., Westmeath), bp.-ab. 
of, Fergil, 907 ; bp. of, Mael-Poil, 922; 
Suairlech (mk.) of, 870. 



Indeon-na-Desi {Anvil of (he Decies ; 

Mullaghnoney, co. Tipperary), Mael- 

Sechnaill went to, 854. 
Indercach, bp., ob., 663. 
Indergi, s. of Mochan, fell in expedition 

of Congalach in Connaught, 955. 
Indiction, 2nd year of, 1064. 
IndÍ7iÍ7i[resiáindmiii{gen.íiing.),the mild], 

Colman, 736. 
Indrechtach, Inrechtach andlnnrechtach, 

ab. of Bangor, ob., 906. 
ab. of lona, came to I. with reliq- 
uaries of Columba, 849. 
btl. of Druim-Cathail fought against, 

741. 
f. of Cathalan, 871 ; f. of Mael- 

mocherghi, 896, 897. 

f. of Moran, 842. 

f. of Murchadh, 764. 

f. of Tomaltach, 776, 790. 

gs. of Conaing, won btl. of Dam- 

derg, 743 ; k. of Keenaght, ob., 748. 
s. Dluthach, k. of Ui-Maine, ob., 

755 ; f. of Ailill, 799. 

s. of Domnall, ob., 797. 

s. of Dunnchad, ob., 784. 

s. of Dunchad of Murrisk, si., 707. 

s. of Fiannamail, fell in btl. of 

Forboros, 741. 
s, of Muiredach, k. C, ob., 723 ; f. 

of Aedh the Dumb, 742 ; f. of Muire- 
dach, 732. 

s. of Muiredach Menn, ob., 752. 

Indulf, see Illulb. 

Indulgence, 100 days of, 1306. 

plenary, 1511 ; at Navan, 1455 ; for 

hearing Mass, 1513. 
Indulgences, year of, 1450 ; at Rome, 

1500; at Santiago (Compostella), 1428, 

1518. 
Inebriety, 1451. 
Infirm people, plague of, 825. 
Influenza, 1328. 
Inhabitants of Ui-Loeghaire spared by 

Domnall, 1104. 
Inis, btl. of, 738. 
(Inch, Lough Swilly) cas. of, 1454, 



190 



NDEX. 



Inis. — cont. 

^?i\i\\Qm{EimUhoy)ie, co. Wieklow\ 

burned, 11'). 

bo-finde {Inishhojni, off co. ]SIa3'o), 

bp. Colman sailed to and founded church 
in, 668 ; died in, 676 ; abbots of : — 
Baetan, 713. 
Blathmac, 814. 

anchorite and sage of, Dublittir, 736. 

in Lougli Ree, ab. of, Fianga- 

lach, 755. 

Bregainn (an islet in Burren, co. 

Carlow), btl. of, 727. 

cain of [St.] Daig {InUhkeen par., 

Louth and Monaghan cos.), abbots 
of:- 

Conallan, 884. 

Dubinnse, 882. 

Dungal, 873. 

Flann, 784. 

Flann Ua Dochue, 771. 

Lachtnan (coarb of), 1022. 

Robartach, 855. 

burned, 789, 1166; Maelduin burned 

in, 641 ; parson of, Niall Mac Malion, 
1467 ; pillaged by Matudhan and Niall, 
949 ; scribe of, Robartach, 855. 
in Lough Erne [Inishl-eeu, co. Fer- 
managh), anchorite of, Fergus O'Howen, 
1490; chaplain of, Matthew O'Howen, 
1393 ; community of, 1416. 

herenaghs of : — 

Mac Soillig, 1085. 
David 0' Ho wen, 1352. 
Matthew O'Howen, 1462. 

parson of, Cathal Mac Manus, 1498 ; 

parson and herenagh of, Gilla-Dom- 
naigh O'Howen, 1394. 

vicars of : — 

Mac Gille-Coisgli, 1394. 
Domnall O'Howen, 1414. 
Maurice ,, 1369. 

Nehemias ,, 1389. 

ss. of Art Maguire si. in, 1419, 1420, 

or 1421. 

Cathaigh (Scattery Island, in the 

Shannon), herenaghs of, Colla, 995 ; 



Inis. — cont. 

O'Scully, 1050 ; pillaged b}^ Foreigners, 
1101. 

Ceithlenn, Inis-Ceilidinn and Inis- 

Sceillin {Ennid-illen), cas. of, 1439, 
1442, 1508, 1538; other references, 
1493, 1503, 1514, 1522. 

celtra {Inisccdtra, in Shannon Lough 

Derg), abbots of : — 

Marcan (coarb of), 1010. 
Mughtigernd, 785. 

Columba (mk.), of, 549 : burned b}' 

Gentiles, 837 ; sage of, Mughtigernd 
(ab.), 785. 

Clothrann and Inis-Crothrann {lucJi- 

cleraun, Lough Ree), abbots of, Curoi, 
871 ; Echaidh, 785; mk. of, Sinach,720. 

coil {Inifihkeel island, co. Donegal), 

ab. of, Fuirectach, 741. 

-Cumscraigh {InUhcourcey, co. 

Down), herenagh of, Ocan, 1061. 

Daighri and -Doighre {Ini'ihten'y, 

an island in r. Boyle, co. Roscom- 
mon), 1343, 1393. 

Daimle (Little Island, in Suir, near 

Waterford), ab. of, ob., 782 ; pillaged 
by Gentiles, 825. 

Darcarcrenn and -Darcairgrenn 

(Ram's Island, Lough Neagh), chief 
confessor of, (xormgal, 1056 ; taken by 
Iveagh from 0"Flynn, k. of Bright, 
1121. 

eidnech, monk of : — 

Martan, 773. 

Eogain {Inishowen bar., co. Done- 
gal), cas. of, 1305, 1332; Cen-rig in, 
921 ; Cenel-Eogain of, 1011, 1078, 1117; 
Dublin fleet sailed to, but was destroyed, 
1100; invaded by De Courcj^ 1199: 
invaded, 1456 ; lord of, Aedh O'Donnell, 
1510; lords of (O'Dohertys), 1413 1586. 
1526 ; lordship of, 1342 ; raided and 
people of slaughtered, 1172 ; raided, 
1166, 1209 1212; rent of, 1505: other 
references, 764, 1009, 1178, 1189, 1343, 
1433 1442, 1496, 1511, 1514, ,See Cenel- 
Eogain of Island. 



INDEX 



191 



Inis. — cont. 

Fail (bardic name of I.), 1343. 

finnrach (in Fermanagh), 1486. 

in-Ghoill {Indiaguile, Lough Cor- 

rib, CO. Gal way), Muirghis Ua Nioic 

(lied in, 1128. 
Gaill-duibh (/s/e of Blach Foreiriner : 

King's Island, Limerick), fort of built 

by Brian (Boruma), 1013. 
itir-da-Dabul (L^/and heficeen tiro 

(rr.J Tall : between Blackwater and 

Tall, near Charlemont, co. Armagh), 

btl. of, 745. 
lachain {Inidoughan, on confines of 

Antrim and Down), razed, 1165. 
na-lainne (an island off Donegal or 

Sligo), 123 persons burned on, 1029. 
Locha-sainglenn [Singland, co. 

Limerick), fort of built by Brian (Bo- 
ruma), 1013. 
-Mac-nErin (Church Island, Lough 

Key), prior of Monastery of, 1229 ; 

prior of, O'Gormally, 1234. 
mac-Nesan (Ireland's Eye, co. Dub- 
lin), 702. 
Maighe-samh {Inlshmacsaint, co. 

Fermanagh), ab. of, Finnamail, 718 ; 

parsons of, 1521, 1530, 1531, 1549, 

1551. 
Medgoeth (Lindisfarne), founded, 

632 ; bishops of, Aedan, 651 ; Finnan, 

s. of Rimid, 660. 
mic-an-duirn [Inifihmacaduirn, in 

Loughros More Bay, co. Donegal), 1510. 
Mochta {Mand of [St.'] Mochta : 

Inishmot, Meath), pillaged, 1026. 
mor {Inismore^ Tirkennedy bar., co. 

Fermanagh), 1367, 1512. 
^ mor {Inchmore, in Lough Gowna, 

CO. Longford), 1406, 1500. 
Muiredaigh {InUhmurray island, 

off Sligo CO.) : ab. of, Dichuill, 752 ; 

burned by Gentiles, 807 ; [S'^.] Lasrian 

(patron) of, 1105. 
ochta (in Lower Lough Macnean), 

1499. 



Inis. — cont. 

Patraicc (St. Patrick's Island, co. 

Dublin), burned by Gentiles, 798. 
• -na-righ {Mand of kings : ofi'N.E.of 

Dublin CO. ), royal meeting at, 784. 
Saimer (isle in Erne at Ballyshan- 

non), 1197. 
Taiti (Church Island, Lough Beg, 

CO. Londondeny), 1129. 
tarbnai (Durscy Island, co. Cork), 

858. 
Ua-Labradlia (W. of Armagh), 921, 

1108. 
Iniscaltra, see Inis-celtra. 

Inishbofin, see bo-finde. 

Inishcourcey, see Cumscraigh. 

Inishkeel, see coil. 

Inishkeen (co. Fermanagh), see cain 

of Lough Erne. 
(cos. Louth and Monaghan),. see 

of [St.]Daig. 

Inishmacaduirn, see mic-an-duirn. 

Inishmacsaint, .see Maighe-Samh. 

Inishmot, see Mochta. 

Inishmurray, .see — Muiredaigh. 

Inishowen, .see Eogain and Cenel- 

Eogain of Island. 

Inishterry, .see Daighri. 

Inismore, see mor. 

Init {beginning [of Lent], Mar. 14), fell 

after feast of Gregory (Mar. 12), 1014 ; 

Sat. of, March 13, 1109. 
Injury, serious, done to Torlogh O'Conor, 

1115. 
Inmhainu, f. of Flaithbertach, 944. 
Inmesach, the Devout, Law (of truce) of 

established in I., 721. 
Inne-mor, in Crich-Oa-nGabla (in Kil- 

dare), btl. of, 498. 
Innocent III., Pope, 1214, 1215, 1216 

(ob.), 1220. 

IV., 1253; ob., 1255. 

Children, feast of 3, Dec. 15, 1119. 

Innocents (women and children). Law (of 

exemption from btl.) of, given by 

Adamnan, 697; si., 814. 



192 



INDEX. 



Innrachtach, f. of Scolaighi, 10G7. 
Insci [ ? ill Sci, in Skye], 710, 
Insi-Gall {Lslands of Foreigners: Heb- 
rides), Foreigners of, 980, 1098 ; Men 

of advised offer of lona abbacj^ to 

O'Brolchain, 1164. 

kings of : — 

Gofraidh, 989. 
Mac Donnell, 1387. 
Mac Rory, 1318. 
Ragnall, lOOo. 
slaughter of, 11G4; otlier references, 

1365, 1366. 
Ore (Orkney Islands), k. of, Siu- 

craid, 1014. 
Instrumentalists, stringed, ]Mac Gilroy, 

1497; O'Corcran, 1496; O'Hosey, 1489; 

O'Keenan, 1537. 
Intercession of Coarb and commiinit}' of 

Patrick, O'Haughey, k. U., set free 

through, 1101. 
Interpreters, seveiity, chronology of, see 

Mundane Reckonings. 
Interval, 15 solar days, between eclipses, 

878. 
Intoxicated men, gave battle through 

pride and were defeated, 1013. 
Inundation of Molana Island, in Black - 

water, co. Waterford, 786. 
Invasion of Bangor by Gentiles, 823. 
Invasion of Inch Island (off Inishowen) 

by Dungal, 733. 
Inverary, 1490. 
Invernness, 1490 

lolan, bp. of Kingarth (Bute), ob., 689. 
lona, see I. 
Ir-Luachair {East Luachair, N.P'. of 

Kerr}^ with adjacent parts of Limerick 

and Cork) ; kings of : — 
Aedh, 733. 
Maelduin, 786. 
Ir-Muma(Or77io??rf),def.b3'Carthacli, 1043. 
Ireland, acorns abundant in, 769 ; 

Adamnan came to, 692 ; Ainfcellach 

(k. of Scottish Dalriata) taken in 

chains to, 698 ; Amhlaim, son of k. of 



Ireland. — cont. 
Lathlann, came to, 853 ; abp. of, 
coarb of Patrick, 1157 ; learned bp. 
of, O'Dunan, 1117 ; bps. and clergy of 
N. of, at Drogheda Synod, 1486 ; 
Canons of, 1218 ; 60 captives brought 
back to by Adamnan, 687 ; cattle of 
destroyed in snow, 748, 1107 ; cham- 
pion [? erri\ of, Eugan, 962 : churches, 
forts, and territories of desolated bj' 
famine-pestilence, 1116 ; clergy of : — 
dishonoured by O'Gormley, 1160 ; 
exempted from war, 804 ; head of, 
O'Dunan, abp. of Cashel, 1117 ; coarb of 
Columba in, O'Muldory, 1062 ; royal 
conference of nobles of, at Rahue, 
859 ; left b}^ foreigners of Waterford 
Harbour, 918 ; chief confessors of, 
Domnall Deisech, 1060, Dubthach 
the Scot, 1065, Gormgal, 1018, Tiger- 
nach of Mourne, 1061 ; chief confessor 
of N. of, Maelruanaigh O'Deery, 1062 ; 
crop in, see Crop ; crops abundant in, 
760. 

dearth in, 764 ; devastation done bj' 

Gentiles in, 798 ; great destitution 
tlirough all, 1099 ; disturbance in, bj- 
Foreigners who came to subdue the 
Foreigners in, 849 ; religious doctor of 
all, 825 ; Dungal fled to, from Oengus, 
734 ; earthquake in, 685, 769 ; earth- 
quake in N. of, 707 ; royal champion of 
E. of, 869 ; failure of bread in, 765, 
825 ; famine in, 760, 764, 769, 825, 
965 ; fears throughout, 826 ; great 
fear on Men of, 1096 ; Fitz Stephen's 
fleet at, 1169 ; bloody flux in all, 764 ; 
chief 3'oung lord of Foreigners of, 
Torfind, 1124 ; Foreigners of pillaged 
all Pictland, and took off its hostages, 
866 ; power of Foreigners driven from, 
980 ; Foreigners of, submitted to 
Amhlaim, 853 ; hostages of, .s\ r. 
Hostages ; hosting round hy Brian 
(Boruma), 1006 ; Muircertach O'Brien 
ceased to be k. of, 1114. 



INDEX. 



193 



Irelaii . — cont. 

kings of : — 

Aedh Aldan, ob., 612. 

Allain, sL, 743. 

Slaine, si., 604. 

s. of Ainmire, sL, 598. 

s. of Niall, ob., 819. 

Fair-Grey, s. of Niall Cailli, 

ob., 879. 
Ailill Molt, si, 482. 
Ainmire, began to reign, 573 

[si., 575]. 
Baetan, s. of Muircertach, si., 

572. 

s. of Ninnidh, si, 586. 

Blathmac, ob., 665. 

Brian (Boruma), si, 1014. 

Cellach (j.-k.), ob., 658. 

Cennfaeladh, ob., 675. 

Cinaeth, si, 728. 

Conall the Slender, si, 654. 

Concobar, ob. , 833. 

Congal of Kinnaweer, ob., 710. 

Congalach, si, 956. 

Diarmait, s. of Aedh Slaine, ob., 

665. 
s. of Fergus Wry-mouth, 

si, 565. 
Domnall, s. of Aedh, ob., 642. 
s. of Muircertach, (j.-k.) 

ob., 566. 

s. Muircertach, ob., 980. 

s. of Murchadh, ob., 763. 

Donnchad, s. of Domnall, si, 

797. 

s. of Flann, ob., 944. 

Eochaidh (j.-k.), si, 572. 
Fergus (j.-k.), began to reign, 

565 [ob., 567]. 
Fergal, si, 722. 
Finsnechta, s., 695. 
Flaithbertach, ob., 765. 
Flann, ob., 915. 
Fogartach, si , 724. 
Loingsech, si, 703. 
Lugaid, ob., 507. 



Ireland. — cont. 

Maelcoba, si, 615. 

Mael-Sechlainn, s. of Domnall, 
ob., 1022. 

s. of Maelruanaigh, ob., 

862. 

Niall Black-Knee, si, 919. 

Cailli, drowned, 846. 

the Showery, began to 

reign, 763 [ob., 769]. 

Muircertach O'Brien, ob., 1119. 

Ruaidhri 0' Conor, ob., 1199. 

Torlogh O'Conor, 1131 [ob., 
1156]. 

Domnall Loughlin, ob., 1121. 

Muircertach O'Loughlin, ob., 
1166. 

Sechnusach, sL, 671. 

Suibne Menn, si, 628. 

Tuathal Bald-rough, si, 544. 

kk. of, went with Brian (Boruma) to 

Armagh, 1005 ; chief lakes of, «. v. 
Lakes ; promulgation in of Law of 
Columba, 757 ; of Inmesach, 921 ; of 
Patrick, 737, 767 ; eminent learned 
man of, Mac Gorman, 1070 ; most 
learned of, Airechtach, 979 ; Legates 
Apostolic, of, nee Legates, Apostolic, of, 
I. ; leprosy in, see Leprosy, 554, 576, 
680, 742, 743, 769, 951. 

Men of :— led by Murchad (k.' of 

Cinel - Eogain) to Ardbraccan, 822 ; 
Assembly of, 1161 ; chose ab. of 
lona, 1204 ; put Cellach in coarb- 
ship of Patrick, 1105 ; instituted him 
bp. of Armagh, 1106 ; made him bp. of 
Dublin, 1121 ; coarbship of Columba 
given by counsel of, 1007 ; presidency 
of Columban Order taken by counsel of, 
989 ; conference of, at Rahue, to make 
peace between, 859 ; curse of, deserved 
by outrage on coarb of Patrick, 1128 ; 
spai-ed through fastings of coarb of 
Patrick, and clergy of L, 1096; host- 
ages of, brought by Brian (Boruma) from 
Armagh, 1005 ; went with Mael- 
N 



194 



INDEX. 



Ireland. — cont. 

Sechnaill, k. I., to Munster, 858 ; year's 
peace between and Maghnus, k. of 
Lochlann, 1102 ; metO'Conor in Magh- 
Lena, 1168. 

nobles of, 1167 ; nobles of S. of, at 

Fiadh-Mic-Oengusa synod, 1111 ; mona- 
steries of, 825 ; great mortality of men, 
cattle and bees throughout, 993. 

N. of : — eminent bp. of, O'Culen,1109 ; 

Brian (Boruma) barred from marching 
to, 1004 ; lands and churches of de- 
spoiled by Foreigners, 839 ; circuit of, 
993 ; defeated, 1201 ; great disturbance 
in, 1186; head of hospitality of, Ua 
Duibdirma, 1122 ; hostages of, see 
Ransom of Amlaim ; hosting to by 
Donnchad (k. I.), 771 ; hosting to 0£ 
Connaught, Leinster, and S. Ui-Neill, 
led by Mael-Sechnaill, k. I., 860; 
hosting to by Flann (k. I.), 882 ; host- 
ing of by Niall (k. I.) to Munster against 
Foreigners, 917 ; hosting to by S. of I., 
1075 ; k. of., see Domnall, s. of Aed ; 
kk. of, see Ailech, kk. of ; Men of : — 
led by Murchad (k. of Cenel-Eogain) 
to Ardbraccan, 822 ; on hosting of 
DomnaU, k. of Ailech, to S. Ui-Neill, 
889 ; with Concobar O'Loughlin, 
on hosting to Ulidia, 1130 ; with 
Domnall O'Loughlin : — on hosting to 
Louth, 1097 ; to Ulidia, 1099 ; to Fews 
and Oneilland E., 1109 ; with Muir- 
certach O'Loughlin : — on hosting to 
Munster, 1157 ; to Magh-Fitharta, 
1162 ; nobles of : — at royal conference, 
at Armagh, 851 ; on hosting of 
O'Loughlin to Clonkeen against 
O'Brien and S. of I., 1118; at Fiadh- 
Mic-Oengusa Synod, 1111 ; chief 
oUams of, Ua Coinnecen, the Tim- 
panist, 1177; O'Donnellan, 1375; 
year's peace made between and 
Munster by Domnall, coarb of Patrick, 
1099 ; royal heir of, Fachtna, 868 ; 
royal-heirs of, see Ailech, royal-heirs of ; 



Ireland. — cont. 

treasuresof, 1214; other reff., 1113,1157. 

k. of Norsemen of all, Imar, 873 ; 

great nutcrop in, 1066 ; chief ollam 
of, Macbeathad, 1041 ; paragon of, 
923, 1119; date of advent of Patrick 
to, computed by Great Paschal Cycle of 
532 years, 964 ; peace in, 1016 ; pen- 
ance done through all, in consequence 
of vision at Clonmacnoise, 786 ; chief 
physician of, DonnchadhUlltach, 1586; 
head of piety of, Cele, 1076 ; pilgrim 
came to with letter, 887 ; plague in, 
806 ; plague and dysentery in, 709 ; 
plague of aged, children, and infirm in, 
825 ; chief poets of, Airard, 990 ; Cin- 
aedh Ua Artugain, 975 ; Clothna, 1009 ; 
Cumara, 1030 ; Mac Liag, 1016 ; Ua 
Maelghiric, 1088 ; schools of poetry of, 
1476, 1502; head of poor of, Ua 
hEroduin, 1074 ; small-pox in all, 779 ; 
Friars Preachers came to, 1224 ; primate 
of, Gilla Mac Liach, 1172. 

relics of Adamnan brought to, 727 ; 

carried back (to lona), 730 ; reliquaries 
of Columba brought to, 831, 849 ; chief 
rivers of, passable on ice from Nov. 23 
[855] to Jan. 8, 856 ; passable on ice, 
917 ; royal heirs of, s.v. Royal-heirs ; k. 
of Britons, Ruaidhri, fled to, 877 ; advent 
of Saxons to, 1171 ; sage of, UaMithreb- 
tha, 732 ; most eminent sage of, Ciaran, 
1061 : chief sages of :— Eochaidh, 1030 ; 
Maelsuthain, 1010; O'Broly, 1118; 
sagest of, Maelan, 1050 ; chief senior 
of, Mac Mael-Molua, 1095 ; eminent 
seniors of, O'Dunan, 1111 ; O'Leddy, 
1111 ; Sleibene, ab. of lona, came to, 
754 ; s. of Imar came again to, 894. 

S. of :— hosting by to N. of I. , 1075 ; 

defeated Donnchad O'Rourke at Moin- 
cruinneoice, 1084 ; very many of, with 
earl of Kildare against Dungannon cas., 
1498. 

great destruction by storm in, 

1211 ; great snow in, 764 ; Suibne, ab. 



INDEX. 



195 



Ireland. — cont. 
of lona, came to, 766 ; synod of clergy 
of, 1162. 

best religious teacher of all, Suairlech, 

870; Tarain, k. of (Scottish) Picts, 
came to, 699 ; great storm of war in, 
1126; wasted by Saxons, 484, 471; 
worthies of, see Worthies of I. ; chief 
Wright of, Mael-Brighte O'Brolaghan, 
1029. 

thunderbolt passed over from W. 

to E,, thence over sea, 917 ; tower 
of piety of, Cleirchen Ua Muineóic, 
1050. 

Ireland's Ej'^e, see Inis-Mac-Nesan. 

Irgalach, s. of Conang, f. of Cinaeth, 724, 
728 ; Muirenn, q. of, ob., 748. 

s. of Maelhumhe, k. of Corco- 

Sogain, ob., 816 ; f . of Congalach, 851. 

Irish, eminent bp. of, Cathusach, coarb 
of Patrick, 957 ; most esteemed in his 
time by, Ua Beollain, ab. of Drumcliíí, 
1252; defeated with loss of 4 kk., 2 
royal-heirs and other nobles, 919 ; 
defeated at Slane, 947 ; most dis- 
tinguished of, Domnall O'Loughlin, 
1121 ; fasted two consecutive triduums 
through fear of fire from heaven, 772 ; 
led by Flann, k. I., to N. of I., 882 ; 
sudden mortality of people and cattle 
among, 987 ; Tadhg O'Conor mutilated 
by direction of, 1243 ; slew k. of 
Foreigners, 942 ; gave tribute to 
Amhluim, 853 ; at war with Foreigners, 
1503, 1506. 

(language) learned in, Domnall 

O'Kane, the Cleric, 1522 ; Margaret, w. 
of Glaisne O'Reilly, 1490. 

Law, doctor of, Domnall O'Heney, 

abp. of Cashel, 1098. 

monks, of Cologne, 1042. 

poetry, master of, Mael-Isu O'Brol- 
aghan, 1386. 

Iron-knee, Armagh pillaged, and 710 
carried off captive, by Foreigners of 
Dublin under, 895. 



Iron-knee. — cont. 

s. of Amlaim, defeated Domnall and 

Imar, 983; k. of Foreigners, si. in- 
ebriety by his thrall, 989 ; f. of Gilla- 

Ciarain, 1014. 

s. of Diarmait, si. by Lune, 1070. 

Irras {Erris, co. Mayo), 1278, 1283, 1317. 
Isabella, d. of French k. (Philip), w. of 

Edward II., deposed Edward and made 

her s. k. 1327. 
Isibel, w. of k. Edward (IV.), ob., 

1503. 
Iserninus, bp., ob., 468. 
Isidore (Chronicle of), 432, 617 ; cited, 

584. 
Island, see Crannog. 

of Clonroad, 1460. 

of Culen-rigi (Inch, co. Donegal). 

k. of, Artgal, 803 ; invaded, 733. 
of Fita (Mutton Island, off Clare), 

divided in three by sea, 804. 

of Lough Arrow, see Loch-arbach. 

of Loch-Cre, 1119. 

of Loch-Iamrugian (in Lough 

Erne), 1450. 
of O'Malley (Clare Island, Clew 

Bay, off W. of Mayo), 1415. 

of the Trinity (Lough Key), 1369. 

Islands, see Crannogs. 

E. of Bregia, massacre of Foreigners 

at, 852. 
all of Britain, devastated by Gentiles 

794. 
of Cargin's Lough (co. Roscommon), 

1388. 

of Lough Erne, pillaged, 924. 

of Lough Neagh, pillaged by 

Foreign fleet, 928. 
Islay, see He. 

Ita, [St.] of Killeedy, 552 ; ob., 577. 
Italians, at war, 1522. 
Italy, Donnacan scribe and anchorite, 

died in, 843 ; other references, 1466, 

1503. 
Itarnan, ob., 669. 

ludris, k. of Britons, fought btl., 633. 
N 2 



196 



INDEX. 



J. 

James, gs. of Farannan, greatest preacher 
of his time, 747. 

I., of Scotland, 1425. 

Papal Penitentiary and Legate, came 

to L, 1221. 
St. , (Compostella) citj- of , pilgrimage 

to, 1428, 1480, 1518 ; feast of, July 14, 

1086. 

s. of, slew Grifin, 1064. 

Jan. 1, plague began on in I., 806 ; year 

reckoned from, 780, 786, 1008, 1095. 
Jerome {St.), Praises of, 1348. 
Jesus, Crozier of, see Crozier of Jesus. 
John the Baptist, community of, Rindoon, 

1372 ; feast of, see Fear, great ; house 

of (Annaghdown), 1491. 
Cardinal priest of Monte Celio, 

Legate Apostolic, came to I. and held 

2 synods, 1202. 
of Genoa, O.P., finished Gatholicon, 

1286. 
Lackland, s. of Saxon k., came to I. 

1185 ; k. E., came, with 700 ships, to 

L, 1210 ; grant of E. and I. to Pope by ; 

tribute by in lieu of, 1214 ; ob., 1216. 

of Lignano, ob., 1383. 

the Mad, si., 1171. 

of Platea, doctor of Law, ob., 1422. 

pope, ob., 525 ; other ref., 528. 

ob., 567. 

Joseph, ab. of Clonmacnoise, ob., 904. 

ab. of Terry glas, ob., 965. 

of Ros-mor, bp., most excellent 

scribe, anchorite, and ab. of Clones and 

other monasteries, ob., 840. 

f. of Suibne, 836. 

gs. of Cerna, ab. of Clonmacnoise, 

ob., 794. 
gs. of Foilene, sage, ab. of Birr, 

ob., 785. 

scribe of Roscommon, ob., 816. 

s. of Nechtan, ab. of Roscommon, 

ob., 830. 



Jubilee, published by Boniface VIII., 

1300. 
Judex = brehon, 802, 806. 
Judgment of Fathadh of the Canon, 

804. 
Jurisprudence, ollams in : — 

Tadhg O'Breslen, 1478. 
William O'Doran, 1405. 
Brian Mac Egan, 1390. 
Defender Mac Egan, 1432. 

professors of — 

Aedh Mac Egan, 1359. 
Concobar Mac Egan, 1438. 
Muicertach O'Carroll, 1083. 
Mael-Isu Ua Conne, 1126. 
Justiciaries of Ireland : — 

James Butler, earl of Ormonde, 

1423, 1452. 
Richard de Burgh, 1227. 
Stephen (de Foleburne) 1228, 

1288. 
(De Rokeby), 1356. 
Robert D'UfiFord, 1269. 
(William de Vesey), 1293. 
Maurice Fitz Gerald, 1235, 1236, 
1237, 1242, 1245, 1246, 1248, 

1249, 1252. 
Lord Furnival, 1419, 1447. 
Lord Leonard Grey, 1536, 1538, 

1539, 1540. 
Kildare, Gerald, 
junr., s. of 
Earl Gerald, U.?'. Cell-dara. 

s. of 

Earl Thomas, 
PojTiing, 1494, 1495, 1496. 
William Skeffington, 1531, 1532, 

1535, 1537. 
Talbot of Malahide, 1375. 
Justiciate of Ireland, 1492. 
Justin, 

jun., 

Justinian, ]-'■ ''• Emperors. 
jun., 



INDEX. 



197 



K. 

Kanturk see Cenn-tuirc. 
Kavanag-h, s.r. Mac Murchadh?. 
Keenaght, see Ciannachta of Glenn- 

geimhin. 
Kellistown, see Cenn-losnado. 
Kells, see Cenannus. 
Kells bar. (Meath), see Fir-Cul. 
Kenrian, see Coinrighech. 
Kent, baron, sL, 1510. 
Kern 1367, 1378, 1457, 148r, 1490, 1494; 

head (leader) of, 1352, 1377. 
Kerr, see Mac-an-ghirr. 
Keny, see Ciaraidhe. 
Kerricun-ihy, see Ciaraidhe -Cuirche. 
Kilbarry, see Cluain-coirpthe. 
Kilbeacon, see Cluain-ard. 
Kilbeggan, see Cell-Beccain, 
Kilbixy, see Cell-Bicsighe. 
Kilbrew, see Cell-Foibrigh. 
Kilbrittain, see Cell- Britain 
Kilcash, see Cell-Caisi. 
Kilcloghan, see Coill-in-clachain. 
Kilclonfert, see Cluain-ferta-Mongain. 
Kilconduif, see Cell-Conduibh. 
Kilcoursey bar., King's co., s.vv. Cenel- 

Maini, Mnintir-Tadhgain. 
Kilcrea, see Cell-Creidhe. 
Kilcreevanty, see Cell-Craebhnada. 
Kilcnllen, see Cell-Cnilinn. 
Kildalkey, see Cell-delga. 
Kildare, see Cell-dara. 
Kilfenora, bp. of (bp. of Corcomroe, q.v.), 

Congalach O'Loughlin, 1300. 
KUglass, see Cenel-Dobhta. 
Kilglinn, see Cell-dumai-glinn. 
Kilkeevin, see Ciaraidhe-Maighe. 
Kilkelly, see CeU-Cellaigh. 
Kilkenny, see Cell-Cainnigh. 
(W. bar., Westmeath) s.vv. Cenel- 

Maini, Cuircne. 
Kilkevan, see Luibnech. 
Killala, see Cell-aladh. 
Eollaloej see CeU-Dalua. 



Killaraght, see Cell-Athrachta. 
KiUare, see Cell -fair. 
Killarvey, see Ath-na-dairbrighe. 
Eollasnet, see Castlecar. 
Eallaspugbrone, see Cell-espuic-Broin. 
Killaughey, see Cell-achaidh of Druim- 

fota. 
Killeedy, see Cluain-Credail. 
Ki